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NORWAY, SWEDEN, 

AND 

DENMARK 



Money Table. 

(Comp. p. xi J 



s. 


d. 


kr. 


0. 


kr. 


e. 


s. 


d. 


1 




— 


90 


1 


— 


1 


l'/i 


2 




1 


80 


2 


— 


2 


22/3 


3 




2 


70 


3 


— 


3 


4 


4 




3 


60 


4 


— 


4 


5'/s 


5 




4 


50 


5 


— 


5 


67s 


6 




5 


40 


6 


— 


6 


8 


7 




6 


30 


7 


— 


7 


9Va 


8 




7 


20 


8 


— 


8 


10^/3 


9 


— 


8 


10 


9 


— 


10 


— 


10 


— 


9 


— 


10 


— 


11 


l'/i 


20 


— 


18 


— 


18 


— 


20 


— 



Measures. 

(Comp. p. lxxviii.) 



English 


Metres 


Norweg. 


Swedish 


English 


Kilo- 


Norweg. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Miles 


metres 


Miles 


0,97 


0,29 


0,94 


1 


0,62 


1 


0,09 


1 


0,30 


0,97 


1,02 


1 


i.609 


0,1424 


1,029 


0,31 


1 


1,05 


2 


3.218 


0,28 


2 


0,61 


1,84 


2,05 


3 


4.827 


0,43 


3 


0,91 


2,91 


3,08 


4 


6.436 


0,57 


3.28 


1 


3,19 


3,37 


5 


8.045 


0,71 


4 


1,22 


3,88 


4,io 


6 


9.654 


0,85 


5 


1,52 


4,85 


5,13 


6,64 


10.683 


0,94 


6 


1,83 


5,82 


6,16 


7 


11.263 


1 


7 


2,13 


6,80 


7,18 


8 


12.872 


1,14 


8 


2,44 


7,77 


8,21 


9 


14.481 


1,28 


9 


2,74 


8,74 


9,24 


10 


16.090 


1,42 


10 


3,05 


9,71 


10,26 


14 


22.526 


2 


50 


15,24 


48,50 


51,30 


20 


32.180 


2,85 


100 


30,48 


97,u 


102,65 


21 


33.789 


3 






1 



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1:2.000.000 

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NORWAY, SWEDEN, 

AND 

DENMARK 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 

BY 

K. BAEDEKER 



WITH 26 MAPS, 15 PLANS, AND TWO SMALL PANORAMAS 
FIFTH EDITION 

(KEVISED, RE-ARBANGED, AND PARTLY REWRITTEN) 



LEIPSIC: KARL BAEDEKER, PUBLISHER 
LONDON: DULAU AND CO., 37 SOHO SQUARE, W. 

1'892 

All Riff his reserved 



'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help tn call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



PKEFACE. 



Ihe object of the Handbook for Norway and Sweden, 
which now appears for the fifth time, carefully revised and 
partly rewritten, is to supply information regarding the most 
interesting scenery and characteristics of these countries, 
with a few notes on the history , languages , and customs 
of the inhabitants. Like the Editor's other handbooks, it 
is based on personal acquaintance with the country described, 
the chief places in which he has visited repeatedly. His 
efforts to secure the accuracy and completeness of the work 
have been supplemented by the kind assistance of several 
gentlemen, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, English, and Ger- 
man, to whom his best thanks are due. He will also gratefully 
receive any corrections or suggestions with which travellers 
may favour him. Within the last fewyears Norway in particular 
has grown rapidly in popularity with the travelling public, 
and a number of new roads, railways, and steamboat-routes, 
with corresponding new hotels, have recently been opened. 
The most important of these are carefully noted in the present 
edition. 

The present volume, like Baedeker's Switzerland , may 
be used either as a whole, or in its separate sections, which 
for the convenience of travellers may be removed from the 
volume without falling to pieces. These sections are — (1) 
Introductory Part, pp. i-lxxviii; (2) S. and E. Norway, as far 
as Trondhjem, pp. 1 to 82 ; (3) W. Norway, as far as Trond- 
hjem, pp. 83 to 202; (4) N. Norway, pp. 203 to 240 ; (5) Sweden, 
pp. 241 to 330; (6) Denmark (pp. 331 to 356; (7) Index, pp. 357 
to 392 ; (8)Grammars, at the end of the volume. 

The traveller will save both time and money by planning 
his tour before leaving home, but the details cannot be filled 
in until he has consulted the latest local timetables. The 
chief of these are 'Norges Communicationer' for Norway 
(30 a.) and 'Sveriges Kommunikationer' for Sweden (10 o.j, 
both issued weekly in summer at Christiania and Stockholm 
respectively. 

On the Maps and Plans the Editor has bestowed special 
care, and he believes they will be found to suffice for all 
ordinary travellers. 



■" PREFACE. 

In the letter-press Heights are given approximately in 
English feet, in the maps in metres (1 metre = 3.28 Engl. ft. ; 
1 Norw. ft. = 1.029 Engl. ft. ; 1 Swed. ft. = 0.974 Engl. ft.). 
Distances are given in kilometres, as the tariffs for carrioles 
and boats are now calculated on the metrical system (comp. 
p. lxxviii). The Populations and other statistics are from 
the most recent official sources. 

To the Languages of Norway and Sweden , the former 
in particular , an unusually ample space has been allotted 
(see removable cover at the end of the volume) , partly on the 
ground that a slight knowledge of them is almost indispen- 
sable, and partly because they are not included in the or- 
dinary manuals of conversation. 

Lovers of Sport will still find scope for their pursuits in 
Norway and Sweden, but seldom without leaving the beaten 
track and undergoing privations. Several of the best places 
for shooting and fishing are mentioned in the Handbook. 

To hotel-keepers , tradesmen, and others the Editor begs 
to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards tra- 
vellers forms the sole passport to his commendation, and that 
advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his 
Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons 
representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction. 

Page 

I. Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. Post Office xi 

II. Plan of Tour. Sport xii 

III. Conveyances. Tourist Offices, etc xvi 

IV. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs xx 

V. Hotels and Inns xxi 

VI. The People and their Character xxiii 

VII. Maps. Books xxiv 

VIII. Names and their Meanings xxv 

IX. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia .... xxvii 

Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line xxvii 

Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers xxxii 

Climate and Vegetation xxxiv 

Animal Kingdom. Population xxxvii 

X. History of Sweden and Norway xxxix 

XI. Abbreviations. Distances lxxviii 

Outlines of Norwegian (Danish) and Swedish Grammars, 
at the end of the volume. 

Norway. 

Southern and Eastern Norway, as par as Trondhjem. 

Route Page 

1. Christiansand and the Ssetersdal 2 

From Christiansand to Christiania 6 

2. Christiania and Environs 8 

3. From Christiania to the Randsfjord by Drammen and 
Hougsund 18 

4. From Hougsund to Kongsberg and the Rjukanfos ... 23 
From Kongsberg through the Numedal to the Hardanger 
Fjord 28 

5. From Christiania to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord. Tele- 
marken 29 

6. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Laerdalseren 

on the Sognefjord 38 

7. From Christiania through the Valders to the Sognefjord. 44 

8. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to the Molde- 
fjord 53 

9. From Bredevangen in the Gudbrandsdal to Marok on the 
Geiranger Fjord 61 

10. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the Dovrefjeld 

to Steren (Trondhjem) 66 

11. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway 70 



viii CONTENTS. 

Route Tage 

12. From Christiania to Charlottenberg (and Stockholm") . . 74 

13. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Railway 75 

14. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Sea 79 

"Western Norway, as far as Trondhjem. 

15. From Christiansand to Stavanger. The Stavanger Fjord 85 

16. From Stavanger by the Suledalsvand to Odde on the Har- 
danger Fjord 92 

17: From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea 94 

18. The Hardanger Fjord 96 

19. Bergen 108 

20. From Bergen by Vossevangen to Eide on the Hardanger ' 
Fjord, or by Stalheim to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord . 115 

21. The Sognefjord '. . . 120 

22. Jotunheim 134 

23. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea 159 

24. From Vadheim on the Sognefjord overland to Aalesund 

and Molde 161 

25. Molde and the Moldefjord. The Romsdal. The Eikisdal . 182 

26. From Molde to Trondhjem 191 

27. Trondhjem and its Fjord 194 

Northern Norway. 

28. From Trondhjem to Bod» 203 

29. The Lofoten Islands 217 

30. From Bode to Troms0 221 

31. From Tromsa to the North Cape 227 

32. From the North Cape to Vadse 233 

33. Syd-Varanger 237 

34. From the Altenfjord to Karasjok 238 

35. From the AltenfjoTd to Haparanda in Sweden 239 

Sweden. 

36. Malmo and Environs 242 

37. From Malmo to Niissjo (and Stockholm) '244 

38. From Alfvesta to Karlskrona and Kalmar. Oland . . . 248 
From Oskarshamn to Nassjo 250 

39. From (Copenhagen) HelsingboTg to Gothenburg .... 250 

40. Gothenburg 253 

41. From Gothenburg to Wenersborg. Lake Wenern and the 
Western Gota Canal 257 

42. From Gothenburg to Katrineholm (Stockholm) 262 

43. From Nassjo to Jonkbping and Falkoping 264 

44. From Jonkoping by Lake Wettern and the Eastern Gota 
Canal to Stockholm • 265 

45. From Nassjo to Stockholm 268 



CONTENTS. ix 

Route Page 

46. From (Christiania) Charlottenberg to Laxa (Stockholm) . 272 

47. Stockholm 274 

48. Environs of Stockholm 299 

49. From Stockholm to Upsala 306 

50. The Island of Gotland 311 

51. From Stockholm to Westerns and Orebro 315 

52. From Kolback and Walskog toFlen, Nykoping, andOxelo- 
sund 318 

53. From Gothenburg to Falun. Lake Siljan 319 

54. From Upsala to Gefle. From Gefle to Rattvik 323 

55. From Stockholm to Ostersund and Trondhjem 324 

56. The Swedish Norrland ' 327 

Denmark. 

57. Copenhagen and Environ? 331 

58. From Copenhagen to Helsingar and Helsingborg .... 348 

59. From Copenhagen to Hamburg by the Danish Islands 

and Slesvig 351 

60. From Fredericia to Frederikshavn. Jutland 354 

Index 357 



Flans and Maps. 

Comp. the Key Map at the End of the Book. — The marks (•, ••, o, oo, 

etc.) on the margins of the Special Maps indicate the points where they join 

the adjacent Special Maps. — In those Routes to which Special Maps relate 

the references to the maps are given at the top of each page. 

Plans: 1. Christiania (1 : 20,000). — 2. Drammen, with En- 
virons (1 : 20,000). — 3. Stavanger (1 : 15,800). — 4. Bergen, 
with Environs (1 : 24,000). — 5.Molde(l : 80,000). — 6. Trondhjem, 
with Environs (1 : 50,000). — 7. Fredrikshald (1 : 15,000). — 
8. Sarpsborg (1:26,100). — 9. Gothenburg (1:21,500). — 10. 
Malmo (1:30.000). — 11. Lund (1:20,000). — 12. Stockholm 
(1 : 15,000). — 13. Upsala (1 : 20,000). — 14. Wisby (1 : 15,000). 
— 15. Copenhagen (1 : 34,000), Inner town (1 : 20,000). 

Maps. 1. General Map of S. Norway (1 : 2,000,000): before 
the Title-page. 

2. Map of the Environs of Christiania (1 : 80,000) : p. 18. 

3. Map of the District between Christiania, Kongsberg, and 
Lake Krederen (1 : 500,000) : between pp. 18, 19. 

4. M^|feof North Telemarken (1 : 500,000) : between pp. 24, 25. 

5. Map of South Telemarken (1 : 500,000): between pp. 34, 35. 

6. Map of the Jostedal, Orjotli, Geiranger, and Tafjord Region 
(1 : 500,000) : p. 63. 

7. Map of the Stavanger Fjord and its Branches (1 : 500,000) : 
between pp. 88, 89. 



PLANS AND MAPS. 

8. Map of the Outer Hardanger Fjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 95. 

9. Map of the Inner Hardanger Fjord (1:500,000): between 
pp. 98, 99. 

10. Map of the Central Part of the Sognefjord (1 : 500,000) : 
between pp. 122, 123. 

11. Map of the Inner Sognefjord (1 : 500,000) : p. 129. 

12. Map of Jotunheim (1 : 500,000): between pp. 144, 145. 

13. Mapofthe Nordfjord andthe Southern Sendmereii: 500,000): 
between pp. 166, 167. 

14. Map of the Northern Sendmere and the Molde (or Romsdals) 
Fjord (1 : 500,000): between pp. 182, 183. 

15. 16. Map of the North- West and North Coast of Norway 
(1: 1,500,000): 

1st Sheet: Trondhjem - Torghatten , Bode-Lofoten: be- 
tween pp. 202, 203. 

2nd Sheet: Tromse to North Cape, North Cape to Vadse : 
between pp. 220, 221. 

17. Map of the Shores of the Sound (1 : 500,000) : p. 242. 

IS. Map of the Estuary of the Gota-Elf(i : 100,000): p. 256. 

19. Map of the Trollhatta Falls (1 : 24,000): p. 258. 

20. Map of the Djurgard near Stockholm (1 : 25,000) : p. 299. 

21. Map of the Environs of Stockholm (1 : 100,000): between 
pp. 298, 299. 

22. Map of the Saltsjo from Molna to Waxholm, to the E. of 
Stockholm (1 : 100,000): p. 305. 

23. Map of the Dyrehave near Copenhagen (1 : 70,000) : p. 348. 

24. General Map of Denmark and Slesvig (1 : 240,000) : p. 350. 

25. General Map of S. Sweden (1:2,000,000): after the Index. 

26. Key Map of Norway and Sweden, showing the Maps of the 
Handbook : after the Vocabulary. 

Panorama from the Stugunese(p. 50) ; from theMoldehei(p. 183). 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. Expenses. Honey. Language. Passports. Post Office. 

Expenses. Travelling in Norway and Sweden is less expensive 
in some respects than in other parts of Europe, but the great dis- 
tances which require to be traversed by road and rail, by steamboat 
and rowing-boat, necessarily involve a very considerable sum total. 
After arrival in the country, 20-25s. per day ought to cover all 
outlays, but much less will suffice for those who make a prolonged 
stay at one or more resting-places. 

For the routes and fares to Norway from London, Hull, Leith, 
etc. the traveller is referred to the advertisements in the daily- 
newspapers and to the time - tables of the various steamboat com- 
panies. It may, however, be mentioned that the shortest sea-passage 
is from Leith , whence good steamers ply during the season to 
Christiansand, to Stavanger, to the Hardanger Fjord, to Bergen, 
Trondhjem , and the North Cape. The minimum return - fare is 
usually about &l., while a cruise to the North Cape and back costs 
from 25l. upwards. Travellers approaching Scandinavia from Ham- 
burg , Kiel , etc. may obtain return and circular tickets at very 
moderate rates. 

Money. In 1873 and 1875 the currency of the three Scandi- 
navian kingdoms was assimilated. The crown (krone), worth Is. 
l 1 /^., is divided into 100 ere (Swedish ore; see money-table be- 
fore the title-page). These coins and the government-banknotes 
(but not those of private banks) are current throughout the three 
countries. British sovereigns, worth 18 kr. each, usually realise 
their full value at the principal centres of commerce, but the rate 
of exchange is often a few ere below par. Large sums are best 
carried in the form of circular notes or letters of credit , as issued 
by the chief British and American banks. The traveller should be 
well supplied with small notes and coins (smaa Penge) before 
starting on his tour, as it is often difficult in the remoter districts 
to get change for gold or larger notes. 

Language. English is spoken on board almost all the Nor- 
wegian steamboats and at the principal resorts of travellers, both 
in Norway and Sweden , but in the country districts the verna- 
cular alone is understood. Danish , as pronounced in Norway 
(which is analogous to English spoken with a broad Scotch accent), 
is on the whole the more useful of the two languages , as most 
travellers devote more time to Norway than to Sweden, and as it 



xii II. PLAN OF TOUR. 

is easily understood in Sweden. (See grammars and vocabularies 
in the removable cover at the end of the volume.) 

Passports are unnecessary, except for the purpose of procuring 
delivery of registered letters. — The Custom House Examination 
is invariably lenient. Comp. p. 273. 

Post Office. The postage of a letter to Great Britain, France, 
Germany, the United States, etc., weighing ^ oz., is 20 «re, and 
of a post-card (Brefkort, Brevkort) 10 ». ; that of a letter within 
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 10 e. The traveller should avoid 
giving his correspondents any poste restante address other than 
steamboat or railway stations , as the communication with places 
off the beaten track is very slow. 

Telegraph Offices are numerous in proportion to the population. 
They are of ^everal classes, of which the chief are those open from 
8 a. m. to 9 p. m., those open from 8 to 1 and from 3 to 9, and 
those open from 9 to 12 and from 4 to 7 o'clock, indicated in the 
index of "Norges Communication er" (the indispensable time-tables 
mentioned in our preface) by T 1 , T 2 , and T 3 respectively. Railway 
telegraph -stations, indicated by T 4 or T5, are open from 8 to 12 
and from 2 or 4 to 7 o'clock. Other stations are open in summer 
or during the fishing season only. 

Norwegian Tariff. Within Norway: 50 0. for ten words, and 5 0. 
for each word more. To Sweden : 30 0., in addition to which each word 
is charged 10 0. ; to Denmark 50 0., plus 10 0. for each word; to Great 
Britain 26 0. per word; to the U.S.A. 1 kr. 35 0. per word. 

The Swedish Tariff is similar. 

II. Plan of Tour. 

The traveller should prepare a general plan before leaving 
home, bearing in mind that almost all the finest scenery in Norway 
lies on the west coast (Hardanger Fjord, Sognefjord, Moldefjord, 
Romsdal, Trondhjem, the Lofoten Islands, etc.); but the details 
must be filled in from time to time with the aid of "Norges Com- 
municationer" (see Preface). He must, however, be prepared for 
occasional disappointments caused by the slowness and uncertainty 
of travelling by carriole and rowing - boat , or by the state of the 
weather. 

The best season for travelling, both in Norway and Sweden, is 
from the beginning of June to the middle of September; but July 
and August are the best months for the higher mountains where 
snow is apt to fall both earlier and later. For a voyage to the North 
Cape (RR. 28-32), for the sake of seeing the midnight sun, the 
season is from the middle of June to the end of July. August is 
often a rainy month in the eastern districts of Norway , while 
the wet season sets in later on the west coast. 

An energetic traveller may see the chief points of interest in 
Norway and Sweden in 2^2 -3 months, but an exhaustive tour 
cannot be accomplished in one season. The complaint is sometimes 



II. PLAN OF TOUR. xiii 

heard that even the grandest scenery in Norway is somewhat mo- 
notonous ; but this impression wears away when the country is 
explored in a thorough and leisurely fashion. The traveller is 
therefore advised to devote a first visit to a cruise along the west 
coast, in order to obtain a general survey of the scenery, and to 
spend one or more subsequent seasons in exploring the Telemarken, 
or the Hardanger, Sogne , and Molde Fjords , or the magnificent 
Jotunheim, or the Lofoten Islands, or some of the grand and wild 
solitudes of the northern fjords and fjelds. True lovers of nature 
who adopt this plan will be abundantly rewarded, and they will 
carry away with them enthusiastic admiration of the scenery com- 
bined with cordial regard for the inhabitants. On the other hand 
persons who are addicted to luxurious hotels and the distractions of 
watering-places and other fashionable resorts will not find Norway 
to their taste. The routes given in the Handbook may be combined 
in many different ways, but the following favourite tours may be 
mentioned as specimens. 

i. Two or three Weeks from Christiansand. Days 

From Christiansand by steamer to Stavanger and Odde on the Har- 
danger Fjord, and thence to Bergen (RR. 15-19) 5-7 

From Bergen by railway to Vossevangen, and by road to Oudvangen 

on the Sognefjord (E. 20) ■ l l /2-2 

From Gudvangen to Lcerdalsm'en, and Excursion to the Jostedals- 
brce (R. 21) 3-4 

From Lserdalsgren through the Valders to Christiania (R. 7). . 4-6 

13V2-19 
ii. Three or Four Weeks from Christiansand. Days 

From Christiansand by steamer to Skien; thence by lake-steamer to 

Notodden-Hitterdal ; and by road to Tinoset (RR. 1, 5) . . . ■ 4-6 
From Tinoset to the Rjukanfos, and thence to Aamodt, either via 

Tinoset or via, the Totakvand (RR. 4, 5) 3-4 

From Aamodt to the Haukeli-Saeter and Odde (R. 5) 3-4 

From Odde to Bergen , and thence either via Vostevangen as in 

Tour i, or by steamer all the way, to Lasrdalseren (RR. 18, 19, 20, 21) 5-6 
Excursions' from Lserdals/Jren, and thence to Christiania as above 

(RR. 21, 6 or 7) _. 7-9 

22-29 

iii. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 
From Christiania to Drammen, Kongsberg, and the Rjukanfos (RR. 3, 4) 2-3 
From the Rjukanfos to Odde, Bergen, Lwrdalseren, and Christiania 

(as in Tour ii) ■ 18-24 

20-27 

iv. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

By steamboat from Christiania to Skien, and thence by lake-steamer 
to Hitterdal; excursion thence to the Rjukanfos and back 
(RR. 1, 4, 5) 6-6 

From Hitterdal by road to Hvideseid and by steamer to Lawdal and 
Dalen; excursions from Laurdal and Dalen (R. 5) 5-6 

From Dalen to Odde; steamboat to Eide; road to Vossevangen and 
Oudvangen; and thence to L&rdalseren and Christiania (as in 

Tours ii, iii) • 10-16 

20-28 



xiv II. PLAN OF TOUR. 

v. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

From Christiania through the Valders and over the Fillefjeld to 

Lcerdalseren and Gudvangen (RR. 7, 6) 5-7 

From Gudvangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord; thence to Odde, 

and from Odde to Bergen (RR. 20, 18) 7-9 

From Bergen by the Overland Route to Molde (R. 21) 4-0 

From Molde to the Romsdal, the Gudbrandsdal, Lillehammer, and 

Christiania (RR. 25, 8) 6 '° 

22-29 
vi. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

As in Tour v to Molde 16-21 

From Molde to the head of the Romsdal and back (R. 8) ... 3-4 
From Molde by steamboat direct, or partly overland, to Trond- 

hjem (RR. 23, 26) 1-3 

Railway from Trondhjem to Christiania (R. 11) IV2 

2ii| 2 -29i/2 
vii. Ten to fourteen Says from Odde. 

Odde and Environs (R. 18) 3-4 

From Odde to Vik i 0ifjord and the Veringsfos (R. 18) ... . 2-3 
From Vik to Bide, Vossevangen, and Gudvangen (RR. 18, 20) . . 2-3 
From Gudvangen to Lcerdalseren, and thence to Bergen (RR. 21,1 9) 2-3 

9-14 
viii. Two to four Weeks from Bergen. 
From Bergen to Laerdalseren by steamer, or via Vossevangen 

(RR. 21, 20) 2-3 

From Lserdalsjzrren to Skjolden, and thence over a mountain-pass 

to Reijshjem (RR. 21, 22) 3-4 

Excursions from Rejshjem (R. 22) 4-6 

From Rj/ijshjem to Andvord, and thence either to Bredevangen or 

to Marok (RR. 22, 9) 1-3 

Either from Bredevangen to Christiania (R. 8), or from Marok to • 

Molde and through the Romsdal and Gudbrandsdal to Christiania 

(RR. 24, 25, 8) . . ■ 4-10 

14-26 
is. Two or three Weeks for Mountaineers. 
From Fagernais on the Valders Route (R. 7) to Raufjordheim, 
Lake Bygdin, and Eidsbugarden (R. 22), or from Nystuen on the 

same Route (R. 7) direct to Eidsbugarden (R. 22) 1-3 

Excursions from Eidsbugarden (R. 22) 2-3 

From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod (R. 22) 1 

Excursions from the Gjendebod (R. 22) 3-4 

From the Gjendebod to Rojshjem (R. 22) 11/2-2 

Excursions from Rejshjem (R. 22) 2-4 

From Rfljshjem to Fortun and Skjolden (R. 22, 21), or to Marok 

(R. 9), or to Bredevangen and Christiania (RR. 9, 8) 2-4 

IIV2-2I 
x. Seven to ten Weeks from Gothenburg. 

From Gothenburg to Trollhdttan, Jbnkbping, Wadstena, and Stock- 
holm (RR. 41, 42, 43) 5.7 

Stockholm and Environs (RR. 47, 48) 3.4 

From Stockholm to Upsala,'Ostersund, and Trondhjem (RR. 49,55) 3-4 
From Trondhjem to the North Cape, and back to Trondhjem 

(RR. 28-31) 15.20 

From Trondhjem over the Dovrefjeld to the Romsdal and Molde 

(R. 10) 5-6 

From Molde overland to the Sognefjord and Bergen (R. 24) . . . 4-6 
From Bergen to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord, thence to Eide, 

Gudvangen, Lcerdalseren, and Christiania, as in Tours ii, Hi. • 14-21 

49-68 



II. PLAN OF TOUR. xv 

It need hardly be added that the above routes may be reversed 
and may be endlessly modified, and the traveller may plan any 
number of others for himself. For this purpose he will find the 
richest materials in RR. 1, 4, 5, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28-31. 

Sport of all kinds has fallen off greatly in Norway and Sweden 
of late years. Excellent salmon-fishing is indeed still obtainable, 
but only at high rents, and the best rivers, such as the Namsen-Elv 
above Namsos, are let on long leases, chiefly to wealthy Englishmen. 
Good trout-fishing , however, may still be had by those who are 
prepared for some hardships. Among the best waters ('Fiskevand') 
for trout and grayling are the Telemarken Lakes (R. 5), the Messna 
and Laagen which fall into Lake Mjesen (R. 8), the Istemsje and 
Famundsje in Eastern Norway, the Storsjo in Sweden (R. 55), the 
Ostra Dalelf and other streams falling into Lake Siljan in Sweden 
(R. 53), the Lule-Elf and the lakes from which it descends in 
Lapland (R. 56), and many other lakes and rivers mentioned in 
the Handbook. 

It is difficult now to obtain good shooting in Norway and Swe- 
den. The mountains enclosing the Hallingdal still afford good rein- 
deer-shooting , which may also be had on the Hardanger Vidda, 
near the Romsdal , near R»ros , and in Lapland ; and wild-fowl 
abound in many parts of Norway, particularly in the trackless 
forests of 0sterdalen, in the Ostra and Westra Dal in Dalarne, 
around the Storsjo in Jemtland, and in Lapland ; but in every case 
the sportsman will find serious difficulties to contend with. In the 
first place most of the mountain and forest districts, where the 
best sport is obtainable, belong to government, and by a Norwegian 
law of 1877 a license to shoot there costs from 200 to 1000 kroner. 
Again, though no license is required when permission is obtained to 
shoot over private property, the sport is generally very inferior. 
Another drawback to the sportsman's enjoyment is the difficulty of 
obtaining good or even tolerable quarters. The Swedish game-laws, 
however, are less stringent, a license for shooting on unenclosed 
land belonging to government being seldom required. 

The Close Seasons in Norway are as follows : — For heath-hen and 
black-hen (Reii and Urhelne), 15th March to 15th Aug. ; capercailzie (Tjur), 
blackcock (Urhane), and hazel-hen (Bjerpe), 15th May to 15th Aug. ; par- 
tridge (Raphme), 1st Jan. to 1st Sept.; eider-duck (Ederfugl), 15th April 
to 15th Aug. ; ptarmigan (Rype), 15th May to 15th Aug. ; reindeer (Rensdyr), 
1st April to 1st Aug. ; hare (Hare), 1st June to 15th Aug. ; elk (Elg, 
Elsdyr), beaver (Bmver), and deer (Hjort), 1st Nov. to 1st Aug. (but 
foreigners are at present prohibited from shooting these last at any time). 
— For salmon (Lax) and sea-trout (Seerret) in rivers, estuaries, and lakes, 
14th Sept. toj 15th April ; in brooks or on the sea-coast, 14th Sept. to 
14th Feb. 

The close seasons for game in Sweden are nearly the same, usually 
ending on 9th August. 



xvi HI. CONVEYANCES. 



III. Conveyances. 



Time Tables for Norway appear in '■Norges Communicationer' (30 0. ; 
pron. CommooDicashooner) , and for Sweden in 'Sveriges Kommunikationer' 
(10 6.), both published weekly in summer. The traveller should procure 
the last edition immediately on landing and keep it at hand for reference. 
The publisher of the Norwegian time-tables, Mr. Alb. Cammermeyer of 
Christiania, will also send a copy by post to Great Britain on receipt of 
Gd. in English stamps. An abridged English edition is also published 
fortnightly under the name of Beyer's Norwegian Railway and Steamboat 
Time-Tables (90 0.). The "communications" are frequently referred to in 
the Handbook as "Com."' for the Norwegian and "Kom." for the Swe- 
dish. Among other time-tables may be mentioned the Reichs-Kvrsbuch 
(Berlin) and the Reiseliste for Eongeriget Danmark (Copenhagen), which 
travellers to or from Germany will find useful. 

Observe that many of the summer time-tables, especially those of the 
fjord steamers, hold good till the end of August only. 

Steamboats (Norw. Dampskibe, Sw. angbatar). Besides the re- 
gular steamboat services between London, Hull, Leith, etc. and Co- 
penhagen, Gothenburg, Christiania, Christiansand, and other Nor- 
wegian and Swedish ports, excellent opportunities of reaching "the 
land of the midnight sun" are afforded by the large and comfortable 
excursion-steamers despatched weekly or oftener from the above 
British ports to the Hardanger, Sogne, and Molde Fjords, to Bergen, 
Trondhjem, and the North Cape. For the voyage to or from Nor- 
way, "or for part of a coasting cruise, these vessels are recommend- 
ed ; hut to remain on board the vessel during the whole of her 
trip to and fro is very apt to prove monotonous and enervating, and 
is certain to leave the passenger's mind almost a blank with regard 
to the true charms of Norwegian travel. 

The great Norwegian coasting traffic is almost entirely in the 
hands of the Bergenske and the Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs-Selskab, 
which have a common time-table. The headquarters of the former 
are at Bergen, those of the latter at Trondhjem. (Agent for both 
companies, Mr. Berg-Hansen at Christiania.) The smaller steamers 
plying on the Norwegian fjords are comfortable enough during the 
day, but their sleeping accommodation is poor, and on market-days 
they are apt to be overcrowded. The same remark applies to the 
smaller coasting steamers on the Baltic and on the Swedish canals. 

Most travellers will of course travel in the first cabin. Those 
who are about to spend one or more nights on board should at 
once secure their berths by personal application to the steward. In 
the smaller vessels the dining-saloon is used at night as a sleep- 
ing-cabin, but there is always a separate ladies'-cabin. A passenger 
travelling with his family pays full fare for himself, but is usually 
entitled to a reduction ('Moderation'; pron. moderashoon') of 25 
per cent on the fare (but not on the cost of food) for each of the 
other members of the party. On most of the steamboats return- 
tickets, available for a month or more, are issued at a fare and a 
half. The captains and mates usually speak English. The traveller 
should be careful to look after his own luggage. 



III. CONVEYANCES. xvii 

The food is generally good and abundant, though a little mono- 
tonous. Vegetables are rare, and tinned meats, salt relishes, and 
cheese always preponderate at breakfast and supper. The tariff in 
the Bergen and Nordenfjeld steamers, -which is a little higher than 
in the smaller vessels, is as follows : — food per day, including ser- 
vice, 5^2 kr- ; or, separately, the charge for breakfast is l 1 ^ kr., for 
dinner (at 2) 2kr. 40 »., supper (at 7.30) l 1 /^ kr. ; attendance 50 0. ; 
cup of tea or coffee •with biscuit or rusk (Kavringer) in the morning 
35 0. ; small cup of coffee after dinner 20 0. ; beer 40 0. per bottle, 
25 0. per half-bottle ; Bordeaux 1 l / t kr. per half-bottle. No spirits 
are procurable. The account should be paid daily, to prevent mis- 
takes. The steward expects a fee proportioned to the length of the 
voyage and the services rendered. 

Railways (Norw. Jernbaner, Sw. jernvagar). Most of the rail- 
ways are similar to those in other European countries ; but in Nor- 
way and Sweden there are several narrow-gauge lines (3Y3ft.), 
with two classes only, corresponding to the 2nd and 3rd on the 
other lines. The carriages on these narrow lines are often badly 
hung and unprovided with spring-buffers , so that the passenger 
sustains a severe jolting at starting and drawing up. Luggage 
(50-70lbs. usually free), except what the passenger takes into the 
carriage with him, must be booked. The average speed of the 
quick trains (Norw. Hurtigtogen, Sw. kurirtagen , snalltageri) is 
22-24 Engl. M., that of the mixed trains (blandede Tog , blandade 
tag) 15-20 Engl. M. per hour. All the trains have smoking-car- 
riages (Regekupe , rbkkupe) and ladies' compartments (Kvindekupe, 
damkupe). 

The Railway Restaurants in Sweden and at the principal 
stations in Norway are generally good and not expensive ; but those 
on the branch-lines are often poor. Passengers help themselves, 
there being little or no attendance. For breakfast the usual charge 
is IV4-IV2, for dinner or supper l 1 /^-! 3 ^ kroner; for a cup of 
coffee or half-bottle of beer 250. ; sandwiches 25-500. ; spirits not 
obtainable. The express trains stop at certain stations, the names 
of which are posted up in the carriages, to allow time (generally 
only 1/4 hr.) for meals. 

Posting (Norw. Skyds, Sw. skjuts; pronounced shoss or shiiss 
in each case). Sweden is so well provided with railways and 
steamboats that travelling by road is rare ; but in Norway there are 
still immense tracts of country where driving is the only means of 
communication. The new high-roads, maintained by government, 
are generally good; the older roads are often very rough, with sudden 
ups and downs, reminding one of a switchback railway. The ordinary 
vehicles are the Stolkjarre (a light cart with seats for two persons, 
with very primitive springs, or entirely without), the tariff for 
which is usually a fare and a half, and the lighter and swifter Kariol 
(a light gig for one person). The luggage is strapped or roped be- 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden, fith Edit. fc 



XTiii III. CONVEYANCES. 

hind the traveller, on the top of it the Skydsgut (or simply Gut) 
takes his seat, and the traveller usually drives himself. If he does 
so he will he responsible for any accident, but not if he allows the 
'Gut' to drive from behind. The horses, or rather ponies, are often 
overdriven by foreigners. As the average charge "f --■>'/. per Engl, 
mile is a very inadequate remuneration to the Skijd<i>ligtige, or 
peasants who are bound to supply the hois >s, it is unfair on this ac- 
count also to overdrive them. As a rule lli-l:"> mil)., ami sometimes 
more, should be allowed for each English mile. The Skychstntioner 
(pron. stashooner; which are usually inns also), or tarm-houses 
whose proprietors are bound to supply travellers with horses when- 
ever required, are situated at intervals of (>-!:) Engl. M. 

Those 'station,' where the proprietor (Skyds - Sk.ifl'er) is bound 
to have several horses always in readiness, and is liable t<> a tine 
if he keeps the traveller waiting for more than ' 4- 1 a hour, are 
called Fade ShttUnur (i. t. 'fixed stations', where a 'fixed' number 
of horses are in readiness), or usually by Engli-h traveller, 'fast 
stations'. If the stage is a short one and the her-e good, the trav- 
eller may often drive on to the next station on getting leave from 
the station-master. Another class of station,, now rare, exe pt in 
little frequented districts, is the 'I'il<itj.:L<t-Stiiti")irr (or Skif'ter), 
the owners of which are hound to procure hordes on getting notice 
or 'Tilsigelse (from UUige, 'to tell to', '.-end to'). At these stations, 
justly called, 'slow by English travellers byway of antithesis to the 
'fast', the charge- are very low, but the traveller may often be kept 
waiting for hours. These delays are obviated by -ending Forbad 
('previous message I to stations 01 thi- class, and the same remark 
applies to 'slow boat-stations. The. " Ten-bud' must arrive at least 
three hours before the time at which horses are required, or better 
on the previous day, and should therefore be dispatched two or 
three days beforehand. It is usually sent by letter or pest-card, or 
by any one preceding the tra\eller on the same route t. Travellers 
pressed for time may also with advantage send 'Forbud' to 'fast' 
stations. 

On the great thoroughfares through the Valders (K. 7) and the 
Gudbrandsdal (R. ^) it is often found more convenient to hire a 
carriage (Vogn, Kalesckvogn . or Landnuer ; or a Trille . i. e. an 
open four-wheeler) and horses for the whole route, in order to 
avoid delays at the overtasked stations. 

Among other regulations, it may be mentioned that each pass- 
enger drawn by one horse is allowed 64lbs. oi luggage. If two per- 



t The Forbndseddel, or message, may be expressed as follows: — 
Paa Skydsskiflet (. . . name the station) best-Hies en IL.-l (to H ex / e ett . , 
med Karjol (Karjoler) idler Stolkjcerre ( istolkjeerrer) Mandmjeii den 20. Juli 
Formiddag en (Eftermiddagen) Klokken et (to. tre. etc.). 1'na samme Tid varnl 
Frokost (or Middagsmad) for en Person (to, tre Personer). 

Pate & Place. Signature. 



Tariff for Posting ('Lanaskyds') in Norway. 







Tariff I. 




Tariff II. 

From Fast Stations 


From Slow 
country (plus 


(nr 1 Tils'lgel9e , ) Stations in the 
140. per horsa for 'Tilsigelse'; 
comp. p. xviii) 


with ordinary /ares 

in the country, an.t 

from slow stations 

in towns 


y - For one Person 


Two 1 


J ersons 


For one Person 


-OS 

43 

u 

. -CJ 

a 

S 


One 

horse 

(plus 1 0. 

per Kil. 

f.ir the 
saddle) 


One 
horse 
with car- 
riole or 
Kj ferre 


One 
horse 


One 

horse 

with 

Kjurre 


One 

horse 

(plus t el. 

per Kil. 

for the 

saddle) 


fin; 
horse 
with car- 
riole or 
Kjgerre 




Kr.J0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


i 


0.0S 


O. IO 


O. 12 


0.14 


O. II 


O.13 


2 


O. 16 


O.20 


O.24 


O.28 


0.22 


O.26 




O.24 


O.30 


O.36 


O.42 


°-33 


0-39 


4 


O.32 


0.40 


O.48 


O.56 


0.44 


O. 52 


5 


0.40 


O.50 


O.60 


O.70 


0.55 


O.65 


6 


O.48 


O.60 


O.72 


0.S4 


0.66 


O.78 


7 


O.56 


O.70 


O.84 


O.98 


0.77 


0.91 


8 


O.64 


O.80 


O.96 


I . 12 


0.88 


I.04 


9 


O.72 


O.90 


I.08 


I .26 


0.99 


I. 17 


IO 


O.80 


I .OO 


I .20 


I .40 


1 . 10 


I.30 


ii 


O.88 


I . IO 


I.32 


1-54 


1 .21 


i-43 


12 


O.96 


I 20 


I.44 


1.6S 


1.32 


1.56 


13 


I .04 


I.30 


1-55 


I. 82 


i-43 


1 .69 


14 


I .12 


I.40 


1.68 


1 .96 


1-54 


1.82 


15 


I 20 


I.50 


1 So 


2 . 10 


,.65 


1.93 


16 


I.28 


I .60 


1 .92 


2.24 


1 .76 


2.08 


17 


1.36 


I . 70 


2.04 


2. 38 


1.87 


2.21 


18 


I.44 


I.80 


2.16 


2.52 


1.98 


2 -34 


19 


I.52 


I .90 


2.28 


2.66 


2 .09 


2.47 


20 


1.60 


2.00 


2.40 


2.80 


2.20 


2.60 


21 


1.68 


2. IO 


2.52 


2.94 


2.31 


2-73 


22 


1.76 


2.20 


2.64 


3.08 


2.42 


2.86 


23 


1.84 


2.3O 


2.76 


3.22 


2-53 


2.99 


24 


1.92 


2.4O 


2.88 


3-36 


2.64 


3.12 


25 


2.00 


2.50 


3.00 


3-5° . 


2.75 


3-25 



Tariff for Posting ('LattdBkyds') in Norway. 



V". '■■' ' ■ 
Tariff II. 

From Fast Stations 
with ordinary fares 
in the country, and 
l'rom slow stations 
in towns 



Tariff in. 

From Fast Stations with increaied farei 

in the country, and from fast stations 

in towns 



Two Persons 



For one Person 



One 
horse 



One 

horse 

with 

Kjarre 



One 

horse 

(plus 10. 

per Kil. 

for the 

saddle) 



One 

ht-rse 
with car- 
riole or 
Kj eurre 



Two Persons 



One 
horse 



One 

horse 

with 

Kjaerre 



Kr. 0. 
O.17 

0-33 
O.50 
O.66 
O.83 
O.99 
1. 16 
1.32 
I.49 
1.6 5 
I.82 
I. 9 3 
2.15 
2.31 
2.48 
2.64 
2.8l 
2.97 

3-14 
3-3° 
3-47 
3- 6 3 
3.80 

3-96 
4-13 



Kr. 0. 
O.I9 

0-37 
O.56 
O.74 

0.93 
I. II 
I.30 
I.48 
I.67 
I 8 5 
2.04 
2.22 
2.4I 



■59 
73 
.96 
■15 
•33 
■52 
.70 
.89 



4.07 
4.26 

4.44 
4.63 



Kr. 0. 
O.15 
O.30 

45 
O.60 
O.75 
O.90 
I.05 

1 .20 

i-35 
1.50 
1.65 
1.80 

i-95 
2. 10 
2.25 
2.40 
2.55 
2.70 
2.85 
3.00 

3-i5 
3-3° 

3-45 
3.60 

3-75 



Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


0. 17 


O.23 


0.34 


0.45 


O.SI 


O.68 


O.68 


0.90 


O.85 


i-i3 


I .02 


i-35 


I. 19 


1.58 


I.36 


1.80 


i-53 


2.03 


1 .70 


2.25 


1.87 


2.48 


2.04 


2.70 


2.21 


2-93 


2.38 


3-i5 


2-55 


3-38 


2.72 


3.60 


2.89 


3-83 


3.06 


4-°5 


3-23 


4.28 


3-40 


4.50 


3-57 


4-73 


3-74 


4-95 


3-9i 


5.18 


4.08 


5.40 


4-25 


5-63 



Kr. 0. 
O.25 
O.50 

0.74 
O.98 
I.23 
I.47 
I.72 
I.96 
2.21 
2.45 
2.70 
2.94 

3- x 9 

3-43 
3.68 

3-92 
4.17 
4.41 
4.66 
4.90 

5-i5 
5-39 
5- 6 4 
5.88 
6.n 



Tariff for Boats ('Baadskyds') in Norway. 



• . 1, 
• • - ^ 

Tariff A; 

Frx>m Slow Stations in the 
country (.pint 7 0. per rower 
, for '-Tilsigelse') 


V. Tariff B. 

From Fast Stations 

with ordinary fares in 

the country 


Tariff C. 

From Fast Stations 
with increased fares in 
the country, and from 

all stations in towns 


J 

e 



3 


2 men 
with 

4-oared 
boat 

and sail 


3 men 

with 
6-oared 

boat 
and sail 


4 men 
with 

8-oared 
boat 

and sail 


2 men 
with 

4-oared 
boat 

and sail 


3 men 
wi:h 

6-oared 
boat 

and sail 


4 men 

with 

8-oared 

boat 
and sail 


2 men 
with 

i-oared 
boat 

and sail 


3 men 

with 
6-oared 

boat 
and sail 


4 men 
with 

8-oared 
beat 

and sail 




Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. . 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


Kr. 0. 


1 


O.15 


0.22 


O.29 


O.lS 


O.27 


0.35 


0.2I 


0.31 


O.41 


2 


O.29 


O.44 


O.58 


0.35 


0.53 


O. 70 


O.41 


O.62 


O.82 


3 


O.44 


O.66 


O.87 


0.53 


O.80 


I.05 


O.62 


0.93 


I.23 


4 


O.58 


O.88 


I. 16 


O. 70 


I .06 


I .40 


O.82 


I .24 


I.64 


5 


0.73 


I. IO 


1-45 


0.88 


i-33 


i-75 


I.03 


i-55 


2.05 


6 


O.87 


I.32 


1.74 


i-°5 


i-59 


2. 10 


I.23 


1.86 


2.46 


7 


I .02 


i-54 


2.03 


1.23 


1.86 


2-45 


I.44 


2.17 


2.87 


8 


I. 16 


1.76 


2.32 


1 .40 


2 . 12 


2.80 


I .64 


2.48 


3.28 


9 


I-3 1 


1.98 


2.61 


1.58 


2-39 


3-i5 


I.85 


2.79 


3- 6 9 


10 


1.45 


2.20 


2.90 


1 -75 


2.65 


3 5o 


2.05 


3.10 


4.10 


11 


1 .60 


2.42 


3-19 


i-93 


2.92 


3-8 5 


2.26 


3-4i 


4-51 


12 


1-74 


2.64 


3-48 


2. 10 


3.18 


4.20 


2.46 


3-72 


4.92 


13 


1.89 


2.86 


3 77 


2.2S 


3-45 


4-55 


2.67 


4-03 


5-33 


14 


2.03 


3.08 


4.06 


2.45 


3-7i 


4.90 


2.87 


4-34 


5-74 


15 


2.18 


3-30 


4-35 


2.63 


3.98 


5-25 


3.08 


4.65 


6. i S 


16 


2.32 


3-52 


4.64 


2.80 


4.24 


5.60 


3. 28 


4.96 


6.56 


i7 


2.47 


3-74 


4-93 


2.98 


4.5i 


5-95 


3-49 


5.27 


6.97 


18 


2.61 


3-9 6 


5-^2 


3-i5 


4-77 


6.30 


3- 6 9 


5-58 


7.38. 


19 


2.76 


4.18 


5 5i 


3-33 


5.04 


6.65 


3-9° 


5-89 


7-79 


20 


2.90 


4.40 


5.80 


3-5o 


5-3o 


7.00 


4. 10 


6.20 


8.20 


21 


3-°5 


4.62 


6.09 


3.68 


5-57 


7-35 


4-3i 


6.51 


8.61 


22 


3-19 


4.84 


6.38 


3.S5 


5-8 3 


7.70 


4-5i 


6.82 


9.02 


23 


3-34 


5.06 


6.67 


4-o3 


6. 10 


8.05 


4.72 


7-13 


9-43 


z \ 


3.48 


5.28 


6.96 


4.20 


6.36 


8.40 


4.92 


7-44 


6.84 


25 


3- 6 3 


5. -5° 


7.25 


4-38 


6.63 


8.75 


5-13 


7-75 


10.25 



III. CONVEYANCES. xix 

sons travel together in a Stolkjarre, for which they pay a fare and 
a half, they are allowed 24lbs. of luggage only. In hilly districts 
the 'Skyds-Skaffer' is frequently authorised to charge for more than 
the actual distance. Every station-master is bound to keep a Bag- 
bog (Skydsbog) or day-hook, in which the traveller enters his orders 
and records his complaints if he has any to make. On the first page 
of the 'Dagbog' is always entered the distance to the nearest station 
in each direction, whether by road or by rowing-boat, so that the 
traveller will have no difficulty in calculating the fare with the aid 
of the annexed tables (printed on yellow paper, which are re- 
ferred to in the Handbook as I, II, III). Distances under 5 Kilo- 
metres (3 M.) are charged at the full 5 Kil. rate. At the slow 
stations the station-master is entitled to a fee of 14 e. per horse, 
in addition to the fare, for the trouble of getting it ready. Strictly 
speaking the fare may be exacted before the hirer starts, but it is 
usually paid at the end of the stage, when the 'Gut', or girl (Jente) 
who takes his place, receives a gratuity of about lt/ 2 0. per Kilo- 
metre. The 'GaardskaiT, or man who helps to harness the horses, 
does not expect a fee. Nothing should be given to the peasant 
children who sometimes officiously open gates. At slow stations 
the station-master may dismiss the horses if the traveller who has 
ordered them is more than 2 1 /2 hours late , and after the first hour 
of waiting he may exact 'Ventepengo' or waiting-money (amounting, 
for l-2 1 / 2 hrs., to the fare for 3-10 Kil.). Tolls, ferries, and similar 
dues are paid by the traveller. 

Eowing-Boats. For the conveyance of travellers by boat (Baad- 
skyds or Yandskyds) the regulations are similar, but on all the 
principal routes steamers now ply. Those who have a guide with 
them may employ him as a rower, and thus dispense with one of 
the usual crew. Each rower (Ilnrskarl) generally rows or 'sculls' 
with two oars. A boat manned with two rowers is therefore called 
a Firring, or four-oared boat, one manned with three rowers a Sex- 
ring , and with four rowers an Ottering. For short distances a 
Firring generally suffices. The tariff is determined by the size of 
the boat and not by the number of persons (see Tariff on yellow 
paper, which is referred to in the Handbook by the letters A, 
B, or C). The Tilsigelse fee is 7 0. per man and boat. As the fares 
are very unremunerative, the traveller should add a liberal gratuity. 

Walking Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for 
long walking excursions, as the distances are too great , and the 
points of interest too far apart ; but there is no lack of glacier- 
excursions and mountain-ascents which can be made on foot only. 
Again, on very hilly roads , walking is quicker than driving, in 
which case a carriole or cart may advantageously be hired for 
luggage only. 

The Tourist Offices of Messrs Th, Cook <f Son, T. Bennet, and 
F. Beyer, at Christiania, Bergen, Stavanger, etc., issue railway, 

h* 



xx IV. EQUIPMENT. 

steamboat, Skyds (or posting), and hotel coupons for a number of 
different routes. Those unused are received back under deduction 
of 10% of their cost. This system saves trouble at a corresponding 
sacrifice of independence. 

IV. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs. 

Luggage. Travellers who intend to make the whole of their 
tour in Norway and Sweden by railway and steamboat need not 
limit their luggage, but those who intend travelling by carriole 
should not take more than 30-40 lbs., packed in a small and strong 
box and a carpet-bag, to which may be added a wallet or game- 
pouch to be used on walking excursions. A soft or compressible 
portmanteau is not recommended, as the 'Nkydsgut' always sits on 
the luggage strapped on behind. Suitable leather trunks are sold 
at Ghristiania, Bergen, and elsewhere for about '20 kr. A supply of 
stout cord and straps will be found useful, and a strong umbrella 
is indispensable. 

Equipment. The traveller should avoid the common error of 
overburdening himself with 'articles de voyage', eatables, or any- 
thing not absolutely necessary. On the ordinary routes, and even in 
remoter places, tolerable food can almost always be obtained. Tea 
and essence of coffee will, however, sometimes be found useful. 
Spirits are not to be bad at the inns, but good Cognac may be 
purchased in the larger towns for 4-f) kr. per buttle. A field-glass 
(Kikkert), a pocket cork-screw, and a small clothes-btu^h will be 
found useful. As to clothing, two strong, but light Tweed suits, a 
change of warm underclothing, a pair of light shoes for steamboat 
and carriole use, and a pair of extra-strong Alpine boots for moun- 
taineering ought to suffice. Add a stout and long ulster, a light 
waterproof, and a couple of square yards of strong waterproof ma- 
terial, as a wrapper for coats and rugs, or for covering the knees 
in wet weather, as the aprons (Skv<e tlceiler) of the carrioles are often 
dilapidated. Visitors to Lapland and the Swedish iN'orrland should 
further be provided with veils to keep oif the gnats. Ladies travel- 
ling in Norway should also dress as simply, strongly, and comfort- 
ably as possible, eschewing ornament. For the rougher mountain 
tours they should take stout gaiters or leggings. Alpenstocks, col- 
oured spectacles . and other requisites for mountain and glacier 
expeditions may be obtained in Ghristiania or Bergen. 

Further Hints. An old hand rec mniends a few safety-pins to he 
used in keeping scanty sheets from parting company with the. hlankets 
or skrinking into a wisp. — For mountaineering it is oven more important 
than in Switzerland to have very strong boots, waterpre>ot if pussible, 
and high in Ihe ankle, as bogs and water-courses often have to be crossed. 
To the equipment already menlioned may he added sewing - materials, a 
few buttons, arnica, glycerine, and- a candle or two. — Plenty of small 
change is desirable, as already mentioned. — Guides charge 4-B kr. per 
day and provide their own food, but a bargain should always be made 
beforehand. 



V. HOTELS. xxi 

Tourist Clubs. The Norske Turistforening ('tourist union'), 
founded in 1866, extends its useful operations throughout Norway, 
building refuge-huts, improving paths, appointing guides, and 
otherwise watching over the interests of travellers. There are now 
2000 members, about one-fifth of the number being English and 
Scotch. The list of members may be seen at Mr. W. Schmidt's in 
Christiania (p. 10), at Bergen, Laerdal, Fagernaes on the Valders 
Route, Trondhjem, etc. The subscription is only 4 kr. per annum 
(life-membership 50 kr.), for which a copy of the 'Aarbog' will be 
sent to the subscriber through any Norwegian address he names. 
The club-button (Klubknap), worn as a distinctive badge, costs 
80 #. more. The members are received with marked courtesy in 
the mountain regions, and have a preferential right to accommo- 
dation at the club-huts (see p. 135). 

The Svenska Turistforening (Stockholm , p. 278) is a similar 
club, also numbering 2000 members. The annual subscription is 
3kr. 

V. Hotels and Inns. 

Except in the capitals and a few of the favourite summer-resorts, 
hotels of the first class are rare in Norway and Sweden. As a rule 
the so-called 'sanatoria', answering to the British hydropathic or 
the American boarding-house, are crowded and noisy. But the 
second-class hotels and country inns, which are abundant in pro- 
portion to the population, generally afford cheap and tolerable 
quarters. At these the usual charge for a bed is 80 m. to 1 kr. , for 
breakfast iy 4 , supper l 1 /^ and dinner 172-2 kr., while the ser- 
vant (generally a Pige or Jente, addressed as Frekeri) is satisfied 
with a fee of 40-50 e. from each person (Norw. Drikkepenge, Sw. 
drickspengar). In Norway, as a rule, every Skydsstation is also an 
inn (affording 'godt Kvarter' or 'sletKvarter', according to circum- 
stances), corresponding with the Swedish gastgifvaregard. In re- 
mote places the traveller is sometimes asked to share a room and 
even a bed with another. In Sweden and particularly in Norway 
the manners of the innkeepers are reserved and homely, but there 
is no lack of real politeness and attention. On the other hand, as 
the people are rather slow in their movements , travellers in- 
tending to make an early start should make all their arrangements 
overnight. 

Tables d'hdte are almost unknown in Sweden. The Smorgasbord 
or Brdnnvinsbord, where various relishes, bread-and-butter, and 
liqueurs are served by way of stimulant to the appetite, is an in- 
stitution peculiar to Sweden, and should be patronised very spar- 
ingly. In the evening from 7 to 10 small portions of meat, etc. 
known as Sexor (six o'clock meal) are served to those who wish a 
light supper. 

In Norway L on the other hand, and on board all the steamboats, 



xxi i 



V. HOTELS AND INNS. 



tables d'hote are the rale. The tinned meats ('hermetiske Sager'), 
salted anchovies, cheese, etc. -which form the staple of breakfast 
and supper should he avoided as much as possible. 

The waiter (Norw. Opvarter; Swed. kypare, vaktmastare, 
garfon , markor) usually receives a gratuity of 10 e. or more for 
each meal. 

The following dishes are among the commonest in the bills of 
fare (Spisesedel, matseddel) : — 



Norwegian 


. English. 


Swedish. 


Norwegian 


. English. 


Swedish. 


Suppe 


Soup 


Soppa. 


Aal 


Eel 


Al 


Kjedsuppe 


Broth 


Buljong 


Ojedde 


Pike 


Gddda 


Kjed 


Meat 


Kbtt 


fSrreter 


Trout 


Foreller 


kogt 


boiled 


kokt 


Torsk 


Cod 


Torsk 


stegt 


roasted 


stekt 


Sild 


Herring 


Sill 


Oxekjud 


Beef 


Oxkott 


Grensager 


Vegetables 


Gronsaker 


Kalvesteg 


Roast veal 


Kalfslek 


Banner 


Beans 


Boner 


Cofelelter 


Cutlets 


Kotletter 


Jirter 


Peas 


Arter 


Faaresteg, 


Roast mut- 


Farstek 


( Poteter 
( Kartofler 


Potatoes 


Potatis, Po 


Bedeiteg 


ton 




idler 


Flesk 


Pork 


Svinkott 


jSg 


Eggs 


Agg 


Raadyrsteg 


Roast veni- 


R&djurstek 


Pandekagei 


Pancakes 


Pankakor 




son 




Ost (short) 


Cheese 


Ost 


Rendyrsteg 


Roast rein 


Rensiek 


Smgr 


Butter 


SmSr 




deer 




Eager 


Cakes 


Kakor 


Fjoerkrce 


Poultry 


Fjaderfd 


Redvin 


Red wine 


RSttvin 


And 


Duck 


And 


Hvidvin 


White wine Hvidtvin 


Gaas 


Goose 


Gas 


01 (short) 


Beer 


01, bier. 


Fisk 


Fish 


Fisk 









Beer is the usual Scandinavian beverage (halv Flask or halfva 
butelj, 20-25 ».), but good Bordeaux and other wines are generally 
to be had at the larger inns and on board the steamers. Spirits are 
never sold at the hotels or on board the steamers, but may be pur- 
chased at the shops in the towns. Drunkenness, which used to be 
a national vice, has been greatly diminished by recent — 

Liquor Laws. In Norway, where the liquor-traffic was formerly al- 
most entirely free, the consumption of raw spirits amounted in 1833 to 
28 quarts per head of the entire population. Owing to the raising of the 
duty and to the efforts of temperance societies the quantity was reduced 
in 1843 to 1772 pints per head, and in 1871-73 to about 9 pints per head 
per annum. In 1874 and 1875 the average consumption rose to nearly 12 
pints for each person per annum, but the recent introduction of a 'per- 
missive bill' has again caused a great reduction and produced most bene- 
ficial results. By the laws of 9th June, 1866, 3rd May, 1871, and 22nd May, 
1875, the authorities of each district may, by a majority, refuse to grant 
any licence for the retail sale of spirits within their district, or they 
may grant a monopoly of the spirit-trade to a company which is bound 
to pay the whole of its profits to the municipality, after deduction of 
expenses and 5 per cent interest. The former option has been exercised 
in many country-districts , with the result that drunkenness is now al- 
most unknown and that poverty, crime, and disease are greatly dimin- 
ished. The other alternative has been adopted in many of the larger 
towns, such as Bergen and Christiansand, with the result that drunken- 
ness and crime are much less frequent than formerly, and that a consid- 
erable revenue is yielded to the municipality for the support of the im- 
provident classes. The sale of spirits is entirely prohibited on Sundays 
and saints' days, and also on Saturdays and the eves of festivals after 



V. HOTELS AND INNS. xxiii 

5 p.m. — The laws restricting the sale of wine and beer are similar, 
but much less stringent. 

In Sweden the leading statute regulating the retail spirit-trade was 
passed on 24th August, 1877, partly in consequence of the success which 
for several years previously had attended the 'Gothenburg licensing sys- 
tem'. Its provisions are similar to those of the Norwegian statutes, and 
by § 3 it is farther provided that food shall always be sold at spirit-shops. 
By §§ 10, 14 it is enacted that the authorities of a district may either 
sell one or more licenses , in accordance with the requirements of the 
place, by auction to the highest bidder, or to a company which shall 
pay the whole of its surplus profits to the municipality, or they may by 
a majority refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits. Again, 
by § 17, no license will be granted to any one in a town, except on his 
undertaking to pay duty on at least 1200 Kannor at the rate of 25 0. per 
Kanna (2'/3 quarts) of spirits sold for consumption elsewhere, or at the 
rate of 40 0. per kanna of spirits consumed on the premises. The mini- 
mum quantity on which duty must be paid in the country is 600 Kannor. 
A license in a town, if granted at all, therefore costs 300-480 kr., and in 
the country one-half of that sum. By § 28 spirit-shops are closed, in the 
country, and in towns they may be closed by order of the authorities, 
on Sundays and festivals. — In October, 1877, the municipality of Stock- 
holm, under § 10 of the statute, granted the sole license to retail spirits 
to a company similar to that at Gothenburg , and the police statistics 
show that drunkenness and crime have considerably decreased. 

Cafes are almost unknown in Norway, but are to be found in 
the larger Swedish towns. One of their specialties is Swedish 
punch, a mixture of rum or arrak with lemon-juice and sugar, 
drunk as a liqueur and undiluted. With ice in summer it is a 
palatable, but not very wholesome beverage. Beer on draught is to 
be had in the larger towns only. 

Baths in Norway and Sweden are very primitive as a rule. The 
bath-houses in the fjords and lakes are for gentlemen only. 

VI. The People and their Character. 
The Swedes are generally pleasant and courteous in manner, and 
very hospitable and obliging to strangers, but they are seldom seen 
to advantage by ordinary tourists who traverse the country by rail- 
way and steamboat. 

With the Norwegians, on the other hand, whose country, in 
pleasant, old-world fashion, must still be explored chiefly by driv- 
ing, riding, or walking, the traveller will have opportunities of 
becoming better acquainted. Principal Forbes, the learned author of 
a standard work on Norway, calls the natives 'a free, intelligent, 
and fine-hearted people', and the definition is still correct, parti- 
cularly as to those who are removed from the influences of 
modern 'civilisation'. Sincerity, honesty, and freedom from con- 
ventional cant are the chief national virtues. The outward forms 
of politeness are little observed. On arriving at an inn or a station 
the traveller is seldom welcomed by the host or hostess, and on 
his departure he is treated with the same apparent neglect. The 
omission of such attentions arises partly from the independent 
position of many of the station-masters, with whom innkeeping is 



xxiv VI. NATIONAL CHARACTER. 

quite a subsidiary business, and partly from the national unobtru- 
siveness of character. Of true politeness and genuine kindness 
there is seldom any lack. The democratic character of the people 
manifests itself in the freedom with -which peasant, guide, and 
Skydsgut sit down at the same table with the traveller. On re- 
ceiving a gratuity, or, what is sometimes more valued, the friendly 
offer of tobacco or a cigar, they usually shake hands with the donor 
in token of gratitude. Persons who object to such demonstrations 
had better abstain from visiting Norway. 

The Norwegians are uniformly well educated and intelligent, 
and are generally a God-fearing, law-abiding people ; but their 
piety sometimes degenerates into superstition and mysticism, as in 
the case of the 'Haugianer'. 

From what has been said the traveller will rightly conclude 
that extortion, dishonesty, and incivility are rarer in Norway than 
in most other countries. Complaints, no doubt, are often made, 
but in these cases the offence has sometimes been occasioned by 
the traveller's own unreasonableness, want of consideration, or 
ignorance of the language. 

VII. Maps. Books. 

Maps. In maps of a vast country like the Scandinavian penin- 
sula there is plenty of room for names ; but as it is thinly peopled 
the names are apt to mislead, farm-houses and even 'saeters' or 
chalets being sometimes marked almost as boldly as Christiania it- 
self. In the maps in the Handbook the names of unimportant 
'gaards' have been omitted, but those of churches retained. When 
a place has several different names the commonest is given. 

In Norway a series of Ordnance Maps, begun in 1826, on the 
scale of 1 : 200,000, includes as yet only the southern half of Nor- 
way and the Tromse-Amt. The older of these maps are often in- 
distinct, the plates having suffered from frequent use. A series 
of 200 new ordnance maps on a scale of 1 : 100,000, called the 
'Topografisk Kart over Kongeriget Norge' (water, coloured blue; 
mountains, indicated by contour lines and shaded in chalk), and a 
less satisfactory ' Qeneralkart over det sydlige Norge', on a scale of 
1 : 400,000 (in three colours; to be completed in 18 sheets) are 
now in progress. In 1891 the eight southernmost sheets of the 
latter had been published, while of the former there had appeared 
24 sheets of the district round Christiania, 35 sheets of Trond- 
hjem and neighbourhood, 5 of Bergen, 1 of the Sogndal, 1 of the 
Galdhepig, and 1 of Lake Bydin. The most suitable travelling maps 
are the Reisekart over det Sydlige $ Nordlige Norge , on a scale of 
1:800,000, prepared from official sources by Captain Nissen (pub- 
lished by Cammermeyer of Christiania ; S. Norway in two sheets at 
1^2 ^ r - eac h i N. Norway, four sheets, in two covers, at 2 kr. each), 
with the 'skyds-stations' and the distances carefully marked, and 



VII. MAPS. xxv 

Oscar Nielsen's Lomme-Reisekart over Norge (1 : 400,000 ; same pub- 
lishers; iu fourteen sections at 40-80 v. each), embracing the most 
frequented regions. Lastly we may mention Haffner fy Dahl's Kart 
over Finmarkens Ami (1:400,000; two plates). 

Of Sweden, there is an excellent new ordnance map , called 
the 'Topografiska Corpsens Karta bfver Sverige' (water, coloured 
blue), on a scale of 1 : 100,000. In 1891 there had appeared 76 
sheets, extending to the N. to LakeWenern andGefle. — Another 
good map is the 'Oeneralkarta bfver Sverige' (1 : 100 000), in three 
plates, of which the two southernmost have been issued. 

Books. Of the numerous books treating of Norway and Sweden 
a few standard works are mentioned here : — 

Annuaire Statistique de la Norvege (official, pub. at intervals). 

Broch, Royaume de Norvege, etc., 2nd ed. 1878. 

Bruce, C. L., The Norse Folk, etc., New York, 1857. 

Du Chaillu, P. B., Land of the Midnight Sun, 2 vols., 1881. 

Forbes, J. D., Norway and its Glaciers, Edin. 1853. 

Hare, A.J. C, Sketches in Holland and Scandinavia, Lond. 1885. 

Lloyd, L., Scandinavian Adventure, Lond. 1854. 

Lovett, Norwegian Pictures, 1885. 

Metcalf, F., Oxonian in Thelemarken, 2 vols., Lond. 1858. 

"Old Bushman", Ten years in Sweden, Lond. 1865. 

Pritchett, R. T., Gamle Norge, Lond. 1879. 

Schubeler, Viridarium Norvegianum (admirable account of the 

flora). 
Taylor, Bayard, Northern Travel, Lond. 1857. 
Vincent, Norsk, Lapp, and Finn, 1881. 
Wood, Round about Norway, Lond. 1882. 

VIII. Names and their Meanings. 

The spelling and pronunciation of the names of Scandinavian 
places is very variable. In Sweden the modified a and o are writ- 
ten a and o, in Norway usually a and e, while a and o also occur, 
the latter being sometimes used to indicate the short sound of the 
letter. Again in Norway aa, au, ou, and o are frequently inter- 
changed, as in Laag, Laug, Loug, or Log, 'river', and Haug or 
Houg, 'hill'. The vowels e, u, ei, ei, and e are also frequently 
interchanged, their pronunciation remaining nearly identical , so 
that the same word will sometimes assume such various forms as 
Synjereim, Sennerheim, or Sennerum, Bredheim or Breum, Marok, 
Mmraak, or Merok, Eidfjord or 0ifjord. The letter d in combi- 
nation with other consonants or at the end of a word is usually 
mute, and therefore often omitted (as Meheia for Medheia, Haukeli 
for Haukelid, etc.). Lastly, g and k, when hard, are often used in- 
differently, as Agershus or Akershus, Egersund or Ekersund, Vig or 
Vik. The article en or et (see grammar in the appendix) is often 



xxvi VIII. NAMES AND THEIR MEANINGS. 

added in common speech to names which appear in the map with- 
out it (Krogleven, Kroglev, etc.). In Danish or Norwegian the letter 
w does not occur, but in Swedish v and w are constantly inter- 
changed, the latter having lately come more into vogue. 

In both countries the traveller will often be struck by the 
primitiveness of the nomenclature, many names signifying merely 
'the creek', 'the promontory', 'the lake', 'the end of the lake', 
'the river', 'the river-valley', 'the valley -river'. Farm-houses again 
are usually named after their proprietors , and the converse is 
often the case. The following is a list of several common Norwe- 
gian words (ce and e being placed last in the alphabet) : — 

Aak, Ok, probably con- Eide, isthmus , neck of Hyl, Hel, hollow, basin. 

tracted from Aaker or land. Kirke, church. 

Ager, field, cultivated Elv, river. Kiev, cliff. 

land. Fjcere, ebb-tide, theheach Kvam, Qvam, ravine. 

Aar, from Aa, river. exposed at ebb-tide. Laag, Log, Laug, Loug, 

Aas, ridge. Fjeld, mountain. river. 

Aur, see 0re. ^)'or<2,bay,armofthesea. Lund, grove, thicket. 

Bakke, hill. Eos, waterfall. Lykke, hamlet, garden. 

Brae, glacier.'; Gaard, farm-house(Engl. Mark, field. 

Bu, Be, 'Gaard', hamlet. 'yard ). Mo, Mog, plain, dale. 

By, town, village. Gald, rocky slope. Mork, Merk, forest ; also 

Bygd , parish , district, Grcend, group of chalets. a 'mountain-tract'. 

hamlet. Haug, Hong, hill. Hoes, nose, promontory. 

Dal, valley. Hei, Heia, barren height. Nut, mountain-top, 

Egg, corner, edge, ridge. Helle, slab, rock, cliff.. peak. 

Odde , tongue of land, Sund, strait, ferry. Vand, Vatn, water, lake. 

promontory. Thveit (Eng. 'thwaite')' Vang, meadow, pasture. 

Os, mouth, estuary. clearing. Vas, contracted genitive 

Plads, hamlet, clearing. Tind, peak. of 'Vand'. 

Prcestegaard , parsonage. Tjcern, Tjern, or Kjasrn, Vig, Vik, creek. 
Sailer, 'chalet', mountain- mountain-lake, 'tarn'. Yel, sandy slope. 

farm, cowherds' hut. Tuft, Tomt, site of house, 0, island. 
Sj0, Se, lake. plot of ground (English f)e,f)y, peninsula, tongue 

Stabbur, store-house. and Scotch provincial of land. 

Stul, Stel, see 'Sseter'. 'toft', 'toom'3. 0re, 0yr , alluvial or 

Stue , wooden house, Ur, rubble, loose stones. gravelly soil, tongue 

sseter, hut. Vaag, bay, harbour. of land. 

Many places have two or more names, one usually applying to 
the church, another to the principal 'gaard', a third to the posting- 
station, and so on, the number of names being sometimes in an in- 
verse ratio to the importance of the place. 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxvii 

IX. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia. 
Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line. 

Scandinavia, the largest peninsula in Europe, embracing the 
kingdom of Norway on the W. and N. sides, Sweden on the E. and 
S., and part of Russia to the N.E., is about 296,500 Engl. sq. M. 
in area. It extends from S.S.W. to N.N.E. between 55° 20' and 
71° 10' N. latitude, being upwards of 1100 Engl. M. in length. 
Between the Gulf of Bothnia and the N.W. coast its breadth is 
about 260 Engl. M., and towards the S. gradually increases, though 
at the point where the Trondhjems-Fjord forms a deep indentation 
it narrows to 160 M. Farther to the S., in latitude 60° (that of 
Christiania and Upsala), the width increases to 435 M., beyond 
which Norway forms a rounded peninsula ending in Cape Lindes- 
nses (58° 59'), while the S. part of Sweden forms another pen- 
insula to the S.E. of the Christiania Fjord, gradually narrowing, 
and terminating in the promontory of Falsterbo (55° 20') near Co- 
penhagen. The entire coast-line of the peninsula , disregarding 
its innumerable indentations, measures 2060 M. in length, the 
part between CapeLindesnses and Vads» alone measuring 1250 M. 

The peninsula contains no distinctly connected mountain-ranges 
like those in most other countries, but mainly consists in its W. 
part of a vast elevated plateau, descending abruptly to the western 
fjords and sloping gradually down to the plains of Sweden and the 
Gulf of Bothnia on the E. side. Roughly speaking, a line drawn 
parallel with the "W. coast, about 50-60 Engl. M. inland, mark9 
the boundary of the mountain plateau, the "W. margin of which is 
deeply indented with innumerable bays and creeks, and fringed 
with a belt of countless rocky islands. The latter are known as 
Skjar (Sw. skar), and the island-belt as the Skjcergaard (skargard). 
To different parts of the mountain-plateau are applied the names 
of Fjeld ('fell'), Heidar ('heights'), and Vidder ('widths', barren 
expanses), and in the N. part of the peninsula Kjeler ('mountain- 
ranges'), and from it rise at intervals rounded and occasionally 
pointed peaks of considerable height. 

The Mountains are composed almost entirely of primary rocks, 
presenting nearly the same form as when originally solidified, and 
are rarely overlaid with more recent formations, so that for the ge- 
ologist they possess the charm of the most hoar antiquity. These 
primary rocks consist of granite, gneiss, mica, hornblende, slate, 
quarzite, clay-slate, limestone, and dolomite, disposed in strata, 
corresponding with which are occasional well-defined layers of 
later slate-formations and particularly of limestone. At places, 
notably in the Romsdal, or Valley of the Rauma, the gneiss , the 
oldest of these rocks, towers in most imposing pinnacles, 5000- 
6000 ft. in height, unencumbered by any later formations. That 



xxviii IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

valley extends from the Moldefjord to the S.E., intersecting the 
pure gneiss rock, which rises on each side in almost perpendicular 
cliffs , 2000-3000 ft. in height , and is afterwards prolonged by 
the Gudbrandsdal descending to Lake Mjtfsen. In grandeur of 
rock-scenery, and in the purity of its formation, this magnificent 
valley is hardly inferior to the far-famed Yosemite Valley of the 
Sierra Nevada in California. 

About the year 1840 rocks of the Silurian Formation were 
discovered by geologists near the Christiania Fjord, and other depo- 
sits of that period have since been found in Skane, Western Got- 
land, the island of Gotland, Herjeadalen, and Jemtland in Swe- 
den, and also on the banks of Lake Mjesen and in Trondhjems 
Stift in Norway, but nowhere of great extent. The largest Silurian 
basin in the peninsula is that of the Storsjo in Jemtland, a lake 
of 2570 Engl. sq. M. in area. 

One of the most instructive sections of the country is formed 
by the route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Ostersund on the Storsjo 
and Trondhjem in Norway. The primitive crystalline rocks of 
Jemtland are first replaced by limestone, extending to the E. 
bank of the lake , where the Silurian formations begin. These 
stretch westwards to the great mountain backbone of Sweden and 
Norway. On this route rises Areskutan, the highest mountain in 
Sweden (p. 326), part of the base of which on the E. and W. sides 
belongs to the Silurian formation, while the primary rocks, con- 
sisting of quartzite, horneblende, mica-slate, and gneiss, protrude 
through it all the way to the summit. From this vantage-ground 
we obtain an excellent idea of the character of the Scandinavian 
mountains. Many of the hills, rounded and worn by glacier-action, 
are almost entirely bare , or clothed only with lichens (Cetraria 
cucullata nivalis, Cronicularia ochroleuca, etc.), and present an 
exceedingly sombre and dreary appearance. The slopes of the 
intervening basins are often well wooded, but the lower plateaux 
are mainly covered with vast tracts of lake and marsh. 

Coal occurs here and there in the peninsula. The coal-measures 
of Helsingborg at the S. extremity of the peninsula are of con- 
siderable extent. On the island of Ande, one of the Vesteraalen 
group, in latitude 69°, a bed of coal was also recently discovered 
at the mouth of the Ramsaa, the organic remains in which prove 
that the island must have undergone violent convulsions about the 
period when the coal was formed. Under the sea extends a thick 
seam of coal, above which lie strata of sandstone, clay-slate, and 
later coal, extending into the island. The island must therefore 
have once been larger than now, and thickly clothed with vege- 
tation , after which it appears to have been submerged and then 
upheaved anew. 

The configuration of the mainland must at one time have differ- 
ed greatly from its present form. That it was once higher above 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxix 

the sea than now is proved by the nature of the coast with its 
water and ice-worn fjords, straits, and isthmuses (Eid). On the 
other hand the sea appears within recent centuries to have receded 
at places. This was first observed by Celsius (&. 1744) and Linnaus 
(d. 1778), who caused marks to be made on the rocks at Kalmar 
and Gefle with a view to measure the retrocession of the sea , by 
the German naturalist Hell at Vard» in 1769, and by L. v. Buck, 
the geologist, in 1807. Throughout a vast tract, extending from 
Spitzbergen to about latitude 62°, the whole country is ascertained 
to be gradually rising, or the sea to be receding. In the Altenfjord, 
near Hammerfest, there are ancient coast-lines 620 ft. above the 
present sea-level, and others gradually decreasing in height extend 
all the way to Trondhjem and still farther S., while at Trondhjem 
itself it is well authenticated that the coast has risen 20 ft. within 
1000 years. At Tornea, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, the ground 
is even said to have risen 5 ft. in a century ; in the Aland Islands, 
farther S., a rise of 3 ft. within the same time has been observed ; 
while at Karlskrona no change of level has been detected. To the S. 
of Karlskrona, on the other hand, a gradual depression of the land 
or encroachment of the sea appears to be taking place. These cal- 
culations are probably not very trustworthy, but careful measure- 
ments made at eleven different places between 1839 and 1865, 
proved that the average rise of the coast-line between Maase and 
Christiania during that period was 1 foot. According to Kjerulf, 
the most eminent of the Norwegian geologists, the elevation of the 
coast has taken place fitfully, as several facts tend to prove. Thus 
it will generally be observed that in all the Norwegian valleys and 
fjords there are several distinct terraces, between which there is a 
sudden and well-defined dip, and that the old coast-lines , with 
their heaps of debris , descend abruptly at their lower ends at an 
angle of 25-30°. Again it will be noticed that the different water- 
levels on the rocks are marked by a kind of disintegrated pathway 
or furrow, each separated from its neighbour by a comparatively 
intact and. unworn surface. 

With regard to the Glaciers of Norway, the traveller will ob- 
serve that all the most important are situated to the S. of latitude 
67°. The largest is the Jostedalsbrae (p. 120), lying between lat. 
61° and 62°, 515 Engl. sq. M. in area, and the largest glacier in 
Europe. In form it resembles an enormous roof , from which a 
number of offshoots descend to within 150-200 ft. of the sea-level. 
A similar ice -mantle is that of the Folgefond (p . 98), a little 
to the S. of lat. 60°, and another of vast extent is that of Svar- 
tisen (p. 212), within the Arctic Circle. The upper parts of these 
glaciers form immense and nearly level expanses of dazzling ice 
and snow, unbroken by moraines or crevasses, except where their 
ramifications descend into the valleys, or by peaks rising above 
them. These plateaux of ice correspond with the mountain- 



xxx IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

configuration peculiar to Norway, and on a small scale they afford 
an idea of the character of the glaciers which once covered the 
whole country. Of that glacier period numerous traces still exist 
in Scandinavia. Striated rocks are everywhere observable, from 
the coast -line upwards; the debris of moraines is distributed 
over every part of the country ; and the soil formed by glacier- 
friction now forms good cultivable land and affords abundant 
material for brick-making. Erratic Blocks seem to have been 
first deposited in S. Sweden by the glaciers on their southward 
course, and they abound in N. Germany, sometimes lying a 
few feet only below the surface of the soil , sometimes clustered 
together with sand, mud, o and gravel, and rising into hills of 70- 
185 ft. in height, called Asar in Sweden , and known in Ireland 
and Scotland as escars and kames. 

The coast is indented with innumerable Fjords , most of 
which have minor ramifications. Similar indentations occur in 
the precipitous W. coast of N. America, extending northwards 
from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and on the S. American coast, to 
the S. of the Island of Ohiloe, and on a smaller scale there are 
numerous fjords on the "W. and. E. coasts of Greenland, in Spitz- 
bergen, Novaja Semlja, and on the W. coasts of Iceland, Scotland, 
and Ireland. All these fjord-formations cease within 40-50° from 
the equator, and at the same time they generally correspond with 
the rainiest regions of the countries where they occur. The E. coast 
of Scandinavia was probably also at one time indented with fjords, 
to which the numerous inland lakes once belonged, but which have 
gradually been filled up by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. That 
the fjords have been formed, as would naturally be supposed, by 
the erosive action of ice and water, seems to be disproved by the 
fact that they are often much deeper than the sea beyond their 
mouths. The Sognefjord, for example, is no less than 4100 ft. 
deep at places. The fact appears rather to be that these basins 
existed before the glacier era. They are generally narrow and 
deep, and with the exception of those in E. Finmarken , they lie 
at right angles to the axis of the mountains. On the banks of the 
fjords usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land which 
has attracted a considerable population. 

The immense and intricate archipelago of the Skjserg'aard 
(skargard), or island-belt, which affords admirable shelter to the 
coasting steamers, accompanies nearly the whole of the Scandina- 
vian coast from Vads» to Haparanda. The only considerable inter- 
vals are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape, off the mouth of 
the Foldenfjord (64 1 / 2 °), off Jcsderen and Lister (between 58° and 
59°), and opposite the coasts of Holland and Skcme in Sweden. 
Within the Arctic Circle are a considerable number of large islands 
the Kvale, on which Hammerfest is situated, the Seiland Sere 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxxi 

Stjerne, Kaage, Arne, Varne, Ringvadse, and Hvale ; between 
the last and the mainland is the Tromse , with the town of that 
name ; then Senjen and the Vesteraalen and Lofoten Islands. Of 
the last-named group the first is the Hinde, the largest island in 
Norway (870 Engl. sq. M.), to the S. of which there are others of 
considerable size. All these islands, particularly those near the 
Arctic Circle, are mountainous, and many of them present strik- 
ingly picturesque forms. Among the finest are the Hestmandse, 
Threnen, Lovunden, Alstene with the 'Seven Sisters', and the sin- 
gular Torghatten, all of which are described in the Handbook 
(pp. 207-232). 

The great resource of the busy coast-population is the Cod 
Fishery, besides which the Herring, Oyster, and Lobster Fisheries 
and Seal Hunting yield a considerable revenue. The great fishing- 
banks of the Lofoten Islands are mentioned at p. 217. These 
fisheries support a population of no less than 100,000 souls. The 
annual yield of the cod-fishery is estimated at 1,300,000Z., and 
that of the seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) at 55,600i., while about 
a million and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England 
alone. Herrings formerly abounded near Stavanger, but disap- 
peared from 1784 to 1808, during which period cod were abundant 
in that neighbourhood. In 1808 the cod in their turn disappeared 
and the herring returned, but since 1869 the former have again 
been found in their old haunts. The shoals of cod and herring are 
usually attended by a kind of whale (Balenoptera museulus), which 
was formerly supposed to prey on the latter, but this is ascertained 
to be erroneous. The oyster-fishery is chiefly carried on on the S. 
coast near Kragere, and on the "W. coast near Finnaas in S»nd- 
horland, near Lindaas in Nordhorland, near Vestnas in the Roms- 
dalsfjord, by the Bjcere, and near Vigten in the Namsdal. The sal- 
mon-fishery is also of considerable importance. Among the most 
famous rivers are the Drammens-Elv, the Numedalslaag, the Ongne- 
Eio in Jaederen, the Suledals-Elv in Ryfylke, the Rauma and Driva 
in the Romsdal, the Quia near Trondhjem, the Namsen in the Nams- 
dal, and the Alten-Elv and Tana in Finmarken. 

These valuable resources of the coast-districts, compared with 
which the Opland or inland districts offer little or no attraction to 
settlers, have also given rise to the important Makitimb Trade of 
Norway, the foundation of which was laid by the piratical Vikings 
(inhabitants of 'Viker' or creeks), whose expeditions extended to 
Constantinople, and who discovered Iceland, Greenland, and N. 
America ('Vinland') 500 years earlier than Columbus. On some 
of the fjords still exist the tumuli of these early navigators, who 
sometimes caused themselves to be buried along with their vessels. 
The commercial fleet of Norway now ranks next to those of Great 
Britain and the United States. Timber for shipbuilding purposes 
is abundant. 



xxxii IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

The E. coast of the peninsula is less favourable for navigation, 
especially as many of the harbours have altered their position or 
been rendered shallow by the gradual rise of the coast-line, and 
accordingly few of the vikings had their headquarters there. The 
coasting-trade of Stockholm, however, and the inland lake and 
canal-traffic are of considerable importance. 

Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers. 

Owing to the sudden descent of the mountains on the "W. 
coast the streams on that side of the peninsula all have the char- 
acter of torrents , while on the E. side they take the form of 
long, narrow lakes, connected by rivers and often by waterfalls. 
The mountains in the northern part of the peninsula, bordering 
on Russia, rarely exceed 1000 ft. in height, but they become 
loftier as we proceed towards the S.W. , rising to imposing 
dimensions on the Lyngenfjord (p. 228) and at the head of the 
Saltenfjord (p. 215), where the Sulitelma forms the boundary 
between the sisteT kingdoms. To the S. of the great glacief-moun- 
tains of Svartisen (p. 212) the mountains decrease in height, and 
a number of large lakes send their waters eastwards to the Baltic, 
while the Namsen and Snaasen descend to the well-cultivated 
plains on the Trondhj ems-Fjord. Farther to the S. the mountains, 
such as the Jomafjeld, Kjelhaugen, Areskutan in Sweden, and the 
Syltoppe, again attain a height of 4000-5000 ft., while the islands 
off the coast contain mountains of similar height. In latitude 63° 
the main range divides, the backbone of the peninsula continuing 
to run southwards, while a branch diverges to the W. nearly at a 
right angle. In the central range are the sources of the Oster and 
Wester Dalelf, which afterwards unite and descend to the S.E. to 
the Gulf of Bothnia. Adjoining the same range lies the Fcemund- 
Sje, out of which flows the Famunds-Elv, afterwards called the 
Klar-Elf, and falling into Lake "Wenern, whence it descends under 
the name of the Oota-Elf to the Kattegat. A little to the N. of the 
Fsemund-Sj» lies the Aurmnd-Sje, the source of the Olommen, 
the largest river in Norway, which forms the imposing Sarpsfos at 
Sarpsborg and falls into the Skagerrak at Fredrikstad. Near the 
same lake rises the Quia, which descends to the N.W. to Trond- 
hjem; and through the valleys of these two rivers runs the impor- 
tant railway from Christiania to Lake Mjesen , the copper - mines 
of R«ros, and Trondhjem. 

Between the Fsemund-Sje and the Glommen rise the lofty 
Hummel fj eld, Tronfjeld, and Elgepig, and between the Glommen 
and the Gudbrandsdal tower the isolated Rdndane. To the 
N.W. of the latter stretches the Dovrefjeld, culminating in the 
Snehcetta (p. 67), formerly supposed to be the highest mountain 
in Norway. To the W. of this point, and to the N.W. of the Guu- 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxxiii 

brandsdal, stretch the gneiss mountains of the Romsdal, already 
mentioned. The mountains to the S. of the Romsdal are usually- 
known as the Langfjelde, which include the Jostedalsbrce with the 
Lodalskaupe and extend to the Horungerfjeld and the Jotunheim 
Mountains. To the last-named group belongs the Ymesfjeld, a 
huge mass of granite nearly 10 Engl. M. in breadth, culminating 
in the Galdhepig (p. 147J, and surrounded by rocks of the tran- 
sition period. Farther to the S. lie the extensive Lakes Gjende, 
Tyin, and Bygdin, enclosed by imposing mountains , belonging 
like the Horunger to the easily disintegrated 'gabbro' formation, 
and remarkable for picturesqueness of form. All these mountains 
are covered with perpetual snow , except the highest and most 
precipitous peaks, on which the snow cannot lie. 

The southern mountains of Norway, which also run from N.E. 
to S.W., are bounded by the Sognefjord on the N.W. , by the 
Christiania Fjord on the S.W., and by a line drawn on the E. side 
from the Fillefjeld to Christiania. Between the Sognefjord and 
the Hardanger Fjord are the isolated plateaux of the Vosseskavl, 
the Hardanger Jekul, and the Hallingskarv, rising above the snow- 
line. The Hardanger Fjeld is separated by the innermost branch 
of the Hardanger Fjord from the Folgefond (p. 98) , an extensive 
snow-clad mountain with several peaks. To the S.E. of the Har- 
danger Fjord stretches the extensive Hardanger Vidda, with peaks 
3000-4600 ft. in height, which gradually slope on the E. and S. 
sides. Farther to the E. are the deep valleys of the picturesque 
region of Telemarken, which frequently intersect each other. The 
E. outpost of the whole of this mountain-region is the Skogs- 
horn, to the N. of the Hallingdal. Farther to the E. are the Nume- 
dal, Hallingdal, and Valders valleys, descending towards the S., 
beyond which we again meet with a number of transverse val- 
leys, containing the most fertile land in Norway (such as Hade- 
land on the Randsfjord and Eingerike on the Tyrifjord). The 
mountains then descend to the plain of Jarlsberg and Laurvik. 
Among their last spurs are the Gausta and the Lidfjeld in Tele- 
marken, and the isolated Norefjeld, rising between Lake Krtfderen 
and the Eggedal. 

The mountains extending towards the S.E. next enter the 
Herjeadal and "Wermland in Sweden, where they contain valu- 
able iron ores, particularly in Wermland, Dalarne, and Westerman- 
land. The range next runs between Lakes Wenern and Wettern. 
where it is called Tiveden, and extends to the E. under the names 
of the Tydoskog and Kolmarden. It then intersects the province 
of Gotland and forms the plateau of Smaland to the S. of Lake 
Wettern. An important spur a little to the S. of that lake is the 
Taberg, a hill containing about 30 per cent of iron ore. The hills 
then gradually slope down to the plains of Skane and Holland, 
where there are a few insignificant heights only. In the plains of 

Baedkkek's Morway and Sweden. 5th Edit. c 



xxxiv IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Gotland rise the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Wenern, the Halle- 
berg, the Hunneberg, and the Omberg. 

The Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills 
above 210 ft. in height. 

Of comparatively late geological formation is the Swedish 
Basin extending from the Skagerrak through Lakes Wenern 
and Wettern to Lake Miilaren, the land to the S. of which was 
probably once an island. These lakes are believed to have once 
formed a water-way to the Gulf of Finland, which again was pro- 
bably connected with the White Sea , and this theory is borne 
out by the fact that a kind of crayfish found in the White Sea 
and Lake Venern does not exist in the Atlantic or in the Baltic. 
The modern canal -route connecting these lakes is described in 
RR. 43-46. 

The coast to the N. of Stockholm is flat, and intersected by 
numerous rivers and long lakes, at the mouths of which lie a 
number of towns chiefly supported by the timber-trade. One of 
the most important lakes is the picturesque Siljan (p. 322), 
through which the Oster-Dalelf flows. Below Falun that river joins 
the Wester-Dalelf, and their united waters form a fine cataract at 
Elfkarleby. Of the many other rivers the most important are the 
picturesque Angerman-Elf (p. 328), iheLule-Elffy. 328), and the 
Tome-Elf (p. 330). The last, the longest of all, is connected by a 
branch with the parallel river Kalix. Most of these eastern rivers 
are rather a series of lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. The 
heavy rainfall among the mountains, descending into the valleys 
where the sun has not power to evaporate it, forms these lakes 
and extensive swamps, the overflow of which descends from basin 
to basin till it reaches the sea. The lower ends of these rivers 
are generally navigable for some distance. Steamboats ply on the 
Angerman-Elf and the Lule-Elf (p. 328). 

Climate and Vegetation. 

Temperature. Judging from the degrees of latitude within 
which the peninsula lies , one would expect the climate to 
be uniformly severe and inclement, but this is only the case on 
the E. coast and among the central mountains. The climate of the 
W. coast is usually mild, being influenced by the Atlantic and 
the Oulf Stream which impinges upon it. In the same latitude in 
which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America, and in 
which lies the almost uninhabitable region of E. Siberia, the water 
of these western fjords of Norway never freezes except in their 
upper extremities. As we proceed from W. to E., and in some 
degree even from N. to S., the temperate character of the climate 
changes, and the winters become more severe. The climate is 
perhaps most equable at Skudesnces, near Stavanger, where the 
mean temperature of January is 34.7°Fahr., and that of July 55.4°: 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxxv 

difference 20.7°. At Stockholm, on the other hand, the mean tem- 
perature of January is 24.8°, and that of July 63.5°: difference 
38.7°. The difference is still greater in many places farther to the 
N., as at Jockmock (66° 36' N. lat. ; 925 ft. above the sea), where 
the January temperature is 3.2°, that of July 57.92°, and the differ- 
ence 54.90°. The tract lying between the Varanger Fjord and the 
Gulf of Bothnia, the interior of Finmarken and Lapland, and the 
southern mountains above the height of 2300ft., all have an an- 
nual mean temperature below the freezing point. Some of the 
other isothermal lines are curious. Thus the line which marks a 
mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. runs from the Lofoten 
Islands southwards, passing a little to the E. of Bergen and through 
the inner part of the Stavanger Fjord. It then turns to the S.E. 
to Cape Lindesnaes, and thence to the N.E. towards the Christia- 
nia Fjord, and southwards to Gothenburg and Copenhagen. The 
line marking a mean January temperature of 23° passes through 
Hammerfest, Saltdalen, Reros, Christiania, and Upsala. In the 
depth of winter, therefore, the Lofoten Islands are not colder than 
Copenhagen, nor Hammerfest than Christiania. Again, while the 
mean temperature of the whole year at the North Cape is 35.6°, it 
is no higher at Ostersund in Jemtland, 552 Engl. M. farther 
south. Lastly, while the climate on the W. coast is comparatively 
equable throughout the year, that of the E. coast and the interior 
of the country is made up of a long, severe winter and a short and 
sometimes oppressively hot summer. The average temperature of 
the sea is 3y 2 -7° warmer than the air, being of course lower than 
that of the air in summer and higher in winter. The healthiest 
part of the peninsula is probably the island of Karme, where the 
death-rate is only 12 per thousand. The average rate for Norway 
is 19, for Sweden 20 per thousand. 

Rainfall. In the interior of Norway less rain falls than on the 
coast. In Sweden the greatest rainfall is between Gefle and Gothen- 
burg. The mean rainfall in Sweden is 20.28 inches , that of 
Gothenburg 28.18, and that of the E. coast 16.88 inches. August 
is the rainiest month in Sweden, especially in the N. provinces. 
In Norway the maximum rainfall is at Flora, where it sometimes 
reaches 90-91 inches per annum ; on the S. coast the average is 
about 40 inches, and on the W. coast, to the S. and N. of Flora, 
70-75 inches. August and September are the rainiest months in 
the E. districts of Norway, but on the "W. coast the rainy season 
is rather later. June and July are therefore the best months 
for travelling in Sweden and the E. districts of Norway, and July 
and August for the W. coast. In the neighbourhood of the Roms- 
dal the rainy season does not usually set in before December. 
Hail and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. The latter, however, 
are sometimes very violent on the W. coast, where no fewer than 
forty churches have been destroyed by lightning within the last 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



150 years. The following table shows the mean temperature and 
average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — 







-H> -*-» 


n=) 






.a»« 




a .5 


1-3 






S-S 

tf.S 





<L> 




f« 


,d a) 


=J 


.5W 


^ 


a.S 


<3 



O o 






Pardter .... 
Nyoorg .... 
Fruholmen . . 

.4Mera 

Tromset . . . 
Andenas . . . 

Bode 

Ranen .... 
Brand .... 
Yttereen . . . 
Christian sund 



42 


70° 22' 


— 


70" 2' 


29 


71° 6' 


— 


69° 58' 


39 


69° 39' 


26 


69° 20' 


36 


67° 17' 


46 


66° 12' 


38 


65° 28' 


250 63° 49' 


66 


63° T 



33.45 
29.30 
35.42 
33.62 
35.96 
38.48 
38.48 
37.22 
40.28 
41.00 
43.16 



30.55 

34.34 
22.36 
37.48 



Ona . . 

Dovre . 

Reros . 

Flore . 

Bergen 

Ullensvang 

Skudesnces 

Lindesnces 

Mandal . . 

Sandesund 

Ckristianui 



52 
2160 
2060 
29 
49 
33 
36 
29 
56 
42 



62 e 
62 e 
62 e 
61° 
60° 
60° 
59 e 
57° 
58° 
59= 
79'59 e 



53' 

5' 

35' 

36' 

24' 

19' 

9' 

59' 

2' 



55' 43, 
55' 41 



.36 



14.39 

75.27 
72.25 

42.83 

55.11 
23.14 
21.19 



Air Pressure. The pressure of the air in January is greatest 
in the interior of N. Norway and lowest in Finmarken. In July it 
is highest on the W. coast and lowest in the interior. The pre- 
vailing winds in winter are accordingly land-winds, which are fre- 
quently diverted towards the N. and follow the line of the coast. 
In summer, on the other hand, W. and S.W. winds prevail, blow- 
ing towards the region where the air-pressure is lowest, also fre- 
quently following the line of the coast towards the N. , and rarely 
impinging on the coast at a right angle. The most prevalent wind 
blows from the S.W., and on the coast is usually accompanied with 
dull weather, but this is less the case in the interior. The most 
violent storms, which prevail chiefly in winter, come from the same 
quarter. The mountains form a boundary between two distinct 
climates, the W. wind being the dampest on the "W. coast and the 
driest in the interior. 

The Vegetation, as might be expected from the climate and 
the geological features of the peninsula, is generally poor, but the 
flora is unusually rich for so northern a region. About 25,758 
Engl. sq. M. are covered with forest, chiefly pines, the wood of 
which is valuable owing to the closeness of the rings which 
mark its annual growth. Next in frequency are the oak , the 
birch , the elm , and the beech. Other trees occur also , but 
not in the forests. The beech , which suffers more from cold than 
the oak, but does not require so high a mean temperature, rarely 
occurs in Sweden N. of Kalmar, while the oak is found as far N. 
as Gefle. In Norway, on the other hand, the beech extends to a 
point beyond Bergen , and the red beech even occurs at Trond- 
hjem. Near Laurvik , in latitude 59-5972°, the beech is found in 
considerable plantations. — The apple-tree (Pyrus rnalus) occurs 



IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxxvii 

as far as 65° 10' N. lat., the plum (Prunus domestica) up to 64°, 
and the cherry to 66°, while currants (Ribes nigrum and rubrum), 
gooseberries (Ribes grossularia) , strawberries (Fragaria vesca), 
raspberries (Bubus idaeus), and the common bilberry (Vaccinium 
myrtillus) occur as far north as the North Cape. 

Wheat is cultivated as far as 64Y2°, and in the S. districts up 
to a height of 1000-1250 ft. above the sea ; Rye grows as far N. as 
69°, and in the S. up to a height of 1950 ft. ; Barley and Oats 
occur up to 70°, and in the S. to a height of 2050 ft. above the 
sea. Botanists are referred to the instructive works of Schuebeler 
and Axel Blytt. — The cultivated land in Norway occupies the 
insignificant area of 1074 Engl. sq. M., but in Sweden 10,678 sq. 
M. In the northern regions the Oxyria remiformis, a kind of sorrel, 
is largely cultivated as a substitute for corn. It is kept in a frozen 
condition in winter and boiled down to a pulp for use, being fre- 
quently mixed with flour and made into Fladbred. In the S. 
districts, however, the 'flat bread' is usually made of wheat or 
barley flour mixed with mashed potatoes , and sometimes with 
pease-meal. The Lapps mix their bread with reindeer-milk and 
sometimes with the bitter Mulgedium, alpinum , which is believed 
to be a preventive of scurvy. 

It is a curious fact that barley takes exactly the same time 
(90 days) to ripen at Alten (70° N. lat.) as at Christiania and in 
the S. of France, but it is now generally believed that the great 
length of the Arctic days compensates for the lack of warmth. The 
seed, however, if brought from a warmer climate, requires to be 
acclimatised, and does not yield a good crop until after two or three 
seasons , so that the effects of a bad harvest are felt for several 
succeeding years. 

The traveller will also observe that the leaves of most of the 
trees which occur in the northern districts of Norway are larger 
than those of trees of the same kind in the southern regions. Thus 
the leaves of maples and plane-trees (Acer platanoides and pseudo- 
platanus) transplanted from Christiania to Troms» have been found 
to increase greatly in size , while the trees themselves become 
dwarfed in their growth. This leaf development is also attributed 
to the long continuance of the sunlight in summer. It would be 
interesting to know what effects the protracted light produces on 
the colours of flowers and the flavour of fruits , but these points 
have not yet been investigated. 

The Animal Kingdom comprises most of the domestic and other 
animals common in Great Britain , besides many which are now 
extinct there, and a number of others peculiar to the Arctic regions. 
Among the animals most characteristic of the country are the rein- 
deer (Cervus tarandus), an exceedingly useful mammal , and the 
sole support of the nomadic Lapps, and the lemming (Oeorychus 



xxxviii IX. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

lemmus), a rodent, somewhat resembling a water-rat, which some- 
times affords food to the reindeer (see p. 150). Among beasts 
of prey the bear and the wolf are still common in many parts of 
the country, and the lynx and glutton occasionally occur. For 
killing any one of these the government offers a reward of 25 
crowns. Conspicuous among large game is the handsome elk 
('Elsdyr' ; Cervus alces), now becoming rare, next to which rank 
the reindeer and the red deer. The finest of the wildfowl is the 
capercailzie (Tjur' ; Tetrao urogallus), after which come the ptar- 
migan ('Rype'; Lagopus mutus) and hazel-grouse ('Hjerpe'; Tetrao 
bonasid). Partridges rarely occur in Norway, but abound in the 
S. of Sweden, where they were introduced about the year 1500. 
The most valuable of the wildfowl , however, is the eider-duck 
('Eder'; Anas mollissima) , which is most abundant within the 
Arctic Circle. The down of the female, which she uses in making 
her nest, is gathered in the Dunvmr of Finmarken, yielding a con- 
siderable revenue. 

The Population is now almost exclusively of Gothic origin, but 
the oldest element consists of the Lapps and the Finns, who were pro- 
bably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country and who both belong 
to the Ugrian race. Their languages are both of the Turanian stock 
(akin to Hungarian), and are said by Castren , the philologist, to 
have been identical some 2000 years ago. The Lapps now number 
about 24,000 only in Norway and Sweden, and the Finns about 
22,000 souls. They are both of the Mongolian type, with high 
cheek-bones, low foreheads, full lips, narrow eyes, blunt noses, 
and yellowish complexions, but the Finns are now by far the su- 
perior race, both physically and mentally. The names usually 
applied to them are not used by themselves. The Lapps ('nomads') 
call themselves Sami or Sahmelads, and the Finns ('fen-dwellers') 
Suomi. — The dominant race, by which the Lapps have been well- 
nigh extinguished , is of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic stock , and 
is believed to have begun to settle in the peninsula before the 
birth of Christ (see below). With regard to their language, see the 
grammars at the end of the volume. — The total population of 
Norway in 1891 -was about 2,000,000, that of Sweden about 
4,775,000. The annual increase, which is slow, owing to the 
frequency of emigration, now amounts in Norway to about 14,000, 
and in Sweden to 19,000 per annum. 



X. HISTORY. xxxix 

X. History of Sweden and Norway. 

Prehistoric Period. The earliest antiquities in Scandinavia 
belong to the Flint Period, during which the peninsula appears to 
have been inhabited by the same race as Denmark and N. Ger- 
many. Their rude implements indicate that they possessed fixed 
dwelling-places and cattle, and were acquainted with the art of 
fishing and probably of hunting also. They buried their dead in 
large stone tomb-chambers. This epoch was succeeded by the 
Bronze Period, when implements and ornaments in bronze and 
even in gold were first imported, and afterwards manufactured by 
the natives themselves. Agriculture was now regularly practised, 
and the same domestic animals were used as at the present day. 
The tombs of this period sometimes contain cinerary urns , and 
sometimes bones unconsumed. During this and the preceding 
period the population seems to have been confined to Skane and 
Wester-Gotland. Lastly, about the time of the birth of Christ, 
begins the Iron Period, when the use of that metal was intro- 
duced from Central Europe. At the same time silver and glass 
make their appearance , and Roman coins and 'bracteates' (orna- 
mental discs of metal) are occasionally found. 

During this period also the contents of tombs prove that the 
dead were sometimes burned and sometimes buried in coffins. The 
cinerary urns are usually of terracotta, rarely of bronze. Among 
other curiosities which have been found in the tombs are trinkets 
and weapons, some of which appear to have been purposely broken. 
To this period also belong the earlier Runic Inscriptions, in a large 
character differing from that afterwards used. Quite distinct from 
the earlier part of this era is the Later Iron Period, which be- 
gan in Sweden about the year 500 or 600, and in Norway about 
the year 700 A. D. The Runic inscriptions of this period are in 
the smaller character, and the language had by this time attained 
to nearly the same development as that used by the later MSS., 
while the native workmanship exhibits evidence of a new and in- 
dependent, though still barbarous stage of culture. 

To what race the inhabitants of Scandinavia during the first 
and second of these periods belonged is uncertain, but it is sup- 
posed that they were of the aboriginal Finnish stock. That the 
relics of the following periods were left by a different race is most 
probable, as no antiquities have been found which show a gradual 
transition from the bronze to the early iron period, and it is well 
ascertained that the inhabitants of the S. parts of the peninsula 
were of Germanic origin, b£th during the earlier and later iron 
periods. It has also been ascertained that the older Runic alpha- 
bet of 24 letters, common to Scandinavian , Anglo-Saxon , Bur- 
gundian, and Gothic inscriptions, was afterwards modified by the 
Scandinavians, who substituted for it the smaller character, con- 



xl X. HISTORY. 

sisting of 16 letters only. It therefore seems to be a well-estab- 
lished fact that during the later iron period, if not earlier, the 
Scandinavians had developed into a nationality distinct from the 
ancient Goths or the Anglo-Saxons. 

Transition to the Historical Period. 

The earliest historical writers agree that Scandinavia was at 
an early period inhabited partly by a Germanic race, and partly 
by Finns or Lapps. The Germanic inhabitants, before whom the 
weaker race seems gradually to have retreated, were first settled 
in Sk&ne (Skaney) in the S. of Sweden , whence the country was 
named Scandia, and the people Scandinavians. The name of 
'Swedes' is mentioned for the first time by Tacitus (Suiones), the 
'Goths' are spoken of by Ptolemy, and the Suethans and Suethidi 
(i. e. Svear and SvUhjod) by Jordanis. Jordanis also mentions 
the Ostrogothae and Finnaithae, or the inhabitants of Oster-Gotland 
and Finnveden in Sweden, the Dani or Danes, the Raumaricia 
and Eagnaricii, or natives of Romerike and Raurike in Norway, 
and lastly the Ethelrugi or Adalrygir, and the Ulmerugi or Holm- 
rygir. As far back, therefore , as the beginning of our era , the 
population in the S. of Sweden and Norway appears to have been 
of the Gothic stock. To this also points the fact that the names 
of Rugians , Burgundians , and Goths still occur frequently in 
Scandinavia ; the Rygir were a Norwegian tribe , the name Bor- 
gund and Bornholm (Borgundarholm) recur more than once , and 
the district of Gotland and the island of Gotland or Gutland were 
doubtless so called by Goths or Jutes. It is therefore more than 
probable that the picturesque myth of the immigration of the JEsix 
or ancient Scandinavians from Asia under the leadership of Odin 
entirely lacks foundation in fact. 

It is at least certain that the history of Scandinavia begins 
with the later iron period. At that time the southernmost part of 
Sweden seems to have belonged to the Danes. Farther N. was 
settled the tribe of the Gbtar, to whom belonged the adjacent is- 
land of Oland, while Gotland appears to have been occupied by an 
independent tribe. Still farther N. were the Svear, who occupied 
Upland, Westermanland, Sodermanland, andNerike. The territories 
of the GStar and the Svear were separated by dense forest, while 
the latter were also separated from the Norwegian tribes by forests 
and by Lake Wenern and the Gotaelf. Beowulf, the famous Anglo- 
Saxon epic poem, dating from about the year 700, mentions Den- 
mark as an already existing kingdom, and also speaks of the differ- 
ent states of the Gotar and Svear, which, however, by the 9th cent, 
had become united, the Svear, or Swedes, being dominant. 
The same poem refers to 'Norvegr' and 'Nordmenn', i.e. Norway 
and the Northmen , but throws no light on their history. It 
is, however, certain that the consolidation of Norway took place 



X. HISTORY. xli 

much later than that of Denmark and Sweden, and doubtless after 
many severe struggles. To the mythical period must be relegated 
the picturesque stories of the early Ynglingar kings, beginning 
with Olaf Trcetelje, or the 'tree-hewer' ; but they are probably not 
without some foundation in fact, and it is at any rate certain that the 
migrations and piratical expeditions of the Northmen, which soon 
affected the whole of the north of Europe, began about this time 
(7th-8th cent. A. D.). The predatory campaigns of the Danish King 
Hugleikr, which are mentioned both in the Beowulf and by Frankish 
chroniclers, are doubtless a type of the enterprises of the vikings 
(from Vik, 'creek'), which continued down to the 11th century. The 
Swedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland, Kurland, 
Esthonia, and Russia, which last derived its name and its political 
organisation from Sweden ; the Danes undertook expeditions against 
France and England, and the Norwegians chiefly against the north 
of England, Scotland, the Orkney and Shetland Islands , and the 
Hebrides. 

Norway before the Union. 

From the semi-mythical Ynglingar and Olaf Trsetelje, who is 
said to have flourished about the middle of the 7th cent., Halfdan 
Svarte, king of a part of Norway corresponding with the present 
Stift of Christiania, professed to trace his descent. His son Harald 
Haarfager ('fair-haired'), after several severe conflicts, succeeded 
in uniting the whole of Norway under his sceptre after the deci- 
sive battle of the Hafrsfjord near Stavanger in 872. The final 
consolidation of the kingdom, however, was not effected until a 
century later. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty 
kings who had been banished , while great numbers of the pea- 
santry, to escape the burdens of taxation, emigrated to the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, to Iceland, and even to the Hebrides. In 
this weakened condition Harald transmitted the crown to his fa- 
vourite son Eirtkr Blddbx, whose exploits as a viking had gained for 
him the sobriquet of 'bloody axe'. After having slain several of 
his brothers, Erik was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the 
Good, who in his turn was defeated and slain by Erik's sons at 
the battle of Fitjar in 961. Among the sons of Erik, several of 
whom were put to death by their own subjects, the most distin- 
guished was Harald Graafeld, who was, however, at length defeated 
by the Jarl (earl) of Lade in the district of Trondhjem, with the 
aid of Harald Gormsson, king of Denmark (970). At this period 
a number of petty kings still maintained themselves on the fjords 
and in the interior of the country, trusting for support from the 
kings of Sweden and Denmark. The Jarls of Lade, who ruled 
over Trondhjem, Helgeland , Namdalen , and Nordmere, acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the kings of Norway, until Haakon Jarl 
transferred his allegiance to the kings of Denmark. On the out- 
break of war between Denmark and Germany he succeeded in 



xlii X. HISTORY. 

throwing off the Danish yoke, but did not assume the title of 
king. Haakon was at length slain by one of his own slaves during 
an insurrection of the peasantry (995) , whereupon Olaf Trygg- 
vason, a descendant of Haarfager, obtained possession of the 
kingdom, together with the fjords and inland territory which had 
belonged to Haakon. With the accession of Olaf begins a new 
era in the history of Norway. 

In the 10th century Paganism in the north was in a moribund 
condition. Based on the dual system of a world of gods (Asgardr, 
Godheimr) and a realm of giants (Vtgardr, Jotunheimr), it regarded 
mankind (Midgardr, Mannheimr) as a kind of object of contention 
between the two. All alike partook equally of the joys and sorrows 
of life, of sin, and even of death. The period of the vikings, 
however, to the close of which we owe the Eddas, materially altered 
the tenets of the old religion. As victory was their great object, 
they elevated Odin, , the god of victory , to the highest rank in 
their pantheon, while Thor, the god of thunder, had hitherto 
reigned supreme. The bards depict in glowing colours the halls 
of Odin, which become the abode of heroes slain in war. But as 
the gods had been in many respects lowered to the rank of men, 
and were themselves believed to have their destinies swayed by 
fate , it necessarily followed that they were not themselves the 
Creators, but at most the intermediate artificers and administrators 
of earth. They therefore failed to satisfy the religious wants of 
men, who began to speculate as to the true and ultimate Creator 
of the universe , and it was about this period that Christianity 
began to dawn on the benighted north. The vikings came into 
frequent contact with Christian nations, and Christian slaves were 
frequently brought to Norway and Sweden. Many of the Northmen 
professed to be converted , but either retained many of their old 
superstitions or speedily relapsed into them. A few , however, 
embraced the new religion zealously , and it is to them that the 
final conversion of the peninsula was due. The first Christian 
monarch was Haakon the Good, who had been brought up by King 
Athelstane in England, and been baptised there ; but his attempts 
to convert his people were violently opposed and met with no success. 
The sons of Eric, who had also been converted in England, showed 
little zeal for Christianity, and under Haakon Jarl heathenism 
was again in the ascendant. At length when Olaf Tryggvason, 
who had also become a Christian, ascended the throne, he brought 
missionaries from England and Germany to Norway and succeed- 
ed in evangelising Norway, Iceland, the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands and the Faroes , partly by persuasion , and partly by inti- 
midation or by bribery. Iceland, however, had already been partly 
converted by Thorvaldr Vidforli , a native missionary aided by 
the German bishop Friedrich. 

King Svejn Tveskag ('double beard') of Denmark now attempt- 



X. HISTORY. xliii 

ed to' re-establish the Danish supremacy over Norway, and for 
this purpose allied himself -with his stepson King Olaf, Skot- 
konung or tributary king of Sweden , and with Eric, the son of 
Haakon, by whose allied fleets Olaf Tryggvason was defeated and 
slain in the great naval battle of Svold, on the coast of Pomerania, 
about the year 1000. Norway was now partitioned between the 
kings of Denmark and Sweden, who ceded most of their rights to 
the Jarls Eric and Svejn, sons of Haakon Ladejarl. The kingdom, 
however, was soon permanently re-united by St. Olaf , son of 
Harald Grenski , and a descendant of Harald Haarfager. After 
having been engaged in several warlike expeditions , and having 
been baptised either in England or in Normandy , he returned 
to Norway in 1014 to assert his claim to the crown. Aided by 
his stepfather Sigud Syr, king of Ringerike, and by others of the 
minor inland kings, he succeeded in establishing his authority 
throughout the whole country , and thereupon set himself energet- 
ically to consolidate and evangelise his kingdom. His severity, 
however, caused much discontent, and his adversaries were sup- 
ported by Canute , king of England and Denmark , who still 
asserted his claim to Norway. Canute at length invaded Nor- 
way and was proclaimed king, while Olaf was compelled to seek an 
asylum in Russia (1028). Having returned with a few followers to 
regain his crown , he was defeated and slain at Stiklestad near 
Levanger on 29th July, 1030. Canute's triumph , however, was 
of brief duration. He ceded the reins of government to Haakon 
Jarl Erikssen, and after the death of the jarl to his son Svejn and 
the English princess Aelgifu , the mother of the latter ; but a 
reaction speedily set in, stimulated chiefly by the rumour of Olaf's 
sanctity , which found ready credence and was formally declared 
by a national assembly. Olaf's son Magnus, who had been left by 
his father in Russia, was now called to the throne , and Svejn was 
obliged to flee to Denmark (1035). The sway of Magnus was at 
first harsh, but he afterwards succeeded in earning for himself the 
title of 'the good'. In accordance with a treaty with Hardicanute 
in 1038, he ascended the throne of Denmark after the Danish 
monarch's death in 1042, but his right was disputed by Sv end 
Estridssen. In 1046 he assumed as co-regent the turbulent Harald 
Sigurdssen, step-brother of St. Olaf, who succeeded him on his 
death in 1047. After a series of violent conflicts with Svend, 
Harald was obliged to renounce his pretensions to the crown of 
Denmark , but on Harald's death at the Battle of Hastings (1066) 
the hostilities between Norway and Denmark broke out anew. 
Harald was succeeded by Olaf Haraldss.cn, who in 1068 entered 
into a new treaty with Svend of Denmark at Kongshelle, whereby 
the independence of Norway was finally established. 

Olaf , who was surnamed Hinn Kyrri , or 'the peaceful', now 
devoted his attention to the internal organisation of his kingdom, 



xliv X. HISTORY. 

and several of the Norwegian towns began to attain importance. 
Skfringssalr (near Laurvik) and the neighbouring Tonsherg already 
existed; Nidaros (afterwards Trondhjem) is said to have been 
founded by Olaf Tryggvason, Sarpsborg by St. Olaf, and Oslo by 
Harald Hardraade ; but the foundation of Bergen and several other 
towns, probably including Stavanger, is attributed to Olaf Kyrri. 
His court was famed for its magnificence and the number of its 
dignitaries , and at the same time he zealously promoted the in- 
terests of the church. While Olaf's predecessors had employed 
missionaries, chiefly English, for the conversion of their subjects, 
he proceeded to establish three native bishoprics and to erect 
cathedrals at Nidaros , Bergen , and Oslo, making the dioceses as 
far as possible co-extensive with the three provinces in which 
national diets (Thing) were held. His warlike son Magnus Barfod 
(1093-1103), so surnamed from the dress of the Scotch Highland- 
ers which he had adopted , did not reign long enough seriously 
to interrupt the peaceful progress of his country , and the three 
sons of Magnus, 0ystein (d. 1122), Sigurd (d. 1130), and Olaf 
(d. 1115), thereafter proceeded to carry out the plans of their 
grandfather. Sigurd was surnamed Jorsalafarer ('Jerusalem farer') 
from his participation in one of the Crusades (1107-11). The 
same devotion to the church also led about this period to the 
foundation of the bishopric of Stavanger, and of several mon- 
asteries (those of Sseltf in the NordfjOTd, Nidarholm near Trond- 
hjem, Munkelif at Bergen, and Gims» near Skien), and to the in- 
troduction of the compulsory payment of tithes (Tiende, 'tenths', 
known in Scotland as 'teinds'), a measure which secured indepen- 
dence to the church. King 0ystein is said to have been versed 
in law , and both he and several of his predecessors have been 
extolled as lawgivers, but no distinct trace of legislation in Nor- 
way of a period earlier than the beginning of the 12th cent, has 
been handed down to us. 

After Sigurd's death the succession to the throne was disputed 
by several claimants , as , in accordance with the custom of the 
country, all relations in equal propinquity to the deceased, 
whether legitimate or not, enjoyed equal rights. The confusion 
was farther aggravated by the introduction (in 1129) of the custom 
of compelling claimants whose legitimacy was challenged to un- 
dergo the 'iron ordeal', the practical result of which was to pave 
the way for the pretensions of adventurers of all kinds. Conflicts 
thus arose between Harald GilU, a natural son of Magnus Barefoot, 
and Magnus Sigurdssen; between Sigurd Slembedegn, who claimed 
to be a brother of Harald , and Ingi and Sigurd Munn, sons of 
Harald ; and afterwards between Ingi and Haakon Herdebred a 
son of Sigurd Munn. All these pretenders to the throne perished 
in the course of this civil war. Ingi was defeated and slain by 
Haakon in 1161 , whereupon his partisans elected as their king 



X. HISTORY. xlv 

Magnus Erlingss0n,vrho was the son of a daughter of Sigurd Jorsala- 
farer. Haakon in his turn having fallen in battle, his adherents 
endeavoured to find a successor, but Erling, the father of Magnus, 
whose title was defective, succeeded in obtaining the support of 
Denmark by the cession of Vigen, and also that of the church. 

Meanwhile the church had firmly established her power in the 
north. At first the sees of Sweden and Norway had been under 
the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen , but 
in 1103 an archiepiscopal see was erected at Lund in Skane. The 
Norwegians, however , desiring an archbishop of their own , Pope 
Eugene II. sent Cardinal Nicholas Breakespeare to Norway for the 
purpose of erecting a new archbishopric there , and at the same 
time a fifth bishopric was erected at Hamar. The new archbish- 
op's jurisdiction also extended over the sees of Iceland , Green- 
land, the Faroes, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
and his headquarters were established at Trondhjem. In 1164 
Erling Jarl induced Archbishop Eystein to crown his son Magnus, 
a ceremony which had never yet taken place in Norway , and at 
the same time he engaged to make large concessions to the church, 
including a right to a voice in the election of future kings. 

Supported by the church, personally popular, and a meritorious 
administrator , Magnus had at first no difficulty in maintaining 
his position, but his title and the high privileges he had accorded 
to the church did not long remain unchallenged. 

After several insurrections against Magnus had been quelled, 
there arose the formidable party of the Birkebeiner ('birch-legs', so 
called from the bark of the birch which they used to protect their 
feet), who in 1177 chose as their chief Sverre, a natural son of 
Sigurd Munn, who had been brought up as a priest, and who soon 
distinguished himself by his energy and prudence. In 1179 Erling 
was defeated and slain by Sverre at Nidaros, and in 1184 his son 
Magnus met the same fate in the naval battle of Fimreite in the Sogn 
district. Sverre's right to the crown, however, was immediately 
challenged by new pretenders, and he incurred the bitter hostility 
of the church by ignoring the concessions granted to it by Magnus. 
In 1190 Archbishop Eric, Eystein's successor, fled the country, and 
the king and his followers were excommunicated ; but , though 
severely harassed by several hostile parties, particularly the Bagler 
(the episcopal party, from Bagall, 'baculus', a pastoral staff), Sverre 
died unconquered in 1202. He was succeeded by his son Haakon 
(d. 1204), by Outtorm Sigurdssen (d. 1204), and by Inge Baardssen 
(d. 1217), under |whom the hostilities with the church still con- 
tinued. For a time, however, peace was re-established by Haakon 
Haakonss#n (1217-63), a grandson of Sverre, under whom Norway 
attained a high degree of prosperity. His father-in-law Skule Jarl, 
brother of King Inge, on whom he conferred the title of duke, proved 
his most serious opponent, but on the death of the duke in 1240 the 



xlvi X. HISTORY. 

civil wars at length terminated. New rights were soon afterwards 
conferred on the church, but of a less important character than those 
bestowed by Magnus Erlingssen, the clergy being now excluded 
from a share in the election of kings. The king also amended the 
laws and sought to extend his territory. Since the first colonisa- 
tion of Iceland (874-930) the island had been independent, but 
shortly before his death Haakon persuaded the natives to acknow- 
ledge his supremacy. In 1261 he also annexed Greenland, which 
had been colonised by Icelanders in the 10th cent, and previous- 
ly enjoyed independence, so that, nominally at least, his sway 
now extended over all the dioceses subject to the see of Trond- 
hjem, including the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Faroes, the 
Hebrides, and the Isle of Man. His claim to the Hebrides being 
disputed by Alexander III. of Scotland, he assembled a fleet for the 
purpose of asserting it, and set sail for the Orkney Islands, where 
he died in 1263. He was succeeded by his son Magnus Lagabeter 
('betterer of laws'), who by the treaty of Perth in 1268 renounced 
his claims to the Hebrides and Man in return for a small payment 
from Alexander. In his reign, too, the Swedish frontier, long a 
subject of dispute, was clearly defined, and the relations between 
church and state were placed on a more satisfactory footing. 

Constitution. From an early period Norway was divided into 
four large districts , each presided over by a Thing or Lagthing 
(Legthing), a diet with judicial and legislative functions. The 
eight Fylker or provinces of Trondhjem sent representatives to 
the Frostuthing, so named from Frosten, the meeting-place of the 
diet, and to these were afterwards added Helgeland , Namdalen, 
Nordmere, and Romsdalen. The Oulathing, in the Fylke of Gulen, 
embraced the Fylker of Firda, Sygna, and Herda, to which Boga- 
land, Agder, and Sondmere were afterwards added. The district 
of Vigen appears to have had a Thing of its own , which after the 
time of St. Olaf met at Sarpsborg and was called the Borgarthing ; 
but from the 12th cent, onwards representatives were sent to this 
diet by Banrfki , Vingulmerk , Vestvold, and Grenafylke also. 
Lastly the mountain-districts of Heina, Hada, and Rauma held a 
diet called the Heidscevisthing, afterwards named the Eidsifathing 
from Eidsvold where it assembled. This diet, though separate 
from that of Vigen, was under the same law, which had been de- 
clared common to both by St. Olaf. A committee of each diet, 
called the Legretta, chosen by the king's officers , performed the 
judicial duties of the diet, while the Lagthing itself exercised 
jurisdiction over the diets held at irregular intervals in the differ- 
ent Fylker. Resolutions were passed by a majority of the peas- 
antry at the diet. The four cities of Trondhjem, Bergen, Tens- 
berg, and Oslo each possessed a distinct Legthing the law ad- 
ministered by which was called 'Bjarkeyjarrettr'. 

King Magnus proceeded to abolish these diets (in 1267 and 



X. HISTORY. xlvii 

1268), but was prevented from finally accomplishing Ms object 
by the protest of Archbishop Jon Eaudi at the diet of Frosten 
(1269). He then directed his attention to the amendment of the 
laws. In 1271 a code called Jarnsida ('iron side') was completed, 
and in 1272-4 a new code was promulgated at the Frostuthing, 
which seems to have been immediately adopted by the other 
districts. In 1276 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen 
and soon afterwards into the other towns also ; and lastly the 
J6nsb6k, a collection of the laws of the mainland , was compiled 
in 1280 and promulgated in Iceland. From these codes ecclesias- 
tical law was excluded. Though each of them bears a distinctive 
name, such as 'Law of the Frostuthing', 'Town Laws of Bergen', 
etc., and is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the 
district or town which adopted it , they substantially formed a 
single code for the whole kingdom. The whole country was now 
subject to the jurisdiction of the four diets, with the exception of 
Helgeland, Jemtland, and Herjedalen , which still formed inde- 
pendent districts. Meanwhile King Magnus concluded a Concordat 
with the church at Bergen in 1273 and another at Tansberg in 
1277, and at the same time sanctioned an ecclesiastical code 
drawn up by Archbishop Jon , wherein he renounced all control 
over ecclesiastical causes and over the election of prelates. An- 
other interesting code of this period was the Hirdskraa ('law of 
servants', probably 1274-77), which affords an insight into the 
early condition of Norway. 

Magnus Lagabflter died in 1280 and was followed by his son 
Erik Magnuss#n (d. 1299), who was succeeded by his brother 
Haakon Magnussen (d. 1319). Under these monarchs the con- 
cessions of Magnus to the church formed the subject of constant 
dispute , and it was not till 1458 that they were finally secured 
to the hierarchy by Christian IV. In their secular administration, 
however, the sons of Magnus experienced less difficulty. At first 
the functions of the Legthing or diets had been deliberative, judi- 
cial, and legislative, and those of the king executive only, but the 
constitution gradually assumed a more monarchical form. The 
first step was to transfer the judicial powers of the diets to offi- 
cials appointed by the king himself. The Le>gmenn ('lawyers') 
had originally been skilled assessors at the diets , elected and 
paid by the peasantry, but from the 13th cent, onwards it was 
customary for the king to appoint them, and they became the sole 
judges of all suits in the first instance. In the second or higher 
instance the diet was still nominally the judge, but it was 
presided over by theL»gmann and attended by others of the king's 
officials. The king himself also asserted a right to decide cases in 
the last instance , with the aid of a 'council of the wisest men'. 
The four ancient diets were thus in the course of time transformed 
into ten or twelve minor diets, presided over by Legmenn. 



xlviii X. HISTORY. 

At the same time great changes in the social and political 
system were effected. In accordance with the old feudal system, 
it had been customary for the kings to bestow temporary and re- 
vocable grants of land ('Veitsla', probably from veitla, 'to bestow') 
on their retainers and courtiers ('Hird'), on the understanding 
that the tenants ('Huskarlar') would administer justice , collect 
the taxes, and render military and other services. In some cases, 
too, a Jarl was appointed governor of a considerable district and 
invested with extensive powers and practical independence , and 
it was usual for the king to confirm the heirs of these officials and 
dignitaries in their respective lands and offices. All these minor 
jurisdictions, however, were abolished by Haakon Magnussan 
(1308), who directed that all his officials should in future be 
under Ms own immediate control. Thus, by the beginning of the 
14th cent. , the Norwegian monarchs had attained a position of 
great independence, and had emancipated themselves alike from 
democratic and from aristocratic interference. The peasantry, 
however, always enjoyed greater freedom than in most other Euro- 
pean countries, and possessed their lands in freehold, being them- 
selves lords of a great part of their native soil ; but they never 
attained to much wealth or importance, as the trade of the country 
from a very early period was monopolised by Germans and other 
foreigners. Of scarcely greater importance was the nobility of the 
country, their lack of influence being due to want of organisation 
and political coherence. 

The Intellectual Culture of Norway during this period, as may 
be supposed, made no great progress. The Runic character had 
indeed been in use from the early Iron Period downwards , but it 
was merely employed for short inscriptions and rude registers of 
various kinds, and not for literary purposes. On the foundation 
of the archbishopric of Lund , the Latin character was at length 
introduced, but before that period all traditions and communica- 
tions were verbal , and it is mainly to the bards or minstrels 
('Skaldskapr') that we owe the preservation of the ancient mythi- 
cal and historical sagas or 'sayings'. About the year 1190 the 
Latin character began to be applied to the native tongue, both for 
secular and religious purposes. Of the exceedingly rich 'Old 
Northern' literature which now sprang up , it is a singular fact 
that by far the greater part was written by Icelanders. Among 
the most famous of these were Ari Frddi (d. 1148), the father of 
northern history; Oddr Snorrason and Gunnlaugr Leifsson 
(d. 1218), the biographers of King Olaf Tryggvason ; the prior 
Styrmir K&rason (d. 1245). the biographer of St. Olaf; the abbot 
Karl Jdnsson (d. 1212), the biographer of King Sverre ; and lastly 
Eirtkr Oddsson, Snorri Sturluson (d. 1241), and Sturla Thordarson 
(d. 1284), who were both historians of the kings of Norway and 
zealous collectors of their own island lore. The bards attached to 



X. HISTORY. xlix 

the Scandinavian courts -were also generally Icelanders. To Nor- 
wegian authorship are traceable comparatively few literary works, 
the most important being juridical compilations , the 'King's 
Mirror', which affords an insight into the court-life and commer- 
cial transactions of the 13th cent., the 'Anekdoton Sverreri', a 
polemic in favour of the crown against the church, several ballads 
of the earlier Edda , and a number of romances translated from 
English and French. This poverty of the literature of the main- 
land is doubtless to be accounted for by the fact that it was con- 
stantly harassed by wars and intestine troubles at this period, 
while Iceland was in the enjoyment of peace. "While, moreover, 
in Norway the clergy held themselves aloof from the people and 
from secular pursuits , and the nobles were busily engaged in 
fashioning their titles, their manners, and their costumes on the 
model of those of their more civilised neighbours , the Icelanders 
of all classes retained their national coherence in a far higher 
degree , all contributing with equal zeal to the patriotic task of 
extolling their island and preserving its ancient traditions. 

Sweden before the Union. 

With regard to the early history of Sweden there exist no 
chronicles similar to those of the Icelanders and Norwegians. It 
is ascertained, however, that the country was partly evangelised 
in the 9th cent, by Anskar (d. 865) and other German missionaries, 
and by his successor Rimbert (d. 888). Archbishop TJnni after- 
wards pr&ached the Gospel in Sweden, where he died in 936, and 
after the foundation of several bishoprics in Denmark about the 
middle of the 10th cent., Sweden was visited by several other 
German and Danish missionaries. The secular history of the 
country is involved in much obscurity , from which , however , it 
to some extent emerges when it comes into contact with that of 
Norway. About the end of the 10th century Olaf Skotkonung 
('tributary king') took part in the battle of Svold against Olaf of 
Norway and in the subsequent dismemberment of that country. 
He was afterwards compelled by his own peasantry to promise to 
come to terms with St. Olaf, and on his failure was threatened 
with deposition. He was then obliged to assume his son Onund 
as co-regent, and had to make peace with Norway about the 
year 1019. Olaf and Onund are said to have been the first Chris- 
tian kings of Sweden. Onund was succeeded by his brother 
Emund (d. 1056), the last of his royal house, on whose death 
hostilities broke out between the Gotar , who were now inclined 
in favour of Christianity and the more northern and less civilised 
Svear, who were still sunk in paganism. Emund had been in- 
different about religion . but his successor Stenkil Ragnvaldsson 
was a zealous Christian and was keenly opposed by the Svear. On 
the death of Stenkil about 1066 open war broke out between the 

Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. d 



1 X. HISTORY. 

Christian and the pagan parties. When his successor Inge Sten- 
kilsson (A. 1112), in whose reign the archbishopric of Lund was 
erected (1103), forbade heathen sacrifices, the Svear set up his 
brother-in-law Blot-Sven as a rival king, but Inge and his nephews 
and successors, Inge II. (d. about 1120) and Philip (A. about 1130), 
succeeded in maintaining their independence. These dissensions 
greatly weakened the resources of the kingdom. Stenkilsson fought 
successfully against Magnus Barfod of Norway and acquitted himself 
honourably at Kongshelle (1101), but his successors often allowed 
the Norwegians to invade their territory with impunity. 

On the death of Philip, Magnus, a Danish prince, and grand- 
son of Stenkilsson , assumed the title of king in Gotaland, but 
was defeated and slain in 1134 by Sverker I., who had been elected 
king two years previously. Sverker was next opposed by Erik 
Jedvardsson, who was proclaimed king by the Svear, and on Sver- 
ker's death in 1156 this Erik, commonly called the 'Ninth' and 
surnamed the 'Saint', obtained undivided possession of the throne. 
Erik, a zealous churchman, converted the temple of Upsala into a 
Christian place of worship , and conquered and Christianised 
the S.W. part of Finland. In 1160 he was attacked and slain by 
Magnus Henriksson, a Danish prince, who laid claim to the throne, 
and who in the following year was defeated and slain by Karl 
Sverkersson. The latter in his turn was slain by Erik Knutsson in 
1167, and the contest between the rival houses of Sverker and 
Erik lasted down to 1222. Eric died in 1195, his successor Sverker 
Karlsson in 1210, and Jon Sverkersson , the son of the .latter and 
the last of his family, in 1222, whereupon Erik Laespe ('the lisp- 
ing'), a son of Erik Knutsson, ascended the throne unopposed. 
Meanwhile the Svear, or Swedes in the narrower sense , had been 
converted to Christianity. The church was at first presided over 
by missionary bishops only , but in the reign of Olaf Eriksson a 
bishopric was erected at Skara, and under Stenkil another at 
Sigtuna. Under King Sverker a bishop of Oster-Gotland was ap- 
pointed, with his residence at Linkoping , one for the diocese of 
Upper Sweden at Upsala, and others for Sodermanland and Wester- 
manland at Strongn'as and Westeras, while several monasteries 
were also founded. The primacy of Sweden was granted to Arch- 
bishop Eskil of Lund by Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakespeare) about 
the year 1154, but in 1163 was transferred to Stephanus, the newly 
created Archbishop of Upsala. 

Erik Lajspe, though respected by his subjects, was a weak 
prince. Long before his time the Folkungar, a wealthy family of 
Ostef-Gotland, had gradually attained to great power, and Birger 
Brosa (d. 1202), a member of the family , had obtained the title 
of Jarl or Duke of the Swedes and Gotlanders. From an early 
period , moreover , intermarriages had taken place between the 
Folkungar and the royal families of Sweden , Norway and Den- 



X. HISTORY. li 

mark. In 1230 an attempt to dethrone Erik was made by Knut 
Jonsson, a distant cousin of Birger , but Knut was defeated and 
slain in 1234, and his son was executed as a rebel in 1248. The 
position of the family, however, remained unaffected. Birger Jarl, 
a nephew of Birger Brosa , married Ingeborg , the king's sister, 
while Erik himself married a member of the Folkungar family 
(1243). Birger now became the real ruler of Sweden, the terri- 
tory of which he extended by new conquests in Finland. On the 
death of Erik, the last scion of the house of St. Erik , without 
issue in 1250, Waldemar, Birger's son, was proclaimed the success- 
or of his uncle. During Birger's regency the country prospered, 
but on his death in 1266 hostilities broke out between his sons. 
The weak and incapable Waldemar was dethroned by his brother 
Magnus (1275), whose vigorous administration resembled that of 
his father, and who maintained friendly relations with the Hanse- 
atic League. He also distinguished himself as a lawgiver and an 
upholder of order and justice, and earned for himself the surname 
of Ladulas ('barn-lock', i.e. vindicator of the rights of the 
peasantry). 

In 1290 Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnusson, 
during whose minority the government was ably conducted by 
Marshal Thorgils Knutsson , but serious quarrels afterwards broke 
out between Magnus and his brothers, the dukes Erik and Walde- 
mar. In 1304 the dukes were banished, and in 1306 the faithful 
marshal was executed by the king's order. Soon afterwards, 
however, the dukes returned and obtained possession of the king's 
person. After several vicissitudes , peace was declared and the 
kingdom divided among the brothers in 1310 and again in 1313. In 
1318, however, the dukes were arrested, imprisoned, and cruelly 
put to death by their brother's order, whereupon Birger himself 
was dethroned and banished to Denmark (d. 1321). The following 
year Magnus , the infant son of Duke Erik , was elected king 
at the Mora Stones of Upsala (p. 306), while Magnus, Birger's 
son, was taken prisoner and executed. The first attempts to unite 
the Scandinavian kingdoms were made in the reign of Magnus 
Eriksson. 

The Constitution of Sweden at first resembled that of Norway. 
The country was divided into districts, called Land, Folkland , or 
Landskap , each of which was subdivided into Hundari ('hun- 
dreds'), called in Gotland Harath. Each 'Land' had its diet or 
Thing, presided over by a Lagman, and each hundred had its 
Harathsthing , whose president was called a Domar ('pronouncer 
of dooms') or Harathshof thing. The Landsthing exercised delib- 
erative and judicial functions, and each had its own code of laws. 
Precedence among these diets was enjoyed by the Svea Thing or 
that of Upper Sweden , at which , although the monarchy was 
nominally hereditary, kings were first elected. After his election 

d* 



lii X. HISTORY. 

each new king had to swear to observe the laws, and to proceed 
on the 'Eriksgata', or a journey to the other diets , in order to 
procure confirmation of his title. Resolutions of the Svea Thing 
were even binding on the king himself. As the provincial laws 
differed , attempts to codify them were made in the 13th and at 
the beginning of the 14th cent., but with the consolidation of 
the kingdom these differences were gradually obliterated. The 
chief difference between Sweden and Norway was the prepon- 
derance of the aristocratic element in the former. From an early 
period, moreover, it had been usual to hold diets composed of the 
higher officials, the barons, prelates, and large landed proprietors, 
and to these after the close of the 13th cent, were added the Lag- 
menn. This aristocratic diet was farther enlarged by Magnus 
Ladulas (1280) , who admitted to it all knights willing to serve 
him in the field , conferring on them the same exemption from 
taxation as that enjoyed by his courtiers and by the clergy. As 
no one, however, in accordance with a law of 1285, could attend 
these diets without a summons from the king himself, he retained 
the real power in his own hands and reserved a right to alter the 
laws with the advice of the diet. From an early period the Lag- 
man and the Harathshofthing had been the sole judges in lawsuits, 
and from the first half of the 14th cent, downwards they were 
proposed by the people, but appointed by the king. At the same 
time the king possessed a right of reviewing all judgments in the 
last instance. No taxes could be exacted or troops levied without 
the consent of the popular diets, and it therefore became custom- 
ary as early as the 13th cent, for the kings to employ mercenary 
troops. — The privileges of the church were well defined, but 
less extensive than in Norway. The payment of tithes was com- 
pulsory , and in 1248 and 1250 the right to elect bishops was 
vested in the chapters, while all the clergy were prohibited from 
taking oaths of secular allegiance. At the same period the celibacy 
of the clergy was declared compulsory. As early as 1200 the 
clergy was declared amenable to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
only , and in some cases the church-courts could even summon 
laymen before them. On the other hand the supreme legislative 
power in church matters still belonged to the state, and parishes 
enjoyed the right of electing their pastor when no express right of 
patronage existed. — In the latter half of the 13th cent, the dig- 
nity of Jarl or earl was abolished, and the Drotsate ('high steward'), 
Marsker ('marshal'), and Kanceler ('chancellor') now became the 
chief officials of the crown. The rest of the aristocracy consisted 
of the courtiers and royal vassals, the barons and knights (Riddare), 
the esquires (Sven af vapen, Vapnare), and even simple freemen 
who were willing to render military service whenever required. 
Between all these and the peasantry there was a wide social gap. 
The history of early Swedish literature is well-nigh an ab- 



X. HISTORY. liii 

solute blank. The oldest work handed down to us is a com- 
pilation of the laws of West Gotland, dating from the beginning 
of the 12th century. A few meagre historical writings in Latin, 
a work concerning the 'Styrilse kununga ok hofdinga' (the rule of 
kings and governors), and several translations of foreign romances 
also belong to this period. 

Transition to the Union. 

On the death of Haakon Magnussan of Norway in 1319 without 
male issue, he was succeeded by Magnus Eriksson, afterwards 
called Magnus Smek ('the luxurious') , the son of his daughter 
Ingeborg and the Swedish Duke Erik , and at that time a child of 
three years. On the banishment of King Birger in 1319 Magnus 
was also elected King of Sweden , so that the two crowns were 
now united, but it was arranged that each country should retain 
its own administration. The union, however, was not attended 
with happy results. At first Sweden was prudently governed by 
the regent Mats Ketilmundsson , and in 1332 the province of 
Skane, which had been pledged to the Swedish Marshal von Eber- 
stein by Erik Menved and Christopher II. of Denmark (1318), 
declared itself in favour of Magnus. The king, however, who 
soon afterwards assumed the reins of government, and his queen 
Blanche of Namur , were ruled by unworthy favourites and soon 
forfeited the respect of their people. A disastrous fire at Trond- 
hjem (1343), great inundations in the Guldal and Orkedal (1345), 
and above all the plague which swept away about two-thirds of 
the population (1349-50) aggravated the discontent of the Nor- 
wegians, who in 1350 elected Haakon Magnusson, the minor son 
of Magnus , regent of Norway, and in 1355 Haakon entered upon 
his functions , the province of Vigen and Iceland alone being 
reserved to his father. In Sweden Magnus consolidated the pro- 
vincial laws and drew up a new municipal code in 1347, but here 
too he was overtaken by many troubles. The aristocracy resented 
his endeavours to restrain their excesses, the people were exas- 
perated by the unsuccessful issue of his Russian campaigns (1348- 
49, 1350-51), the plague intensified their dissatisfaction in 1350, 
and lastly the king was excommunicated in 1358 on account of 
his failure to pay debts due to the pope. Eric, the king's son, 
took advantage of these troubles and assumed the title of king in 
1356, but died in 1359. New disasters, however, soon followed. 
In 1360 the Danes regained Skane and in 1361 they took posses- 
sion of the islands of Oland and Gotland. In 1363 Haakon married 
the princess Margaret, daughter of King "Waldemar of Denmark, 
then eleven years old , a union which gave great offence to the 
Swedish nobles , who were farther exasperated by the reconcilia- 
tion of Haakon with his father. Magnus now banished twenty- 
four of his most obnoxious opponents, who proceeded to Mecklen- 



liv X. HISTORY. 

burg and offered the crown to Albert, second son of the duke and 
of Euphemia, a daughter of Duke Erik of Sweden. 

Albert accordingly came to Sweden in 1363, and in 1365 Mag- 
nus and Haakon were defeated at Gata, near Enkoping, where the 
former was taken prisoner. In 1370-71 a rebellion in favour of 
Magnus took place in Upper Sweden, and in 1471 Haakon invaded 
the country with a Norwegian army, but peace was shortly after- 
wards concluded, and Magnus set at liberty on payment of a heavy 
ransom and on condition that he would not again lay claim to the 
Swedish crown. The death of Magnus in 1374 finally extinguished 
the hopes of those in favour of union. Albert was now compelled 
to place himself under the guidance of the powerful aristocratic 
party. In 1375 Bo Jonsson, the most powerful noble in Sweden, 
was appointed Drost or regent. Meanwhile the Norwegian nobil- 
ity under King Haakon had attained to considerable indepen- 
dence, while in the towns the dominant party consisted entirely 
of Germans , whose proceedings were often most oppressive and 
tyrannical. Even in Sweden, in accordance with the municipal 
code of Magnus Smek , one-half of the burgomasters and civic 
authorities in every town was required to consist of Germans ; 
and it may be here added that Albert chiefly owed his unpopularity 
to his partiality for German favourites. 

In 1375 WaldemarlV. of Denmark died without male issue, and 
in the following year he was succeeded by Olaf, son of his daughter 
Margaret and Haakon, king of Norway. On the death of Haakon 
in 1380, Olaf Haakonssen, his only son, acceded to the throne of 
Norway also, thus uniting the crowns of Denmark and Norway. 

Olaf's early death in 1387 dissolved this brief union, but 
within a few weeks his mother Margaret was proclaimed regent 
of Denmark, pending the election of a new king, while in Norway 
she was nominated regent in 1388 without any such limitation. 
At the same time, as it was deemed necessary to elect a successor 
to the throne from among the different competitors, the Norwegians 
appointed Erik of Pomerania, Margaret's nephew, heir to the 
crown, but under the condition that he should not ascend the throne 
during Margaret's lifetime. On the death of Bo Jonsson (1386), 
who had held two-thirds of Sweden in fief or in pledge, Albert's 
quarrels with his magnates broke out afresh, whereupon the mal- 
contents proclaimed Margaret regent of Sweden also (1388), 
agreeing to accept the king whom she should nominate. Margaret 
thereupon invaded Sweden and defeated Albert at Falkoping 
(1389), taking him and his son prisoners. The war, however, 
still continued , and it was at this period that the Vitalien 
Brotherhood (1392) came into existence, originally deriving their 
name ('victuallers') from their duty of supplying Stockholm with 
provisions during the war. The city was at that time occupied 
by the German adherents of Albert, and these German 'victuallers' 



X. HISTORY. lv 

were in truth a band of lawless marauders and pirates. Peace 
was at length declared in 1395, and King Albert set at liberty on 
condition of his leaving the country. During the same year Erik 
was elected king of Denmark, and in 1396 of Sweden also, so that 
the three crowns were now united, and the three kingdoms ruled by 
the same regent. The following year Erik was solemnly crowned 
at Kalmar by a diet of the three nations. Lastly, in 1398, Mar- 
garet gained possession of Stockholm , the last stronghold of the 
German partisans of Albert. The union of the three kingdoms 
thus effected by Margaret, who is sometimes called the 'Northern 
Semiramis', lasted till the beginning of the 16th cent., when it 
was dissolved by the secession of Sweden, but Norway and Den- 
mark remained united down to the year 1814. 

The Union. 

Though nominally united and bound to make common cause 
against all enemies, the three kingdoms jealously maintained their 
respective forms of government. Margaret ruled over the three 
countries with wisdom and moderation, though harassed by many 
difficulties, and on her death in 1412 King Erik assumed the reins 
of government. Erik , whose queen was Philippa , daughter of 
Henry IV. of England, was a weak, incompetent, and at the same 
time a cruel prince. He wasted large sums of money in an at- 
tempt to recover Slesvig from the Counts of Holstein, who held it 
as a Danish fief, and who were supported by the Hanseatic League. 
Meanwhile Bergen was twice plundered by the Germans (1428 
and 1429), who now became masters of that city, and in Sweden 
the people were most oppressively treated by Erik's German and 
Danish officials. In 1435, after a disastrous quarrel of twenty- 
three years, Erik was at length compelled to confirm the privileges 
of the Hanseatic League and to leave the Counts of Holstein in 
undisturbed possession of Slesvig. Exasperated by Erik's malad- 
ministration, by the debasement of the coinage, and other griev- 
ances , the Swedish peasantry , headed by Engelbrekt Engel- 
brektsson, a wealthy proprietor of mines, rebelled in 1433 and 
compelled Erik and his council to appoint Karl Knutsson regent 
of the kingdom (1436), shortly after which Engelbrekt was assas- 
sinated. In Norway also the oppressive sway of foreign officials 
caused great discontent and gave rise to a rebellion in 1436. Erik 
in despair retired to the island of Gotland, and in 1438 a number 
of Danish and Swedish magnates assembled at Kalmar, where 
they drew up a new treaty of union, but without affirming that 
the three kingdoms were thenceforward to be ruled by one 
monarch. Lastly, in Denmark also a rebellion broke out, chiefly, 
however, against the nobility and the clergy , and the Danes were 
therefore compelled to seek for a new king. 

In 1439 Denmark and Sweden formally withdrew their alle- 



lvi X. HISTORY. 

giance from Erik, and Christopher of Bavaria was elected in Ms 
stead, being afterwards proclaimed king of Norway also (1442). 
Erik spent ten years in Gotland where he supported himself by 
piracy, and ten years more in Pomerania, where he died in 1459. 
The separate election and coronation of Christopher in the 
three countries shows that their union had ceased to exist in more 
than the name. The new king succeeded, however, in asserting 
his authority in every part of his dominions, although not without 
many sacrifices. In his reign Copenhagen was raised to the rank 
of the capital of Denmark. His plans for the consolidation of his 
power were cut short by his death in 1448, and the union was 
again practically dissolved. The Swedes now proclaimed Karl 
Knutsson king, while the Danes elected Christian of Oldenburg, 
a nephew of the Duke of Holstein and Slesvig. In 1449 Christian 
also succeeded by stratagem in procuring his election in Norway, 
but Karl Knutsson was proclaimed king and crowned by the pea- 
santry. The following year, however, Karl renounced his second 
crown, and Christian was thereupon crowned at Trondhjem. 
Karl having rendered himself obnoxious to the clergy and others 
of his subjects in Sweden, Christian succeeded in supplanting him 
here also, and he was crowned king of Sweden in 1457. In 1460 
Christian next inherited the duchies of Holstein and Slesvig from 
his uncle, but he was compelled to sign a charter declaring that 
he would govern them by their own laws and not as part of Den- 
mark. The government of this vast empire was a task to which 
Christian proved unequal. Norway was plundered by Russians 
and Karelians and grievously oppressed by the Hanseatic mer- 
chants, who in 1455 slew Olaf Nilsson , governor of Bergen , and 
the bishop of the town, and burned the monastery of Munkeliv 
with impunity. In 1468 and 1469 he pledged the Orkney and 
Shetland Islands to Scotland, and caused great discontent by the 
introduction into Norway of Danish and German nobles, to whom 
he granted extensive privileges. Sweden, too, groaned under heavy 
taxation, and in 1464 recalled Karl Knutsson to the throne. He 
was soon banished, but in 1467 recalled a third time, and in 1470 
he died as king of Sweden. In 1471 Sten Sture, the Elder, a 
nephew of Knutsson, and the guardian of his son, was appointed 
administrator, and the same year Christian was defeated at Stock- 
holm, after which he made no farther attempt to regain his autho- 
rity in Sweden. He died in 1481 and was succeeded in Denmark 
by his son Hans, who was not recognised in Norway till 1483. 
Sten Sture sought to delay his election in Sweden, but as he had 
rendered himself unpopular by an unsuccessful campaign against 
the Russians in Finland, Hans took the opportunity of invading 
Sweden with a large army and succeeded in establishing his au- 
thority (1497). The king having been signally defeated at Hem- 
mingstadt in 1500 in the course of his attempt to subdue the 



X. HISTORY. lvii 

Ditmarschers, Sture was recalled, but Hans still retained Norway. 
Sture died in 1503 and was succeeded by Svante Nielsson Sture 
(&. 1512), whose successor was his son Sten Sture the Younger 
(d. 1520). 

King Hans died in 1513, and was succeeded in Denmark and 
Norway by his son Christian II., whom the Swedes declined to 
recognise. He was a man of considerable ability and learning, 
but self-willed, passionate, and cruel. In Norway and Denmark 
he effected several social reforms, protected the commercial, min- 
ing, and fishing interests, and sought to restrict the privileges of 
the Hanseatic merchants. Notwithstanding his strength of will, 
Christian was ruled by Sigbritt, a Dutchwoman, the mother of his 
mistress Diiweke (d. 1517), even after the death of the latter, and 
the hatred of the aristocracy for this woman, who treated them 
with studied contempt, proved disastrous to Christian. In Swe- 
den the family of Trolle had long been hostile to the Sture family, 
and when Gustaf Trolle was created archbishop of Upsala in 1515 
he invited the Danes to aid him in deposing the administrator. 
Christian sent troops to the aid of the prelate, who was besieged 
in his castle of Staket (p. 307), but the castle was taken and Trolle 
deprived of his dignities and confined in a monastery. In 1518 
Christian himself undertook a campaign against Sweden without 
success , and perfidiously imprisoned Gustaf Eriksson Vasa and 
other Swedish hostages who had been sent to him. A third cam- 
paign in 1519 was more successful, and Sten Sture was defeated 
and mortally wounded at Bogesund in West Gotland. The same 
year Christian gained possession of .Stockholm , but his atrocious 
cruelty and injustice proved his ruin. After his coronation by 
Trolle he permitted that prelate and two others to prosecute their 
enemies before an arbitrarily formed ecclesiastical tribunal. They 
were found guilty of heresy, and on 8th Nov., 1520, executed 
along with several other persons. The 82 victims included two 
bishops, 13 royal counsellors and knights, and Erik Johansson, 
the father of Vasa. On the following day many similar executions 
of so-called rebels and heretics took place in other parts of Sweden , 
though on a smaller scale than the 'Blood-bath of Stockholm'. 

The exasperation of the Swedes was aggravated by the impo- 
sition of a new tax and an attempt to disarm the peasantry, and 
the discontented populace soon found an able leader. This was 
the famous Gustaf Vasa ("probably so surnamed from vase, 'a beam', 
which the fascine in his armorial bearings resembled), who had 
been unjustly imprisoned by Christian, but escaped to Liibeck in 
1519. In May, 1520, he returned to Sweden, and on hearing of 
the death of his father at the Stockholm Blood-bath he betook 
himself to Dalecarlia, where on former occasions Engelbrekt and 
the Stures had been supported by the peasantry. The rising began 
in 1521 and soon extended over the whole of Sweden. In August 



Iviii X. HISTORY. 

of that year Gustavus was appointed administrator at Vadstena, 
and in June 1523 he -was proclaimed king at Strengnas. 

Sweden thus finally withdrew from the union, and Christian 
soon afterwards lost his two other kingdoms. His favour to the 
Reformation aroused the enmity of the church , and at the same 
time he attacked the privileges of the nobility. From the tenor 
of several provincial and municipal laws framed by the king m 
1521-22 it is obvious that he proposed to counteract the influence 
of the clergy and aristocracy by improving the condition of the 
lower classes. Among several excellent provisions were the abol- 
ition of compulsory celibacy in the church and a prohibition 
against the sale of serfs. A war with the Liibeckers , who even 
threatened Copenhagen (1522), next added to Christian's difficul- 
ties, soon after which the Danes elected his uncle Frederick, Duke 
of Slesvig-Holstein, as his successor and renounced their allegiance 
to Christian. At length, after fruitless negociations , Christian 
quitted Copenhagen in 1523 and sought an asylum in Holland. 
Nine years later, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne, 
he was thrown into prison, where he languished for 27 years. 

The condition of the Constitution during the union was far 
from satisfactory. The union existed in little more than the name. 
Each nation continued to be governed by its own laws, neither 
the troops nor the revenue of one could be employed for the pur- 
poses of either of the others, and no one could be summoned be- 
fore any tribunal out of his own country. The supreme authority, 
next to that of the king, was vested in his council, which con- 
sisted of the prelates , a number of the superior clergy, and a 
fluctuating number of nobles nominated by the king, but not 
removable at his pleasure. In matters of importance the king 
could only act with the consent of his counsellors, and they were 
even entitled to use violence in opposing unauthorised measures. 
Nominally the church continued to enjoy all its early privileges, 
and the concessions made at Tensberg in 1277 were expressly 
confirmed by Christian I. in 1458, but invasions of its rights were 
not infrequent, and with its increasing solicitude for temporal 
p^wer its hold over the people decreased. The chuTch was most 
powerful in Norway and least so in Sweden, while with the in- 
fluence of the nobility the reverse was the case. In Sweden the 
estates of the nobility enjoyed immunity from taxation, but Chris- 
tian I. and his successors were obliged to relax this privilege. 
The nobles also enjoyed jurisdiction over their peasantry, levying 
fines and imposing punishments at discretion (1483). The Nor- 
wegian nobles were less favoured ; they had no power of levying 
fines from their tenantry, and their manor-houses (Scedegaarde) 
alone were exempt from taxation. The position of the townspeople 
and the peasantry in Sweden gradually improved , and in 1471 
Sten Sture ordained that the municipal authorities should thence- 



X. HISTORY. lix 

forward consist of natives of the country instead of Germans. In 
Norway, notwithstanding the opposition of several of the kings, 
the Hanse merchants still held oppressive sway in the chief towns ; 
hut the peasantry were never, as in Denmark, subjected to serf- 
dom and compulsory services. They were generally owners of the 
soil they cultivated, while those who were merely tenants enjoyed 
entire liberty and were not ascripti glebae as in many other coun- 
tries. In Sweden the compulsory services exigible from the peas- 
antry by the lord of the soil were limited in the 15th cent, to 
8-12 days, and those exigible by the king to 8 days. While this 
class enjoyed less independence than in Norway, it attained polit- 
ical importance and even admission to the supreme council at an 
earlier period, owing to the influence of Engelbrekt , the Stures, 
and other popular chiefs. 

During the union Literature made considerable progress in 
Sweden, while in Norway it languished and became almost ex- 
tinct. In both countries the education of the clergy continued to 
be carried on in the monasteries and cathedral-schools, but towards 
the close of this period universities were founded at Upsala (1477) 
and Copenhagen (1479), and gave rise to the publication of various 
learned treatises in Latin. Among the religious works of this per- 
iod may be mentioned the revelations of St. Birgitta (d. 1373) 
and the 'Oronica Regni Gothorum' of Ericus Olai (d. 1486), both 
showing a tendency towards the principles of the Reformation. 
Whilst about the beginning of the 14th cent, the native literature 
of Norway became extinct , that of Sweden began to increase, 
consisting chiefly of religious writings, rhyming chronicles, ballads, 
and compilations of laws. In Sweden, moreover, the national lan- 
guage, though not without difficulty , held its own against the 
Danish, while in Norway the 'Old Norsk' was gradually displaced 
by the tongue of the dominant race, and continued to be spoken 
in several impure and uncultured dialects by the peasantry alone. 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union. 

The necessity of making common cause against Christian II., 
the deposed monarch of the three kingdoms, led to an alliance be- 
tween Oustavus Vasa and Frederick I. of Denmark. Christian at- 
tempted an invasion of Norway in 1531-32, but was taken pri- 
soner, and after Frederick's death (1533) the Lubeckers made an 
ineffectual attempt to restore the deposed king (1534-36). At 
home Oustavus also succeeded in consolidating his power. The 
nobility had been much weakened by the cruel proceedings of 
Christian, while the Reformation deprived the church both of its 
power and its temporal possessions , most of which fell to the 
crown. By the diet of Westeras (1527) and the synod of Orebro 
(1529) great changes in the tenure of church property and in eccle- 
siastical dogmas and ritual were introduced, and in 1531 Lau- 



lx X. HISTORY. 

rentius Petri became the first Protestant archbishop of TJpsala. 
Lastly, at another diet held atWesteras (1544), the Roman Catho- 
lic Church was declared abolished. At the same diet the succes- 
sion to the throne was declared hereditary. Gustavus effected 
many other wise reforms, but had to contend against several in- 
surrections of the peasantry , caused partly by his ecclesiastical 
innovations, and partly by the heaviness of the taxation imposed 
for the support of his army and fleet. Shortly before his death [in 
1560), he unwisely bestowed dukedoms on his younger sons, a 
step which laid the foundation for future troubles. 

His eldest son Erik XIV. (the number being in accordance 
with the computation of Johannes Magnus, but without the slight- 
est historical foundation) soon quarrelled with his younger brother 
John, Duke of Finland, whom he kept imprisoned for four years. 
He was ruled by an unworthy favourite, named Goran Persson, 
and committed many acts of violence and cruelty. He persuaded 
his brother Duke Magnus to sign John's death-warrant, whereupon 
Magnus became insane. After the failure of several matrimonial 
schemes, of one of which Queen Elizabeth of England was the 
object, and after several outbursts of insanity, Eric married his 
mistress Katharine Mansdatter (1567). The following year he was 
deposed by his brother, who ascended the throne as John III., 
and after a cruel captivity of nine years was poisoned by his order 
in 1577 (see p. 323). John ingratiated himself with the nobility 
by rich grants of hereditary fiefs, and he concluded the peace at 
Stettin which terminated a seven years' war in the north (1563-70) 
and definitively severed Sweden from Denmark and Norway. Less 
successful was his war against Russia for the purpose of securing 
to Sweden the province of Esthland, but the province was after- 
wards secured to his successor by the Peace of Tensina (1595). 
John was married to a Polish princess and betrayed a leaning to- 
wards the Romish church which much displeased his subjects. 
After his death (1592) the religious difficulty became more serious, 
as his son and successor Sigismund had been brought up as a Ro- 
man Catholic in Poland, where he had been proclaimed king in 
1587. Duke Charles of Sodermanland, the youngest son of Gus- 
tavus Vasa , thereupon assumed the regency on behalf of the ab- 
sent Sigismund , caused the Augsburg Confession to be pro- 
claimed anew by a synod at Upsala (1593), and abolished Romish 
practices introduced by John. After confirming these proceedings, 
Sigismund was crowned in 1594 ; but on his failure to keep Ms 
promises, his uncle was recalled to the regency (1595), and when 
Sigismund invaded Sweden in 1598 he was defeated by Charles 
and compelled to enter into a compromise at Linkoping. Again 
breaking faith , he was formally deposed (1599), while Charles 
was appointed regent for life. After having prosecuted Sigis- 
mund's adherents with great harshness, and succeeded in prevent- 



X. HISTORY. lxi 

ing the recognition of Ladislaus, Sigismund's son, Charles IX., 
assumed the title of king in 1604. His administration was bene- 
ficial to the country, and he was a zealous promoter of commerce, 
mining, and agriculture, but his wars with Russia and Denmark, 
which were unfinished at his death (1611), caused much misery. 
His son and successor was Qustavus II. , better known as 
Gustavus Adolphus, the most able and famous of the Swedish 
kings. Though seventeen years of age only , he was at once de- 
clared major by the Estates. In 1613 he terminated the 'Kalmar 
War' with Denmark by the Peace of Knarod , and in 1617 that 
with Russia by the Peace of Stolbova , which secured Kexholm, 
Karelen, and Ingermanland to Sweden. By the Treaty of Altmark 
in 1629 he obtained from Poland the cession of Livonia and four 
Prussian seaports for six years. At the same time he bestowed 
much attention on his home affairs. With the aid of his chancellor 
and friend Axel Oxenstj-erna he passed codes of judicial procedure 
and founded a supreme court atStockholm (1614-15), and afterwards 
erected appeal courts at Abo, Dorpat, and Jonkoping. In 1617 lie 
reorganised the national assembly, dividing it into the four estates 
of Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving it the sole 
power of passing laws and levying taxes. He founded several new 
towns, favoured the mining and commercial industries, extended 
the university of Upsala, and established another at Dorpat. At 
the same time he strengthened his army and navy, which he soon 
had occasion to use. In 1630 he went to Germany to support the 
Protestant cause in the Thirty Years' War, and after several bril- 
liant victories and a glorious career, which raised Sweden to the 
proudest position she has ever occupied in history, he fell on 6th 
Nov., 1632, at the Battle of Liitzen. The war was continued under 
his daughter and successor Christina , under the able regency of 
Oxenstjerna. In 1635, by another treaty with Poland, Livonia 
was secured to Sweden for 26years more. War broke outwithDen- 
mark in 1643 , but was terminated by the Peace of Bromsebro 
in 1645. At length, in 1648, the Thirty Years' War was ended by 
the Peace of Westphalia. These treaties secured to Sweden Jemt- 
land and Herjedalen, the island of Gotland , the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden , part of Pomerania with Stettin and the is- 
lands of Riigen , Usedom, and Wollin , and the town of Wismar, 
besides a considerable war indemnity and other advantages. Dur- 
ing the regency it was arranged that the royal council or cabinet 
should consist of representatives of the supreme court of appeal, 
the council of war, the admiralty, the ministry of the interior, 
and the exchequer , presided over by the chief ministers of each 
department. The country was divided into 23 Lane and 14 Lag- 
sagor, governed by Landshofdinge and Lagman respectively, which 
officials were to be appointed from the nobility. For these and many 
other reforms and useful institutions the country was indebted 



lxii X. HISTORY. 

to the energy and enlightenment of Oxenstjerna. On the other 
hand , in order to fill the empty coffers of the state , it was found 
necessary to sell many of the crown domains , and to levy new 
taxes, and the evil was aggravated by the lavish extravagance 
of Christina and her favourites. Refusing to marry , and being 
unable to redress the grievances of her justly disaffected sub- 
jects, the queen in 1649 procured the election of Charles Oustavus 
or Charles X., son of the Count Palatine John Casimir of Zwei- 
briicken and a sister of Gustavus Adolphus, as her successor. By 
her desire he was crowned in 1654, whereupon she abdicated, 
quitted Sweden, and embraced the Romish faith. She terminated 
her eccentric career at Rome in 1689. Her successor endeavoured 
to practise economy, and in 1655 obtained the sanction of the 
Estates to revoke her alienations of crown property. War, however, 
interfered with his plans. John Casimir, king of Poland, son of 
Sigismund, now claimed the throne of Sweden , and compelled 
Charles to declare war against him (1655). After a time Russia, 
Austria, and Denmark espoused the cause of Poland, but Charles 
succeeded in gaining possession of Jutland and the Danish islands, 
and the Peace of Roskilde (1658) secured to him Skane, Halland, 
and Blekinge , but obliged him to cede the districts of Bohus 
and Trondhjem to Norway. On a renewal of the war with Den- 
mark, the Danes were aided by the Dutch, the Brandenburgers, 
the Poles, and the Austrians , who compelled Charles to raise the 
siege of Copenhagen, and on his sudden death in 1662 the Peace 
of Copenhagen was concluded , whereby the island of Bornholm 
was lost to Sweden. 

Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI. , a boy of 
four years , whose guardians endeavoured to make peace with 
foreign enemies. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland , Branden- 
burg, and Austria in 1660 the king of Poland finally ceded Li- 
vonia to Sweden and renounced his claim to the throne of Sweden, 
and by the Peace of Kardis with Russia in 1661 the Swedi ,h con- 
quests in Esthonia and Livonia were restored to Sweden ; but 
little was done to remedy the internal disorders of the country. 
One of the few events worthy of record at this period was the 
foundation of the university of Lund in 1668. Meanwhile the 
excesses and arrogance of the nobility , the squandering of the 
crown-revenues, and the imposition of heavy taxes threatened to 
ruin the country , and the regency even accepted subsidies from 
foreign countries and hired out troops to serve abroad. At the 
age of seventeen Charles assumed the reins of government (1672). 
In 1674 he was called upon as the ally of France to take part in 
the war against Holland , Spain , and Germany, but the Swedish 
army was signally defeated at Fehrbellin by the Elector of Bran- 
denburg. Hereupon the Danes declared war against Sweden 
causing new disasters, but by the intervention of the French 



X. HISTORY. lxiii 

peace was again declared at Lund in 1679. The distress occasioned 
by these defeats and popular indignation against the nobility, 
•who were now in possession of five-sevenths of the land in Swe- 
den, and who did their utmost to reduce the peasantry to the con- 
dition of mere serfs , eventually served greatly to strengthen the 
king's position. At the diet of Stockholm in 1680, after stormy 
debates, it was determined to call the regency to account for their 
gross mismanagement of affairs , and the king was empowered to 
revoke the alienations made during his minority. The king was 
told that he was not bound to consult his cabinet, but to obey the 
laws , and that he was responsible to God alone. Another diet 
(1682) entrusted the king with the sole legislative power, merely 
expressing a hope that he would graciously consult the Estates. 
Charles was thus declared an absolute monarch , the sole right 
reserved to the diet being that of levying taxes. The king there- 
upon exacted large payments from his former guardians and exer- 
cised his right of revocation so rigidly that he obtained possession 
of about one-third of the landed estates in Sweden. The money 
thus acquired he employed in paying the debts of the crown , in 
re-organising his army and fleet, and for other useful purposes, 
while he proceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical 
abuses. On his death in 1697 he left his kingdom in a strong and 
prosperous condition, and highly respected among nations. 

Under Charles XII., the son and successor of Charles XL, this 
absolutism was fraught with disastrous consequences. Able, care- 
fully educated, energetic, and conscientious , but self-willed and 
eccentric , Charles was called to the throne at the age of fifteen 
and at once declared major. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland 
concluded an alliance against Sweden , which led to the great 
northern war. Aided by England , Holland , and the Duke of 
Gottorp and Hanover , Charles speedily compelled the Danes to 
conclude the Peace of Travendal (1700), defeated the Russians 
at Narva, took Curland from the Poles (1701), and forced Elector 
Augustus of Saxony to make peace at Altranstadt , whereby the 
elector was obliged to renounce the Polish crown. Meanwhile 
Peter the Great of Russia had gained possession of Kexholm, 
Ingermanland , and Esthonia. Instead of attempting to regain 
these provinces, Charles , tempted by a promise of help from Ma- 
zeppa , a Cossack chief , determined to attack the enemy in an- 
other quarter and marched into the Ukraine , but was signally 
defeated by the Russians at Pultava (1709), and lost nearly the 
whole of his army. He escaped into Turkey, where he was hospi- 
tably received by the Sultan Achmed III. and supplied with 
money. Here he resided at Bender, and induced the Sultan to 
make war against Russia ; but when the grand vizier had defeated 
the Czar he was bribed by Katherine, the courageous wife of Peter, 
to allow him to escape. This exasperated Charles and led to a 



lxiv X. HISTORY. 

quarrel with the Sultan , who placed him in confinement. Mean- 
while Denmark and Saxony again declared war against Sweden. 
Skane was successfully defended against the Danes , hut Elector 
Augustus reconquered Poland , and the Czar took possession of 
Finland. The resources of Sweden were now exhausted, and the 
higher nobility began to plot against the king. At length Charles 
effected his escape and returned to Sweden (1715), to find that 
England, Hanover, and Prussia had also declared war against him 
owing to differences regarding Stettin and the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden. Having succeeded with the utmost difficulty 
in raising money , Charles now invaded Norway with an army of 
raw recruits and laid siege to Fredrikshald , where he fell at the 
early age of thirty-six (1718), just at the time when his favourite 
minister Gortz was about to conclude a favourable peace with 
Russia. Brave, chivalrous, and at the same time simple in his 
manners and irreproachable in conduct , the memory of Charles 
is still fondly cherished by the Swedes. The short reign of abso- 
lutism (Envaldstiden) was now at an end , and we reach a period 
of greater independence (Frihetstiden ; 1719-92). 

Charles XII. was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who 
with the consent of the Estates resigned in favour of her husband 
Frederick I. , crown-prince of Hessen-Cassel. At the same time 
(1720) a new constitution was framed by the Estates. The supreme 
power was vested in the Estates, a secret committee consisting 
of members of the three upper chambers, and a council or cabinet 
of nine members of the committee , three from each estate, to be 
nominated by the king himself. The king's authority was limited 
to two votes at the diet and a casting vote in case of an equally 
divided assembly , and the cabinet was declared responsible to 
the diet. In 1719 peace was concluded with England , upon the 
abandonment of Bremen and Verden, and in 1720 with Prussia, 
to which Stettin and part of Pomerania were ceded ; then with 
Poland and Denmark ; and in 1721 with Russia , to which Li- 
vonia, Esthonia, Ingermanland, and the districts of Kexholm and 
Wiborg in Finland had to be made over. The kingdom now enjoyed 
an interval of repose , a new code of laws was drawn up (1734), 
and efforts were made to revive commerce. The peace party was 
derisively called 'Nightcaps' (nattmossor), or simply 'Caps', while 
a warlike party which now arose was known as 'Hats' (hattar). In 
accordance with the counsels of the latter , war was proclaimed 
with Russia, which soon led to the loss of Finland (1741). On the 
death of the queen without issue, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein- 
Gottorp , a relation of the crown-prince of Russia, was elected as 
Frederick's successor, on condition (Peace of Abo; 1743) that the 
greater part of Finland should be restored. The remainder of 
Frederick's reign was tranquil, and he died in 1751. 

The prerogatives of his successor , Adolphus Frederick were 



X. HISTORY. lxv 

farther limited by the Estates. An attempt on the part of the 
king to emancipate himself led to a confirmation of the existing 
constitution , and to a resolution that a stamp bearing the king's 
name should be impressed without his consent on documents ap- 
proved by the Estates (1756). The court vainly attempted to 
rebel, and the king was bluntly reminded that the Estates had 
power to depose him. In 1757 the 'Hats' recklessly plunged into 
the Seven Years' "War, and after an ignoble campaign peace was 
concluded at Hamburg in 1762. The 'Caps' were next in the 
ascendant, but the party disputes of this period were not con- 
ducive to national progress. 

In 1771 Adolphus was succeeded by his son Gustavus III., 
who by means of a preconcerted military revolution or coup-d'etat 
(1772) succeeded in regaining several of the most valuable prero- 
gatives of the crown, including the sole executive power, whereby 
the government was converted from a mere republic into a limited 
monarchy. The king used his victory with moderation, abolished 
torture , introduced liberty of the press , promoted commerce, 
science , and art, and strengthened the army. On the other hand 
he was extravagant and injudicious, and in 1788 committed the 
error of declaring war against Russia without the consent of the 
Estates. His officers refused to obey him , and his difficulties 
were aggravated by a declaration of war and invasion of Sweden 
by the Danes. Gustavus now succeeded, with the aid of the 
middle and lower classes, in effecting a farther change in the 
constitution (1798), which gave him the sole prerogative of mak- 
ing war and concluding peace, while the right of acquiring pri- 
vileged landed estates (frdlsegods) was bestowed on the peasantry. 
An armistice was concluded with Denmark, and the not unsuc- 
cessful hostilities with Russia led to the Peace of Warala (1790), 
which precluded Russia from future interference with Swedish 
affairs. Shortly afterwards, on the outbreak of the French Re- 
volution, the king proposed to intervene, together with Russia 
and Austria, in favour of Louis XVI. and proceeded to levy new 
taxes, whereupon the disaffected nobles entered into a new con- 
spiracy against him, and in 1792 this chivalrous and enlightened, 
though sometimes ill-advised monarch was assassinated by Cap- 
tain Ankarstrom. 

His son Gustavus Adolphus succeeded him as Gustavus IV., 
under the regency of his uncle Duke Charles of Sodermanland, 
who avoided all participation in the wars of the Revolution. In 
1800 Gustavus , in accordance with a scheme of his father, and 
in conjunction with Russia and Denmark , took up a position of 
armed neutrality, but Denmark having been coerced by England 
to abandon this position, and Russiahaving dissolved the alliance, 
Sweden was also obliged to yield to the demands of England. The 
king's futile dreams of the restoration of absolutism and his ill— 

Baedeker's ^Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. q 



lxvi X. HISTORY. 

judged and disastrous participation in the Napoleonic wars led to 
the loss of Wismar, Pomerania, and Finland, and to his defeat in 
Norway (1803-8). The country being now on the brink of ruin, 
the Estates caused Gustavus to be arrested, and formally deposed 
him and his heirs (1809). He died in poverty at St. Gallen in 
1837. His uncle was now elected king as Charles XIII., and a 
new constitution framed, mainly on the basis of that of 1772. 
Peace was now concluded at Frederikshamn with Russia (1809), 
to which the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands were ceded, 
with Denmark, and with France (1810), whereby Sweden recovered 
part of Pomerania. The king being old and childless, Prince 
Christian Augustus of Augustenhurg, stadtholder of Norway, was 
elected crown-prince, but on his sudden death in 1810 the Estates 
elected Marshal Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's generals, who was 
adopted by Charles, assumed the name of Charles John, and em- 
braced the Protestant faith. The crown-prince's influence was 
directed to military organisation. The lukewarmness of Sweden 
in maintaining the continental blockade led to a rupture with 
France, and during the war with Napoleon the Swedes concluded 
a treaty with the Russians at Abo on the footing that the crown 
of Norway should be secured to Sweden (1812). England and 
Prussia having given the same assurance, Charles John marched 
with a Swedish contingent into Germany and assumed the com- 
mand of the combined northern army which took part in the de- 
cisive struggle against Napoleon (1813). The crown-prince's par- 
ticipation in the war was a somewhat reluctant one , but by the 
Peace of Kiel (1814) he succeeded in compelling Denmark to cede 
Norway to Sweden, while Denmark obtained possession of Swedish 
Pomerania and retained Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroes. 

The frequent changes which took place during this period in 
the Constitution of Sweden have already been mentioned. 

The Intellectual Progress of the country was greatly furthered 
by the Reformation. Peder Mansson (d. 1534), bishop of Vesteras, 
wrote works on the army, the navy, medicine, and other subjects 
in the mediaeval style, while Laurentius Petri (d. 1573), Lauren- 
tius Andrea (d. 1552), and others translated the Bible into Swedish 
and wrote Protestant theological works in their native tongue. 
L. Petri and his brother Olaus (d. 1552) also wrote Swedish chron- 
icles; Archbishop Johannes Magni was the author of a history of 
the kings in Latin, with a large admixture of the fabulous ele- 
ment; and his brother Olaus wrote the often quoted 'Historia de 
Gentibus Septentrionalibus'. An equally indiscriminate writer of 
history, and an author of dramatic and other works, was Johan 
Messenius (d. 1637). Even Gustavus Vasa had been anxious to 
preserve the purity of his native language, but it was not till the 
17th cent, that scholars interested themselves in it. Queen Chris- 
tina, a talented and learned princess, was a great patroness of 



X. HISTORY. lxvii 

literature. She invited foreign savants to her court [Descartes, 
Orotius, and others), as well as native authors, including Johan 
Bureus (d. 1652) and the versatile and distinguished Obran Lilje 
(ennobled as Qeorge Stjernhjelm ; A. 1672). At this period, too 
(1658), J6n Rugman first called attention to the treasures of 
Icelandic literature, and antiquarian and historical research now 
came into vogue. Stjernhbbk, the jurist (d. 1675), and Widekindi 
(d.1678), Verelius (d. 1682), Verving(&. 1697), Budbeck(A. 1702), 
and Peringskibld (d. 1720), the historians, were meritorious writers 
of this school. Hitherto German influence had preponderated in 
Sweden, but about the middle of the 18th cent, a preference 
began to be shown for the French style. To this school belong 
OlofvonDalin(A. 1763), the poet and historian, and Count Tessin 
(d. 1770), a meritorious art-collector; and among the scholars of 
the same period were Lagerbring , the historian (d. 1787), Johan 
Ihre, the philologist (d. 1780), and above all Karl von Linne (d. 
1778), the famous botanist. The 'Vitterhets Akademi', or 'acad- 
emy of belles-lettres' founded in 1753 was extended by Gusta- 
vus III. so as to embrace history and antiquities , and he also 
founded the Swedish Academy. To the academic school belonged 
Kellgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829); but a far more popu- 
lar poet, and one who repudiated all the traditions of French taste, 
was Bellman (d. 1795), the singer of sweet and simple ballads, 
whose 'Fredmans Epistlar' was deemed worthy of a prize even by 
the Academy, and whose memory is still fondly cherished. 

The Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. 
When Sweden withdrew from the Kalmar Union (1523) Nor- 
way at first remained faithful to Christian II., but Vincentius 
Lunge procured the election of Frederick I. (1524). This king's 
Protestant tendencies induced the Norwegians to re-elect Chris- 
tian II. in 1531 , when the deposed king appeared in Norway 
with an army, but he was treacherously arrested the following 
year and ended his life in captivity (see p. lvii). Frederick thus 
regained Norway and continued to prosecute the objects of the 
Reformation till his death (1533). The nobility and the Pro- 
testant party in Denmark elected his eldest son Christian III. 
as his successor, and the southern half of Norway under Lunge 
acquiesced. A rebellion of the northern provinces , which cost 
Lunge his life, was quelled, and the archbishop who had headed 
it was obliged to quit the country. In 1536 Christian III. had 
promised the Danes to convert Norway into a Danish province, 
and he now abolished the council of state and otherwise partially 
kept his word. The doctrines of the Reformation permeated the 
country very slowly, but the dissolution of the monasteries and 
confiscation of church property were prosecuted with great zeal. 
The Norwegian towns now began to prosper, and the trade of the 



lxviii X. HISTORY. 

country to improve , while the tyranny of the Hanse merchants at 
Bergen was checked by Christopher Valkendorff (1536). In 1559 
Christian was succeeded hy his son Frederick II., in whose reign 
occurred the calamitous seven years' war with Sweden (1563-70), 
which sowed the seeds of national hatred between the countries, 
and caused the destruction of Oslo , Sarpsborg, and Hamar, the 
devastation of several agricultural districts, and the military oc- 
cupation of others. At the same time the country was terribly 
oppressed by Frederick's officials , and he himself visited it once 
only. The sole benefit conferred by him on Norway was the foun- 
dation of Fredrikstad near the ruined town of Sarpsborg. 

His son Christian IV. (1588-1648), on the other hand, visited 
Norway very frequently and was indefatigable in his reforms. He 
refused to grant fiefs in future to nobles who were not natives of 
Norway (1596), and he promulgated a Norwegian code (1604), 
which was a revised edition of the laws of 1274 translated into 
Danish. He also published an ecclesiastical code (1607), and took 
energetic measures to exclude Jesuits from the country. At the 
same time the army was improved, trade was favoured, the silver- 
mines at Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of Reros (1645) 
were established, the towns of Christiania (1624) and Christian- 
sand (1641) founded anew, and the Hanse factory at Bergen strictly 
controlled. All these benefits were outweighed by the disasters of 
the Kalmar War with Sweden (1611-13), during which the peas- 
antry gained their famous victory over the Scottish auxiliaries 
under Col. Ramsay at Kringelen (p. 58), and particularly those 
of the Thirty Years' War in which Christian participated (1625- 
1629). A second war with Sweden (1643-45) terminated with the 
severance of Jemtland and Herj#dalen from Norway. 

New disasters befell Norway in the reign of his son Frede- 
rick III. (1648-70). The result of the participation of Denmark 
and Norway in the Swedish-Polish war was that Norway finally 
lost Bahus-Lan, Idre, and Sarna. During this war Halden earned 
for itself the new name of Fredrikshald by the bravery of its de- 
fenders. These misfortunes, however, led to a rupture with the 
existing system of government. On ascending the throne Fred- 
erick had signed a pledge which placed him in the power of the 
nobility, but during the wars the incompetency of the council of 
state, and the energy of the king and citizens in defending Copen- 
hagen, had greatly raised him in the public estimation. At a diet 
held at Copenhagen in 1660 the indignation of the clergy and 
burghers against the nobility burst forth , and they demanded the 
abolition of its oppressive privileges. It was next dicovered that 
the pledge given by the king was subversive of all liberty and 
progress , the king and the lower Estates proceeded to declare the 
succession to the throne hereditary, and Frederick was empowered 
to revise the constitution. The result was that he declared the 



X. HISTORY. lxix 

king alone to be invested with sovereign and absolute power, and 
to this document he succeeded privately in procuring the signa- 
tures of most of the members of the diet. This declaration became 
law in 1661, but was not actually promulgated till 1709. These 
great changes were on the whole beneficial to Norway. The 
country was at least now placed on an equality with Denmark, and 
the strict bureaucratic administration was preferable to the old 
evils of local tyranny and individual caprice. The supreme 
authority now consisted of the heads of the five government de- 
partments , presided over by the king , and the feudal lords with 
their local jurisdictions were replaced by crown officials. 

Frederick's son Christian V. (1670-99) was not unsuccessful 
in the Skane war against Sweden (1675-79), but his chief merit 
as regards Norway was the promulgation of a code (1687), based 
on the Danish code of 1683, and of a church ritual for both coun- 
tries. The erection of the new counties or earldoms of Laurvig and 
Tensberg, afterwards called Jarlsberg, and of the barony of Rosen- 
dal were unproductive of benefit to Norway. The unjust treat- 
ment of his minister Griffenfeld, who for a trivial offence suffered 
a cruel imprisonment for 22 years , forms a blot on this king's 
memory. 

Christian V. was succeeded by his son Frederick IV. (1699- 
1730), in whose reign was waged the great northern war in which 
the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled under the name 
of Tordenskjold) took a prominent part. The sole gain to Den- 
mark by the Peace of Fredriksborg (1720) was the renunciation 
by Sweden of its immunity from Sound dues. The King husbanded 
his finances , but often procured money by discreditable means. 
He hired out mercenary troops , sold most of the crown-property 
in Norway , and granted a monopoly of the trade ofFinmarken. 
These abuses, maladministration, and an attempt to alter the land 
laws so embittered the Norwegians that a union with Russia was 
actually proposed. In this reign a mission to Lapland was organised 
(1714), Th. v. Vesten being one of its chief promoters , and Hans 
Egede went as a missionary to Greenland (1721). 

Under Frederick's son Christian VI. (1730-46) Norway was 
injuriously infected with German Puritanism, which enjoined the 
utmost rigidity of church observances and abstention from all 
worldly amusements. Among the expedients used for reviving 
trade in Denmark was an oppressive enactment that S. Norway 
should draw its sole corn supplies from that country. The fleet, 
however, was strengthened , an efficient militia organised , and 
education promoted. A long peace favoured the growth of com- 
merce and. navigation, and the 'Black Company' formed in 1739 
furthered manufacturing industry. 

In the reign of Frederick V. (1746-66) the grievous sway of 
Puritanism came to an end , and art and science were zealously 



lxx X. HISTORY. 

cultivated. A mining school was founded atKongsberg, and a 
mathematical school at Christiania, and at Trondhjem a useful 
scientific society was established by Gunnerus, Schening , and 
Suhm, a learned Dane (1760-67). The frontier between Norway 
and Sweden was measured and defined (1759), facilities were 
afforded to commerce , and skilled miners introduced from Ger- 
many. Complications with Russia connected with the affairs of 
Slesvig caused severe financial losses to Denmark and Norway, 
and the increased taxation provoked a revolt at Bergen , which, 
however, was soon quelled (1763). Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, Norway prospered under the absolute monarchy, while Den- 
mark languished. The king in Denmark , being separated from 
the lower classes by a wealthy and influential aristocracy, was 
unable effectually to redress their grievances, and they still groan- 
ed under the evils of serfdom and compulsory service. With the 
exception of Copenhagen, the towns were almost equally oppressed, 
and in 1769 the whole population of Denmark did not exceed 
800,000 souls. In Norway, on the other hand, the peasantry en- 
joyed freedom, the towns had thrown off the oppressive Hanseatic 
yoke, and feudal jurisdictions were abolished , while complaints 
against officials were addressed to the king in person. A class of 
native officials had also sprung up, affording an additional element 
of security. While the population had numbered 450,000 only in 
1664, it rose to 723,000 in 1769. Within the same period the 
number of Norwegian ships had increased from 50 to 1150. 
The peasantry had benefited greatly by the sale of the crown- 
estates, and the irade of Norway now far surpassed that of Den- 
mark. At the same time frequent intercourse with England and 
other foreign countries served to expand the Norwegian mind 
and to prepare the way for a period of still greater enlightenment 
and prosperity. 

During the long reign of the imbecile Christian VII. (1766- 
1808) his authority was wielded by his ministers. Struensee, his _ 
German physician, was the first of these. His measures were those 
of an enlightened absolutism. He simplified judicial procedure, 
abolished torture, excluded the lackeys of noblemen from public 
offices, deprived the aristocracy of their privileges, bestowed lib- 
erty on the press, and husbanded the finances. The peremptory 
manner in which these and other reforms were introduced gave 
great offence, particularly as Struensee took no pains to conceal 
his contempt for the Danes. Christian's stepmother accordingly 
organised a conspiracy against him, and he was executed in 1772. 
His successor was Ove Ouldberg, a Dane, who passed a law that 
Danes, Norwegians, and Holsteiners alone should be eligible for 
the government service, and rescinded Struensee's reforms (1776). 
In 1780 an attitude of armed neutrality introduced by the able 
Count Bernstorff gave a great impulse to the shipping trade, but 



X. HISTORY. lxxi 

the finances of the country -were ruined. In 1784 the Crown- 
prince Frederick assumed the conduct of affairs with Bernstorff as 
his minister, whereupon a more liberal, and for Norway in partic- 
ular a more favourable era began. The corn-trade of S. Norway 
was relieved from its fetters, the trade of Finmarken was set free, 
and the towns of Troms», Hammerfest, and Varda were founded. 
On a renewal of the armed neutrality (1800-1), Great Britain re- 
fused to recognise it, attacked Copenhagen, and forced the Danes to 
abandon it. Six years later Napoleon's scheme of using Denmark's 
fleet against Great Britain led to a second attack on Copenhagen 
and its bombardment by the British fleet, which resulted in the 
surrender of the whole Danish and Norwegian fleet to Great Britain 
(1807). Denmark, allied with France, then declared war both 
against Great Britain and Sweden (1808), and almost at the same 
period Christian died. 

On the accession of Frederick VI. (1808-36) the affairs of the 
kingdom were in a desperate condition. The British did not 
attack the country, but contented themselves with capturing as 
many Danish and Norwegian vessels as possible and ruining the 
trade of the country by blockading all its seaports. Owing to an 
over-issue of paper money the government was soon unable to meet 
its liabilities and declared itself bankrupt (1813). Meanwhile 
Norway was governed by a separate commission, presided over by 
Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenburg (1807), and was so 
well defended that it lost nothing by the peace of Jonkoping 
(1809). The independence of the peasantry, the wealth of the 
burghers, and the success of their country in the war against Swe- 
den naturally created in the minds of the Norwegians a proud 
sense of superiority over the unhappy Danes, while the liberality 
of their views widened the breach with a country still groaning 
under absolutism. A 'Society for the Welfare of Norway' was 
founded in 1810, and a Union with Sweden was warmly advocated, 
particularly by the talented Count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg. The 
Danish government made some vain attempts to conciliate the 
Norwegians, as for example by the foundation of a university at 
Christiania (1811), which had been proposed so far back as 1661, 
but the Norwegians themselves provided the necessary funds. In 
concluding a treaty with the Russians in 1812, Sweden obtained 
their consent to its future annexation of Norway, and at the Peace 
of Kiel in 1814 the Danes were compelled to make the cession. 
Frederick thereupon released the Norwegians from their allegiance 
to him, and the union of Norway with Denmark, which had sub- 
sisted for more than four centuries, was thus dissolved. 

The Literature of Norway from the Reformation to the end of 
the union is inseparable from that of Denmark. As translators 
of old northern laws and sagas may be mentioned L. Hanssen 
(d. 1596) and P. C. Friis (d. 1614), of whom the latter also wrote 



lxxii X. H1STU1U. 

interesting works on Norwegian topography and natural history in 
his native dialect. A. Pedersen (d. 1574), of Bergen, was the 
author of a description of Norway and of the 'Chapter-hook of 
Bergen'. The historian and topographer J. Ramus (d. 1718) and 
the poet Peter Dass (d. 1708) , the still popular author of 'Nord- 
lands Trompet', were also natives of Norway, while T. Torfaus 
(d. 1719), a famous historian of Norway, was an Icelander. By 
far the most important author of this period was Ludvig Holberg 
of Bergen (d. 1754), the poet and historian, whose 'Peder Paars', 
'Subterranean Journey of Nils Klim', and comedies have gained 
him a European reputation. Among later poets and authors C. B. 
Tallin (d. 1765), J. H. Vessel (d. 1785), C. Fasting (d. 1791), 
E. Storm (d. 1794), T. de Stockfleth (d. 1808), J. N. Brun (A. 1816), 
J. Zetlitz(A. 1821), and C. Friman (d. 1829) are noted for the 
national character and individuality of their writings, which are 
uninfluenced by the French and German taste then prevalent in 
Denmark. This national school was partly indebted for its origin 
to the foundation of the 'Norske Selskab' at Copenhagen in 1772, 
while the 'Laerde Selskab' of Trondhjem , founded by Ounnerus, 
the naturalist (d. 1773) , and Schening, the historian (d. 1780), 
promoted scientific research. On the whole , notwithstanding 
the want of good national schools, the Norwegian literature of this 
period ranks at least as high as the Danish. 

Union of Sweden and Norway. 

After the Peace of Jonkoping in 1809 Norway was governed by 
Prince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by Christian Frederick, 
cousin of King Frederick and heir to his throne. Christian was a 
popular prince, and even after the terms of the Peace of Kiel had 
been adjusted he made an effort to secure the sovereignty of the 
country for himself. He summoned an assembly of notables to 
Eidsvold (Feb. 1814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, which 
had not yet been published, and declared that he would assert his 
claim in spite of it. The assembly denied the right of the king 
of Denmark to hand over Norway to Sweden , but also declined to 
recognise the prince's hereditary claim. They, however, appointed 
him regent until a national diet should be summoned to consider 
the state of affairs. The king of Sweden promised the Norwegians 
a liberal constitution if they would submit to his authority ; but 
his offer met with no response, the country eagerly prepared to 
assert its independence , and a temporary government was con- 
stituted. On 10th April, 1814, the representatives of the country 
met at Eidsvold, a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Falsen 
(d. 1830) was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian 
Frederick was proclaimed king. Count Wedel-Jarlsberg, the most 
far-seeing of the Norwegian statesmen , who had urged a union 
with Sweden, was overruled on this occasion , but his object was 



X, HISTORY. lxxiii 

soon afterwards attained. About the end of June ambassadors of 
the guaranteeing powers, Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia, 
arrived at Ohristiania to demand fulfilment of the Peace of Kiel 
and to recall the regent in the name of the king of Denmark. 
After fruitless negociations and the outbreak of a war with Swe- 
den , which was terminated by the Convention of Moss on 14th 
August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognised the new Nor- 
wegian constitution, and Christian summoned a Storthing to meet 
at Ohristiania in October, to which he tendered his resignation, 
and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He afterwards 
reigned over Denmark as Christian VIII. (1839-48). During the 
same month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed 
the principle of union with Sweden, and several modifications were 
made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th November Charles 
(XIII. of Sweden] was unanimously proclaimed king. On 10th 
November the crown-prince Charles John solemnly ratified the 
constitution at Ohristiania. "With pardonable national pride, how- 
ever, the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May, 1814 , as the 
true date of their political regeneration. 

At first as regent, and after the death of Charles XIII. (1818) 
as king of Norway (1818-44), Charles John or Charles XIV. had a 
difficult task to perform in governing two kingdoms to which a 
few years previously he had been an entire stranger, and with 
whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. The internal 
affairs of both countries were, moreover, in an abnormally unsettled 
condition, and their finances were well-nigh ruined, while foreign 
states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost repub- 
lican kingdom of Norway. In 1815, however, the legislative au- 
thorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act of Union, 
placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. By 
the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was 
enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden, and he adopted 
other wise financial measures. Among other serious difficulties 
was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still cir- 
culating in Norway, a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices, and 
at the same time a bank was founded at Trondhjem (1816). In 
1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of 
Norway for part of the national debt of Denmark, while the intro- 
duction of a new educational system and other reforms was attended 
with great expense. About this period the king displeased his 
democratic Norwegian subjects by opposing their abolition of titles 
of nobility (1821), by attempts to enlarge the prerogatives of the 
crown and to obtain for it the absolute right to veto the resolutions 
of the Storthing (1824), by appointing Swedish governors of Nor- 
way, and by yielding to what were considered the unjust demands 
of Great Britain in consequence of a fracas at Bode. On the other 
hand, by rigid economy, sound administration, and the legalised 



lxxiv X. HISTORY. 

sale of church property for educational purposes (1821), and owing 
to good harvests and successful fisheries, the prosperity of the 
country rapidly improved, while the king's firmness of character 
and his self-denial in renouncing his civil list for a period often 
years in order to assist in paying the national debt justly gained 
for him the respect and admiration of his people. From 1836 on- 
wards the highest offices in Norway were filled with Norwegians 
exclusively, and a new communal code (1837), penal code (1842), 
and other useful laws were passed. — In Sweden the French re- 
volution of 1830 caused a great sensation and led to a fruitless 
demand for the abolition of the existing constitution. A conspiracy 
in favour of Prince Vasa (1832) and several riots in Stockholm 
(1838) were also unsuccessful. On the other hand the king earned 
the gratitude of his Swedish subjects by the zeal with which he 
promoted the construction of new roads and canals, particularly 
that of the Gota Canal, and furthered the interests of commerce and 
agriculture, and at the time of his death the internal affairs of both 
kingdoms rested on a sound and satisfactory constitutional basis. 

The administration of his son Oscar I. (1844-59) was of a still 
more liberal and enlightened tendency. This gifted and highly 
educated monarch thoroughly remodelled the law of succession 
(1845) and the criminal code (1854) of Sweden, and abolished the 
monopolies of guilds, but he was unsuccessful in his attempts to 
procure a reform of the constitution (1845 and 1850-51). On his 
accession the king rendered himself popular in Norway by present- 
ing it with an appropriate national flag, and he was afterwards a 
scrupulous observer of the constitution of that country. At the same 
time the population and wealth of Norway now increased rapidly. 
His temporary interposition in the German and Danish war re- 
garding Slesvig, which led to the Armistice of Malmo (1848) and 
afterwards to the occupation of Northern Slesvig by Swedish and 
Norwegian troops, was regarded with favour in both of his king- 
doms , where patriotic Scandinavian views were then in the 
ascendant. 

Oscar's eldest son Charles (XV. of Sweden ; 1859-72), a highly 
popular, though pleasure-loving monarch, who was endowed with 
considerable artistic and poetical talent, inaugurated the present 
representative constitution of Sweden in 1865, while in Norway 
the triennial Storthing was made annual (1869). In both countries 
the principle of religious equality was extended , new railways 
and roads constructed, and other reforms introduced. A threatened 
conflict between the representatives of the two countries was 
averted through the king's influence, and to his wisdom was due 
the neutrality observed during the German and Danish war of 
1863 and the Franco-German war of 1870-71 , although his sub- 
jects warmly sympathised with the Danes in the one case and with 
the French in the other. 



X. HISTORY. Ixxv 

In 1872 Charles was succeeded by his brother, the present 
king Oscar II., a gifted prince, endowed like his father and elder 
brother with considerable taste for science , poetry, and music. 
Materially and intellectually his kingdoms have recently made 
rapid strides. Latterly the radical and republican movement has 
gained considerable ground in Norway, where it has been accom- 
panied by a strong ultra-nationalistic spirit, revealing itself largely 
in a revulsion of feeling against the union with Sweden. 

In both kingdoms the field of Literature has been most sedu- 
lously cultivated during the present century. In Sweden there 
existed an academic and a neutral school, both of which , as for 
example Franzen (d. 1847), were more or less influenced by 
French taste , while a romantic school with German proclivities, 
called 'Phosphorists' from their 'Phosphorus' periodical , was re- 
presented by Hammarskold (A. 1827), Atterbom (d. 1855), and 
Palmblad (d. 1852). Akin to the latter, but of more realistic and 
far more national tendency , is the so-called 'Gotisk' school, to 
which belong the eminent historian E. O. Qeijer (d. 1847) , the 
great poet Esaias Tegner (A. 1846), and the poet, and inventor of 
the Swedish system of sanitary gymnastics, P. H. Ling (A. 1839). 
An isolated position , on the other hand , is occupied by K. J. L. 
Almqvist (d. 1866), an author of fertile imagination, but perni- 
cious moral tendencies. To the highest class of modern Swedish 
authors belongs the patriotic Finn , J. L. Runeberg (A. 1877) , of 
whose noble and genial poetry 'Fanrik Stal's Sagner' afford an 
admirable example. As popular authoresses , though inferior to 
some of their above-mentioned contemporaries , we may mention 
Frederica Bremer (d. 1865) and Emilie Flygare-Carlen (d. 1892). 
Pre-eminent among scientific men are J. J. Berzelius, the chemist 
(d. 1848) , E. Fries, the botanist (d. 1878), K. A. Agardh, the bo- 
tanist and statistician (d. 1859), and Sven Nilsson, the venerable 
zoologist and antiquarian (d. 1883). Among modern historians 
may be mentioned A. M. Strinnholm [A. 1862), A. Fryxell, F. F. 
Carlson , K. O. Malmstrom, C. T. Odhner , H. Reuterdal (church 
history; d. 1870), and C. J. Slyter (legal history); and to this 
period also belong B. E. Hildebrand and R. Dybeck , the anti- 
quarians , J. E. Rietz , the philologist , and C. J. Bostrom , the 
philosopher. — In Norway, whose literature since 1814 has as- 
sumed a distinct national individuality , and though written in 
Danish has adopted a considerable number of words and idioms 
peculiar to the country , the poets H. Wergeland (A. 1845) and 
J. Velhaven (d. 1873) occupy the foremost rank. Of the still living 
poets and novelists Bjernstjerne Bjemson, Henrik Ibsen, Jonas 
Lie, and Alexander Kjelland, the two former in particular have 
earned a well-merited reputation far beyond the confines of Nor- 
way. Of high rank among scientific men are N. H. Abel, the mathe- 
matician (d. 1829), C, Hansteen, the astronomer (d. 1873), and 



lxxvi 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



M. Sara (d. 1869) and his son O. Sara, the naturalists. Eminent 
historians are R. Keyser (d. 1864), P. A. Munch (d. 1863), C. C. 
A. Lange (d. 1861), and the still living O. Rygh, E. Sara, L. Daae, 
and O. Storm; distinguished jurists, A. M. Schweigaard (d. 1870), 
F. Brandt, and T. H. Aschehoug ; philologists, S. Bugge, C. R. 
XJnger, J. Storm, and the lexicographer Ivar Aasen ; meritorious 
collectors of national traditions, M. B. Landstad, J. Moe, and par- 
ticularly P. C. Aabjernaen. H. Stiffens, the philosopher and poet 
(d. 1845), and C. Laasen, the Sanscrit scholar (d. 1876), were 
Norwegians who spent the greater part of their lives in Germany. 
Lastly, in the province of Art, we may mention the Norwegian 
painters Tidemand (d. 1877), Dahl, Morten MiiUer, and Oude (h. 
1825), and the Swedish sculptors Bystrom (1848) and Fogelberg 
(d. 1854), hut a glance at the galleries of Stockholm and Christiania 
will show that the list might easily be extended. 



Chronological Table. 



Norway. 



Line 



Ynglingar 
Harald Haarfager . . . (?)860-933 

Erik Blod0ks 930 

Haakon Adelstensfostre , 'the 

Good' 935 

Harald Graafeld .... (?)961-975 

Haakon Jarl (?)975 

Olaf Tryggvason 995 

"Erik and Svejn, Jarler . . . 1000 

Olaf Haraldss0n, 'the Saint' . 1015 

Svejn Knutssfln 1030 

Magnus Olafss/zrn, 'the Good' . 1035 

Harald Sigurdsstfn Hardraade 1046 

Olaf Haraldss0n Kyrre . . . 1066 

Magnus Olafss0n Barfod . . 1093 

Olaf Magnuss0n .... 1103-16 

J0ystejn Magnuss0n . . . 1103-22 

Sigurd Jorsalafarer . . . 1103-30 

Magnus Sigurdss0n Blinde 1130-35 
Harald Magnuss0n Gille . 1130-36 
Sigurd Haraldss0n Mund . 1136-55 
Inge Haraldss0n Krokryg . 1136-61 
J&ystejn Haraldss0n .... 1142 
Haakon Sigurdss0n Herdebred 1157 
Magnus Erlingss0n .... 1161 

Sverre Sigurdss0n .... 1177 

Haakon Sverress0n .... 1202 

Guttorm Sigurdss0n .... 1204 

Inge Baardss0n 1204 

Haakon Haakonss0n, 'the Old 1 1217 



Sweden. 



Ragnar Lodbrok's Line. 



Erik 'VII.' Sejerssel 
Olaf Sk0tkonung . . 



(a.; 



Anund (Onund) Jakob . . . 1021 

Emund Slemme (?)1050 

Stenkifs Line. 

Stenkil (?)1056 

Inge I. Stenkilsson .... 1066 



Philip Hallstensson . 
Inge Hallstensson 



. 1111-19 
. (?)llll-28 



Sverker's Line. 
Sverker Kolsson 1132 



EriklX. Jedvardsson, 'theSaint' 1150 
Karl VII., Sverkersson . . 1160 

Knut Eriksson 1167 

Sverker Karlsson 1195 



Erik X. Knutsson .... 1210 
Johan Sverkersson .... 1216 
Erik XI., Eriksson Lajspe . 1222 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



lxxvii 



Norway. 

Magnus Haakonss0nLagab0ter 1263 

Erik Magnusstfn 1280 

Haakon V., Magnussfln . . 1299 

Magnus Erikss0n, 'Smek' . . 1319 

Haakon VI., Magnuss0n . . 1355 

Olaf Haakonss0n, 'the Young' 1381 



Margaret, 'Valdemarsdatter' . 1387 



Denmark and Norway. 
Erik of Pomerania .... 



1389 



Christopher of Bavaria . . 1442 

Karl Knutss0n 1449 

Christian 1 1450 

Hans 1483 

Christian II 1513 

Frederick 1 1524 

Christian III 1537 

Frederick II 1559 

Christian IV 1588 

Frederick III 1648 



Christian V 1670 

Frederick IV 1699 

Christian VI 1730 

Frederick V 1746 

Christian VII 1766 

Frederick VI - 1808 

Christian Frederick .... 1814 

Charles (XIII.) 1814 

Charles (XIV.) John .... 1818 

Oscar I , . . . 1844 

Charles (XV.) 1859 

Oscar II 1872 



Sweden. 

Folkungar Line. 

Waldemar Birgersson . . . 1250 

Magnus Ladulas 1276 

Birger Magnusson .... 1290 

Magnus Eriksson, 'Smek' . . 1319 

Other Lines, and Administrators. 

Albert of Mecklenburg . . . 1363 

Sweden with Denmark and 

Norway. 

Margaret 1387 

Sweden. 

Erik XIII. of Pomerania . . 1396 

Karl Knutsson, Administrator 1436 

Christopher of Bavaria . . . 1441 

Karl VIII., Knutsson . . 1448 

Christian I. . , 1457 

Karl VIII., Knutsson . . . 1464 

Sten Sture, Administrator . 1471 

Svante Nilsson 1504 

Sten Sture the Younger . . 1512 

Christian II 1520 

The Vasa Line. 

Gustavus Vasa 1523 

Erik XIV 1560 

John III 1568 

Sigismund 1592 

Charles IX 1604 

Gustavus Adolphus .... 1611 

Christina 1632 

Palatinate Line. 

Charles X 1654 

Charles XI 1660 

Charles XII 1697 

Frederick of Hessen .... 1718 

Holstein Line. 

Adolphus Frederick .... 1751 

Gustavus III 1771 

Gustavus IV 1792 

Charles XIII 1809 

Bemadotte Family. 

Charles XIV 1818 

Oscar 1 1844 

Charles XV 1859 

Oscar II 1872 



lxxviii 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



XI. Abbreviations. Distances. 



N., S., E., W. = north, nor- 
thern ; south, southern ; east, 
eastern ; -west, western. 

M. = English mile, unless the 
contrary is stated (see Table 
opposite title-page). 

S. M. = Norwegian sea-mile. 

Kil. = Kilometre (see Table 
opposite title-page). 

Ft. = English feet. 



Com.,Kom. = "Norges Communi- 
cationer" and "Sveriges Kom- 
munikationer" respectively. 

R. , B. , D. , S. , A. = room, break- 
fast, dinner, supper, atten- 
dance. 

R. also = Route. 

Kr., e. = crowns and ere in 
Norway. 

6. = ore, the Swedish form of ere. 



As the metrical system has been adopted in both Norway and 
Sweden, the Distances are usually given in Kilometres, though 
the old reckoning by miles is still common in some parts of Nor- 
way, one Norwegian mile (= 7 Engl. M.) being reckoned as 3 hrs. 
walking or 2 hrs. driving. On railway - routes the distances are 
generally reckoned from the starting-point, while on high-roads 
the distances from station to station are given as more convenient. 

On the steamboat-routes the distances are given approximately 
in Norwegian sea-miles (S. M.) or nautical miles. A Norwegian 
nautical mile is equal to four English knots or nautical miles (about 
43/ 5 Engl, statute M.), and the steamers are usually timed to tra- 
vel from 2 to 2^2 Norwegian nautical miles per hour. The ordi- 
nary tariff is 40 0. per nautical mile , but no charge is made for 
deviations from the vessel's direct course. Steamboat communi- 
cation with the smaller stations is of course less frequent than with 
the larger. 

Asterisks (*) are used as marks of commendation. 



SOUTHERN AND EASTERN NORWAY. 

(As FAR AS TRONDHJEM.) 



Route . Page 

1. Christiansand and the Saetersdal 2 

From Christiansand to Ekersund ......... 3 

From Helle i Hyllestad to the Lysefjord ...... 5 

From Viken to Veum (Bispevei) 5 

From Rygnestad and Bjtfrnaraa to Dalen on the Bandaks- 

vand 5 

From Bykle to the Suledalsvand 6 

From Christiansand to Christiania 6 

2. Christiania and Environs 8 

3. From Christiania to the Randsfjord by Drammen und 
Hougsund 18 

From Sandviken to Krogkleven and the Hjzrnefos ... 19 

From Lier to the Tyrifjord 20 

From Vikersund to St.Olafs-Bad 22 

4. From (Christiania) Hougsund to Kongsberg and the 
Rjukanfos 23 

From the Rjukanfos to the Hardangerfjord 2T 

From Kongsberg through the Numedal to the Har- 
dangerfjord 28 

5. From Christiania to Odde on the Hardangerfjord. 
Telemarken . . 29 

a. Via Kongsberg 29 

From Ltfvheim to Siljord ... 30 

From Moseb0 to Dale in the Maanelvdal 30 

From Skovheim to the top of the Vindegg .... 30 

From Botten to Stavanger 32 

b. ViaSkien 33 

From Skien to Hitterdal (Rjukanfos) 36 

From Hvideseid to Arendal 3T 

6. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Lardals- 
0ren on the Sognefjord (Bergen) 38 

Ascent of the Xorefjeld 39 

From Nses to Lake Spirillen . . . 40 

From Viko to the Valders ... . 40 

From Ekre to the Valders . . ..'... 41 

From Tuf to Nvstuen in Valders 41 

The Upper Hallingdal 41 

7. From Christiania through the Valders to Lserdalseren 

on the Sognefjord 44 

a. By Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund 44 

b. By the Randsfjord to Odnass, and thence by Road 

to Lcerdalseren 46 

Hvidhflfd and Kvalehtfgda 49 

From Skogstad to the Opdalst«fle . 50 

Ascent of the Stugunjjrs 51 

From Nystuen to Aardal 51 



Baedekek's Norway and Sweden, 5th Edit. .1 



2 Route 1. CHRISTIANSAND. 



Route Pa ge 

8. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to the 
Moldefjord 53 

From Gj0vik to Odnses 55 

From Lillehammer to the Gausdal, and thence by Kvis- 

berg to Jotunheim 56 

From Skjseggestad to Jerkin 57 

From Laurgaard to the top of the Formokampen and to 

S0rum 58 

From Holsset or from Mtflmen to Aanstad 59 

9. From Bredevangen in the Gudbrandsdal to Marok on 

the Geirangerfjord 61 

From S0rum to the Hindseeter and Jotunheim ... 61 

From Grjotlid to the Tafjord 63 

From Grjotlid to the Strynsvand 65 

10. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the Dovre- 
fjeld to Steren (Trondhjem) 66 

The Snehcetta. The Foldal 67 

From Aune to Sundals0ren 68 

From Austbjerg to T0nseet .... 69 

From Bjerkaker to 0rkedals0ren 69 

11. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway .... 70 

12. From Christiania to Charlottenberg (Stockholm) . . 74 

13. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Railway .... 75 

14. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Sea 79 



1. Christiansand and the Ssetersdal. 

Christiansand, the largest town on the S. coast of Norway, at which 
numerous steamers touch in summer, lies at the mouth of the Scelersdal, 
which forms one of the avenues to the interior of Norway. Travelling 
in the Ssetersdal, once very rough work, has been of late facilitated by the 
arrangements made by the 'Christiansands og Oplands Turistforening' for 
beds and food at the principal posting-stations. Several fine but fatigu- 
ing mountain-paths lead from the head of the valley to the great Tele- 
marken, Hardangerfjord, and Stavangerfjord routes. Travellers who do 
not care to walk or ride across these passes may stop short at Sceter- 
dalens Sommerhjem (p. 5), take a few excursions thence , and return to 
Christiansand. 

Itinerary. 1st Day: by carriole and steamer to Ose. — 2nd Day: 
Drive, or partly walk, to Bykle. — 3rd Day: Walk or ride to Bredvik. — 
4th Day: Walk or ride to the Suledalsvand (p. 92) or to the Haukeli Road 
(p. 32). 

Hotels. *Ernst's, Vestre Strandgade, "Pijecs's, Skippergade, both near 
the pier and custom-house; Skandinavia, Dronningens-Gade, unpretending. 

Boat to or from the larger steamboats , which do not lay to at the 
pier, 13 0. for each person, 7 0. for each trunk. 

Porterage from the landing-place to the custom-house 20 0. for each 
trunk; from the custom-house, or from the landing-place, to one of the 
hotels, 33 0. for each trunk. 

Post-Office, Kongensgade 26. — Telegraph, Vestre Strandgade 16. 

Sea Baths adjoining the Oltere (p. 3), reserved for ladies 10-12 a.m. 
(bath 40 0.). Warm Baths adjoining the public gardens, near the church 
(40-60 0.). 

British amd American Vice-Consol, Mr. Ferdinand Reinhardl. 



CHRISTIANS AND. 1. Route. 3 

Steamers to Ohriitiania, to Slavanger and to Bergen at least once daily 
(Com. 175, 200 A, 11, etc.); to Trondhjem, Tromse, Hammerfest, and North 
Cape, see steamers from Bergen (Com. 201 A, 201 B, etc.). Also to Gothen- 
burg fortnightly, to Fredrikshavn in Denmark thrice weekly (Com. 70), 
to Copenhagen weekly, to Hamburg twice weekly, to London fortnightly, 
to Bull weekly, to Leith weekly. Small local steamers ply daily except 
Sundays to Arendal and to Mandal, twice weekly to Farsund, and daily 
to Bonene and Boen. 

Christiansand, with 12,800 inhab., the largest town on the S. 
coast of Norway and the residence of one of the five Norwegian 
bishops , is beautifully situated on the Christiansands-Fjord , a 
little to the W. of the mouth of the Otteraa, or Torrisdals-Elv. The 
town, named after Christian IV., who founded it in 1641, is re- 
gularly laid out, with streets intersecting at right angles. It has 
an excellent harbour, at which all the coasting steamers and others 
from England, Scotland, Germany, and Denmark touch regularly. 
Near the centre of the town, surrounded by pleasant promenades, 
is the Cathedral , rebuilt in the Gothic style after its destruction 
by fire in 1880. It contains an altarpiece by Eilif Petersen. — To 
the E. is a wooden bridge leading across the Otteraa to the church 
of Oddernces and the Hamrehei, a good point of view. 

The Environs are picturesque. One of the favourite walks 
(1 hr. there and back) is on the Ottere, a rocky and partially wooded 
island at the E. end. of the Strandgade, about 8 min. from the 
hotels (ferry 3 ».). The baths (p. 2) lie to the right. The path in 
a straight direction passes the Seamen's Hospital and leads round 
the island (40 min.), commanding beautiful views. The highest 
point of the island is the Kikud (355 ft.). — On the N.W. side of 
the town is the Banehei with promenades. — On the Mandal road, 
on the W. side of the town, ^hr. from the hotels, lies the pretty 
Cemetery. Opposite to it (to the right) a path ascending the hill 
leads to the (20 min.) *Ravnedal, a wooded and grassy dale, at the 
(i/ 4 hr.) upper end of which is the Ravnehei, a point of view, reached 
by wooden steps. Below are a small fountain , a pond, and a 
cottage (Rfmts.; view). We descend to the W. to (y 4 hr.) the Sa- 
tersdal road and follow it back to the town, passing (10 min.) the 
cemetery. — About 2Y2 M. to the W. of Ravnedalen rises the Oraa- 
mandshei (810 ft). — On the right bank of the Otteraa, 21/2 M. up, 
are the ' Omvendte Baad' (a landmark) and Oddersjaa , command- 
ing a pleasing view. — Steamers ply twice daily from Christiansand 
up the Topdalsfjord , the N. prolongation of the Christiansands- 
Fjord, to Ronene and. Boen, on the Topdals-Elv (there and back 
2y 2 -3 hrs.). — A trip by boat may be taken to the (6 M.) light- 
house on the Oxe ('Oxtffyr'), with its meteorological station. 

From Chkistiansand to Ekeksund (about 190 Kil. or 119 M.), a good, 
but hilly road, near the coast, and crossing several ferries. Fine scenery 
nearly the whole way. Most of the stations are 'fast', the chief being 
(43 Kil.) Mandal, (55 Kil.) Fedde , (56 Kil.) Fide, and (35 Kil.) Ekersund 
(p. 86). The journey takes 3-4 days, while the steamboat voyage to Eker- 
sund, which most travellers prefer, takes 12-15 hrs. only. 

1* 



4 Route 1. KILEFJORD. Satersdal. 

The Ssetersdal, a valley running to the N. of Christiansand, 
about 230 Kil. (144 Engl. M.) in length, and watered by the Ot- 
ter aa or Torrisdalselv , is interesting both for its scenery and the 
primitive character of the inhabitants , a tall, strongly-built race, 
who still cling to their old dress and customs. The stations are 
fast; Mosb0, the first, has the augmented tariff (No. Ill), the others 
have the ordinary (No. II). 

The Sa3tersdal road leaves Christiansand on the W. side and 
passes several farms and 0vre Stray, where we overlook the river 
on the right. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11) Mosb« or Mosby , to which a steamer also 
plies once or twice daily in 1 hr. (Com. 345). 

Beyond the Otteraa, 3 M. to the E. of Mosb0, is the farm of Vigland 
with the waterfall of that name; farther on are the Hundsfos and the 
Helvedesfos. 

18 Kil. Beiersdal (plain Inn, with good beds). We pass several 
lakes, well stocked with fish, and the Hagedals-Kirke. 

13 Kil. Kile (quarters at Gotfredseris , the steamboat-captain, 
well spoken of) lies on the pretty Kilefjord (460 ft.), a lake 12'/ 2 M. 
long, through which the Otteraa flows. The steamboat 'Bjoren' 
(Com. 345) plies up and down the lake five days a week, taking 
2 hrs. each way. Stations Daasnces , near Faret (see below) , and 
Evje Nikkelvcerk, where nickel and copper-mines have been worked 
since 1872 (near which are many tombs of the 5th or 6th cent.). 
From this point walkers follow the new road on the E. bank of the 
river, past the church of Evje, to Vasenden (see below), about 
7 ] /2 M. ; travellers who drive leave the steamer at DaasiuTS. 

The high-road ascends from Kile on the W. bank of the fjord 
and soon enters the district of Nedences. 

21 Kil. Faret i Evje, at the mouth of the Daas-Elv, which the 
road crosses , is near the steamboat-station Daasnaes (see above). 
About li/ 2 M. further is the fine Fennefos. By the farm of 0vre 
Fennefos are two Stabbure of last century. On the opposite bank 
is the church of Eoje. 

14 Kil. Guldsmedmoen (quarters at the steamboat -captain's) 
lies a little off the high-road, not far from the station Scnum, and 
at the S. end of the Byglandsfjord, a lake 22 '/o M. long. Steamer 
three times a week to Langeid in 4i/ 2 -5 hrs. (also almost daily to 
Bygland in 2 hrs. ; the steamer may be hired at other times for 
15 kr. per trip of 6 hrs.). At Guldsmedmoen we cross to the E. 
bank of the river by means of a ferry to Vasenden (the steamboat- 
station), whence the road ascends the E. bank of the fjord. 

The S. part of the Byglandsfjord , enclosed by low and steep 
hills, is called the Aardalsfjord. On the right rises the Aardalsnut 
(2510 ft.). We then pass the church of Aardal. The steamer 
rounds a promontory with the farms of Freirak and Berg and enters 
the Byglandsfjord proper. On the right are the steep Foneklev, 
which the road crosses, and the church of — 



Scetersdal. BYKLE. 1. Route. 5 

24 Kil. Bygland (station with beds for tourists), situated in a 
pleasant side-valley. By the church is the new sanatorium or 
health-resort called Saterdalens Sommerhjem (well spoken of; 
fishing to he had). The navigable channel narrows. Beyond Vrd- 
viken, amidst fine mountain-scenery, the steamer passes through a 
lock (beyond which it cannot go when the water is low) and under 
the bridge which carries the high-road back to the W. bank, and 
reaches the Aaraksfjord, the N. part of the Byglandsfjord. On the 
right is the church of Sandnas. Then, to the left, Freisnozs, on the 
high-road (quarters at Ole Torbjflrnsen's). 

19 Kil. Ose , steamboat and posting station (quarters at O. 
DrengserC s , who has two interesting old Stabbure on his farm and 
several curiosities , including old bridal ornaments; an adjoining 
farmer also keeps a primitive 'hotel'). On the E. bank we observe 
the church of Osstad, at the head of the Aaraksfjord. 

Water permitting , the steamer then ascends the Otteraa to 
Langeid, lying about halfway between Ose and — 

20 Kil. Helle i Hyllestad (rustic quarters at Torbjflr Vettes- 
datter's). Scenery rather monotonous. About 3 M. from Helle is 
the church of Hyllestad. 

From Hyllestad a fatiguing mountain-path, indicated by landmarks, 
leads by the gaard of Suleskar to Nerebu, at the B. end of the Lysefjord 
(p. 89J. Two days. Guide (12-14 kr.) and provisions necessary. 

At Flaarenden, about 12 Kil. from Helle, the road crosses to 
theE. bank of the river. Scenery grander. To the left is the 
Hallandsfos , a waterfall with some of the largest 'giant cauldrons' 
in Norway, one of them 26 ft. deep. 

20 Kil. Viken i Valle (good quarters at Dreng Bjernaraa? s). The 
church of Valle has an altarpiece of local fame. The gaard of 
Aamlid, on the W. side of the river, contains an ancient ' Aarestue'. 
The Svarvanut (4525 ft.), ascended from Aamlid, is a fine point of 
view. The gaard of Homme, near Valle , also affords a good view. 

From Viken the Bispevei, the best of the bridle-tracks leading out 
of the upper Seetersdal, joins the road mentioned at p. 37 about 6 Kil. to 
the S. of Veum (12-13 hrs.; horse and guide from Viken to Veum about 
14 kr.). From Veum to Midtgaarden and Dalen, where we join the main 
Telemarken route from Skien to Odde, see p. 37. 

From Aamlid over the mountains to Actrdal on the Stavanger Fjord 
(p. 90), two days ; guide 12-14 kr. 

Travelling by 'skyds' ends at Viken. But we may drive on, 
by Rygnestad and Bjernaraa , passing (about 22 Kil. from Viken) 
the Byklestig, a flight of steps 140 ft. high ascending the mountain 
slope, to (31 Kil. above Viken) — 

Bykle or Byklum (1800 ft.; Ole Drengsen, rustic but good). 
Near it is the *Sarvfos, the highest waterfall of the Otteraa, which 
we reach by a good path. 

From Rygnestad and Bjumaraa a hridle-path leads past the lakes 
Store Bjernevand (near which is a tourists'' hut), Tjemvig- Vand, and 
Bordsja to Dalen on the Bandaksvand (p. 37), about 29 M. Many ssetevs 
are passed. 



6 Route 1. ARENDAL. 

About 2 M. to the W. of Bykle lies the Bosvmid (1750ft.; 83/ 4 M. long), 
at the W. end of which is Brattelid i Bykle. Bough paths, crossing 
several torrents, lead thence to the W. to the Hjesenfjord (p. 90) and 
to the N.W. to 0iestad on the Suledalsvand (p. 92), each 14-16 hrs. 

The bridle-path on the W. bank of the river ascends past the 
gaards (where bread and milk only are to be had) of Haslemo 
(from which a mountain-path leads to Rykkelid i Mo in Telemar- 
ken, p. 38) and Brnefjeld to (10'/2 ar3 -) tne gaard of — 

Bredvik or Breive (beds at Knud Alfseri's), near which there is 
a small colony of Lapps with about a thousand reindeer. 

We next cross the huge Meienfjeld , where reindeer are often 
seen, to the (6 hrs.) sseter Blesje (whence it is better to follow the 
bridle-path than the interesting but precipitous footpath) and 
(3^2 hrs. more) the gaard Jordbrakke in the Suledal (about 21 M. 
from Bredvik), from which we descend the valley to (l 1 ^ hr.) 
Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand (p. 92). From Roaldkvam to 
Nas, which affords better quarters (p. 92), !/ 2 hr. by boat. 

Less interesting, but better in bad weather, is the path up the 
Ssetersdal from Bredvik to (10 M.) Bjaa, the highest gaard in the 
valley (beds at Knud Bjergufsen's), and (8 M.) the Haukeli Road, 
which may be reached at Flaaten or Heggestel by travellers going 
E., or at Flaathel by those going W. (see p. 31 ; and Map, p. 24). 

From Christiansand to Christiania. 

Steamboats of the 'Sommer-Postrute' (Com. 175) daily in 20 ] /2 hrs. 
(fares 15 kr. 60, 9 kr. 75 0.) ; distance , as the crow flies, 156 Engl. M. ; 
13 stations. The voyage is chiefly '■indenskjaers\ i.e. within the Skjcergaard, 
or belt of islands which flanks the coast , where the water is perfectly 
smooth. Besides these Steamers there are the much less punctual large Ham- 
burg (Com. 14) and Bergen steamers (Com. 200), which touch at from two 
to four stations only, plying chiefly '■udenskjcers', or outside the islands, 
where the sea is often rough. There are also several small coasting 
steamers at lower fares, touching at numerous stations, and plying chiefly 
within the islands (Com. 167, 168, 175, 177, 199, 217, 224). Most of the 
steamers have good restaurants on board and a limited number of berths. 
We give the distances in Norwegian sea or nautical miles (S. M.) from 
station to station (fee Introd., p. lxxviii). 

The voyage presents no special attraction till we enter the 
Christiania Fjord. The vast extent of sea studded with rocky is- 
lands has the effect of dwarfing the scenery. Several of the coast- 
hills rise to 2300 ft. , and are often well wooded though appearing 
bare from a distance. 

Lillesand (Hot. Norge), with 1500 inhab., and Grimstad (Hot. 
M»ller; Hot. Nilsson), with 3200 inhab., are the first stations. 

10 S. M. Arendal (*Schnurbusch , on the quay; Grand Hotel; 
Henriksen; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. M. Kallevig) with 4690 inhab., 
prettily situated at the mouth of the Nidelv, is a busy trading and 
ship-building place, and has an excellent harbour. From the S. 
it is approached by the Galtesund, and from the E. by the Trome- 
sund. Fine view from a terrace planted with trees above the quay. 

A posting road leads from Arendal to (11 Kil.) Brcekke i Melcmd 
and (18 Kil.) the small seaport of Tvedettrand, then inland by (14 Kil.) 



LANGESUND. \1. Route. 7 

Vberg to [(18 |Kil.) Simonstad, at the N. end of the lake Nelaagfjord, 
amidst fine woods, where the beaver still occurs. A shorter route is by 
road to (35 Kil.) Rustdalen, and thence by boat on the Nelaagfjord to 
(6 Kil.) Simonstad. — From Simonstad to the Nisservand, comp. p. 37. 
The next stations are Haven or Dyngei, Lynger, and — 

6 S. M. Riseer (Thiis, by the pier, well spoken of; Busch, in the 
town; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. H. C. Finne), a town of 3100 inhab., 
beyond which the coast is unprotected for some distance. 

4 S.M. Kragero [Central Hotel, 5min. from the pier; Victoria, 
small, near the Central; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. H. Larsen), a busy 
trading port with 5700 inhab., opposite the island of that name. 
A monument, by Middelthun , has been erected here to Prof. 
Schweigaard (p. 12) , a native of the place. Apatite , a kind of 
phosphate found plentifully in the environs, yields artificial manure. 
On the neighbouring island of Lange are iron-mines. On the 
Jomfruland rises a lighthouse. (Comp. Map, p. 34). 

From Krageru a posting-road leads by (10 Kil.) Steien, (17 Kil.) Lenms 
on the Tokevand, and (21 Kil.) Holte i Drangedal, to (18 Kil.) Be. Thence 
by road (about 30 Kil. more) to Strand i Vraadal (p. 37). 

The coasting steamers pass through the picturesque Langesunds 
Kreppa, a very narrow strait between precipitous rocks, to Lange- 
sund (Johnsen), with 1400 inhab., on the Langesunds fjord, which 
is prolonged to the N. by the Eidangerfjord and the Friersfjord. 
To the right rises the lighthouse Langesunds Fyr. 

From Langesdnd to Poesgkdnd and Skien, 29 Kil., steamer (Com. 
154-157,216,217) several times daily, except Sunday in 21/2-3 hrs.. Soon 
after starting we touch at Brevik (Sticmsen ; British vice-consul, Mr. S. C. 
Larsen), with 2000 inhab,, charmingly situated at the S.E. end of a rocky 
peninsula which separates the Eidangerfjord from the Friersfjord. Oppo- 
site, to the S., is the little town of Stathelle. A steam of 3 /4 hr. on the 
Friersfjord brings us to Porsgrund (p. 35), whence we ascend the Skienselv 
in 3 /i hr. more to Skien (p. 35). 

The steamer, unprotected by islands, next passes the Nevlung- 
havn, and then enters the pretty approach, past iheSvennerfyr and 
the Fredriksvazrnfyr, to Fredriksvcern , with 1300 inhab., formerly 
a small fortress. The Mallerbjerg affords a fine sea-view. We now 
steer N. in the Laurviksfjord to — 

7 S. M. (from Kragera) Laurvik (p. 34). 

Farther on, the steamer passes the mouth of the Laagen to the 
E. and rounds the furrowed Hummersberg. It then crosses the 
mouth of the Sandefjord , at the N. end of which lies the little 
town of that name (Heidenreich ; Johnsen) , with sulphur and sea 
baths (reached from Christiania by train or by steamboat), rounds 
the Tensbergs Tende near T#nsberg (p. 34), and next reaches — 

10 S.M. ValLer,with a pasteboard-manufactory, the first station 
in the Christiania Fjord. This picturesque fjord, at first 7-8 Engl. M. 
broad , and extending N. for about 45 M. , is enclosed by rocky 
banks of moderate height , wooded with birches and pines , and 
enlivened with numerous villages, at which none of the larger 
steamers touch. "We next stop at — 

8 S.M. Horten {Victoria Hotel ; Serbye's Hotel, well spoken of), 



8 Route 2. CHRISTIANIA. 

a town with 6800 inhab., near which is Karl-Johansvarn , the 
principal Norwegian government dockyard, with its quays and a 
brick church. Railway to Holmestrand, see p. 34. 

On the E. shore of the fjord, opposite Horten, and hehind the 
island of Hjelland, lies (8 S. M.) Moss (p. 75), at which several 
of the larger steamers touch. 

The fjord now expands to a breadth of about 12 Engl. M. On the 
left opens theDrammensfjord(p.21). We next enter a strait narrow- 
ing to V2 M-) al| d about 9 M. long, which connects the outer with 
the inner Christiania Fjord. On the right lies the next station — 

8 S. M. (from Moss) Hrtfba.k (Reinschoug ; Brit, consular agent, 
Mr. K. G. H. Lehmann), a pleasant watering-place, with 2000 inhah. 
and numerous villas. We pass the fortified islet of Kaholmen 
(Oscarsborg) and the bleak Haa-0 , beyond which the inner fjord 
gradually expands. To the N.W. now appear the porphyry ranges 
of the Kolsaas (1245 ft.), the Skougumsaas (1130 ft.), and, further 
W.,the Vardekolle (p. 20). After rounding the Nasodtangen, on the 
E. side of the fjord, we come in sight of Christiania, with the 
conspicuous palace on the hill-side , the fortress of Akershus in 
the foreground, and the Tryvandshflide (with Frognersaeter, p. 18) 
rising in the distance : a beautiful picture. 

The vessel steers past several islands : on the left the Linde 
and the Hovede (with interesting strata of greenstone); on the 
right the Orcesholm and the Blekei, beyond which we obtain a fine 
glimpse of the Bundefjord, with its numerous country-houses. We 
land at the Bjervik, the harbour of (4 S. M.) Christiania. 

2. Christiania and Environs. 

Arrival. The large Steamers land their passengers at the Toldbodbrygge 
or at the Jernbanebrygge, near the Custom House (PI. D, 7), both in 
Bjerviken, or the E. harbour. The custom-house examination takes place in 
the steamer. Porterage from the steamer to the hotels: 30 0. for 651bs. 
or under, 40 0. for 65-150 lbs. (only porters with badges should be em- 
ployed). Cabs (see below) are generally scarce ; but a boy (20-30 0.) may 
be sent to fetch one from the Jernbanetorv, near the harbour. — Tra- 
vellers by Railway from Sweden, from Fredrikshald, or from Trondhjem 
arrive at the 0$t- or Hoved-Banegaard (PI. D , 6), where luggage from 
Sweden is slightly examined; travellers from Drammen arrive at the 
Vest-Banegaard(Pl.B,T). Porterage and cabs thence to the hotels, as above. 

Hotels. ■ 'Victoria (PI. h: C, D,7), at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade 
and Dronningens-Gade , a large, old-established house, R. from 2'/2 kr., 
A. 50 0., B. 1 kr. 40, D. 3, S. 2-3 kr.; ''Grand Hotel (PI. B, C, 6), at the 
corner of the Carl-Johans-Gade and the Rosenkranz-Gade, well situated 
at the E. end of the Eidsvolds-Plads, R., L., & A. from 2, B. 1, D. 3 kr., 
with good restaurant (two dishes ct, la carte from 1 to 5 o'clock 1 kr.); 
"Skandinavie (PI. f: C, D, 6), at the corner of the Carl - Johans-Gade 
and the Dronningens-Gade, central, R. 2-4, L. 1/2 j A - 1 h, B - l-l n /2, D. 3, 
S. l'/2 kr.-, Britannia (PI. a; D, 7), at the corner of the Toldbod-Gade 
and the Store Strand-Gade , the nearest hotel to the quay, second-class. 
— Rotal Hotel (PI. e; D, 6), Jernbane-Torv, commercial. — Angleterre 
(PI. b: C, 7), at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade and the Kongens-Gade, 
R., L., & A. I 1 /'-', B. 1 kr.; Kong Oscar, near the Vestbanegaurd; Hotel 



EiAsvol^XSv^ri^e 




- 40 0. 

- 20 

1 kr. 60 - 

- 25 - 



— 8U0. 

— 20 - 
2 kr. 50 - 

— 50- 



Shops. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 9 

Continental, St. Olafs-Gade, N.E. of St. Olafs-Plads (PI. B, 6), R., L., & 
A. lVa-2, B. 3 /i-l , D. 3, S. 1 kr., with restaurant; Martin's Hotel, in 
the market-place, R., L., & A. from J.1/2, D. 1-2 kr.; the two last well 
spoken of. — Hotels Garnis. Chr. Knudsen, Tordenskjolds-Gade 8, near 
the Eidsvolds-Plads (landlord speaks English); FruD. Brorsen, Storthings- 
Gade 10, adjoining Gravesen's Restaurant; Sestrene Scheen , Prindsens- 
Gade 26, S. of the Storthing Building; Fru Hansen, Carl-Johans-Gade 41, 
R. IV2 kr.; Sestrene Waalen, same street, 12; Sidsel Aanrud, same street, 
corner of Akersgaden ; Smstrene Larsen, same street, 33 ; Fruken Anne Sure, 
corner of Carl-Johans-Gade and Kirke-Gade, good and moderate. 

Restaurants (besides the hotels). " Christoffersen' s Efterfolger, corner 
of Bankplads and Kirke-Gade, first floor; "Gravesen , Storthings-Gade 8; 
Frimurer-Logen (PI. 7; C, 8), Grev-Wedels-Plads; Tivoli, see p. 2. — Cafes. 
In the "Grand Hdtel , see above, Bavarian beer 30 0. per glass; Idun, 
Skipper-Gade; Fritzner, opposite the University; Studenlerlunden, see p. 6. — 
Confectioners. "Baumann, 0we Slots-Gade 10; Giinther, Carl-Johans-Gade. 

Cabs. The driver is called *■ Vognmand'' : jl-horse; lpers. 2-hors.; l-2p. 
Drive in town (to almost any place 

annexed Plan) 

For each additional person ..... 
Per hour within town and environs . . 
For each additional person i 

At night (11 p.m. to 8 a.m. from 1st May to 30th Sept. ; 10 p.m. to 
9 a.m. during the rest of the year) : one-horse cab 1 kr. 20 (40 0. for each 
additional person) ; two-horse cab 2 kr. (50 0. for each additional person). In 
one-horse cabs 561bs. of luggage, in two-horse cabs 112 lbs. are carried free. 

Carriages may also be ordered at the hotels. — - The Skyds-Station 
(p. xviii) is at Grubbe-Gade 3. 

Tramway (Sporvogn or Tramway; comp. Plan). From the Stoe-Torv, 
or market-place, adjoining Vor Frelsers Kirke, to the Vestbanegaard (W .), 
llomansby (N.W.), Grilnerlekken (N.E.), and Oslo (S.E.), every 5 or 10 min. 
from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. on week-days, and from noon to 10 p.m. on Sun- 
days. Fare for each of these trips 15 0. — As there are no conductors, 
each passenger drops his fare into a box placed near the driver. The 
coins fall on a slide and are seen through a pane of glass by the driver, 
who then tilts them into the box below. The drivers give change at 
the opening marked 'Vexling', but have no access to the money-box. 

Boats in the Baadhavn (PI. D, 8), for rowing or sailing, with man, 
about l'/2 kr. per hour (no fixed tariff). Often difficult to find a boatman 
( Baadmand, Fasrgemand). 

Post and Telegraph Offices (PI. 27, 32; C, 2), corner of Kirke-Gade and 
Carl-Johans-Gade (PI. C, 6). Post Office open from 8 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. ; 
Sundays 8-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. Telegraph Office daily from 7 a.m. to 
9 p.m. ; also at night for foreign telegrams. 

Banks (open 10-2). Norske Credit -Bank, corner of Kirke-Gade and 
Prindsens-Gade; Christiania Bank & Credit- Kasse, Torvet, W. side; Norges 
Bank, Bank-Plads; Th. Joh. Heftye & Son, Toldbod-Gade 20; iV. A. An- 
dresen & Co., Kirke-Gade 6; P. Benschien & Co., Jernbane-Torvet 2. Cir- 
cular notes may be changed at any of these. 

Consulates. British consul-general, Th. Michell, Esq., C. B., Carl- 
Johans-Gade 33. American consul, Mr. Gerhard Gade, Torvet 2; vice- 
consul, Mr. L. Bronn. 

Shops. [Purchases should not be made in the presence or by the advice of 
guides or couriers, as their commission is apt to be added to the price.] 
Booksellers: Cammermeyer 's Boghandel , Carl-Johans-Gade 41, 43; /. H". 
Cappelen, Kirke-Gade 15; Dybwad, opposite the Post Office; F. Beyer, Carl- 
Johans-Gade 33, next to the Grand Hotel (large store of photographs, 
wood-carvings, etc.). — Music Seller: Karl Warmulh, Kirke-Gade 17 (Scan- 
dinavian music and musical instruments). — Jewellers (noted for filigree- 
work and enamel) : J. Tostrup, Carl-Johans-Gade 25, opposite the Storthing; 
Thune, Carl-Johans-Gade, S. side, near the 0vre Slots-Gade; Andersen., 
corner of Kirke-Gade and Prindsens Gade. — Furrier : E. Larsen, Kongens- 



10 Route 2. CHRISTIANIA. History. 

Gade 22. — Art-dealers: Blomlcvist, Carl-Johans-Gade 41 (pictures by Nor- 
wegian artists) ; .A&eZ, Carl-Johans-Gade 45 (also photographs and engravings). 
— Travelling Requisites : W. Schmidt, agent of the Turist-Forening (p. xxi), 
Kirke-Gade 21 ; Steiren, corner of Graendse-Gade and Akers-Gade. — Statio- 
nery, Photographs, etc. : Olsen, Carl-Johans-Gade, near the Hotel Skandi- 
navie; Andvord, opposite the post-office; Beyer (see ahove). — Sporting Re- 
quisites: Larsen, Dronningens-Gade ; Bagen , Kirke-Gade 19; Torgersen, 
Carl-Johans-Gade 5. — Preserved Meats, etc.: E. Lexow & Co., Toldbod- 
Gade S; G. J. Christophersen & Co., under the Hotel Skandinavie; Berg- 
witz, 0vre Slots-Gade; Chr. Magnus, Carl-Johans-Gade 33, next door to 
the Grand Hotel. — Cigars: Jebe, Qlfferien <£■ Co., Carl-Johans-Gade. 

Tourist Offices. T. Bennet, Store Strand-Gade 17; Berg-Bansen, agent 
of the Bergenske and the Nordenfjeldske Steam Navigation Companies, 
Revieret 1; F. Beyer (the bookseller, see above). — Comp. Introd., p. xix. 

Baths. Christiania-Bad, at the corner of Munkedamsvejen and Rings- 
gangen, nearly opposite the University, with modern appliances, Roman 
baths, &c; Badeanstalt (PI. C, D,5), Torv-Gade. Warm salt-water baths 
at the Victoria Terrace (p. 14). — Bathing in the Fjord: Eygcea (20 0.) and 
Selyst (10 0.), for swimmers. The water on the W. side of the Bygdi 
(p. 16) is purer. The water of the fjord is only slightly salt. The rise and 
fall of the tide averages 1-2 ft. only. 

Theatre. Christiania-Theater (PI. 33; C 7), Bank-Plads, usually closed 
in summer. — At the Tivoli (PI. B, 1) , Eidsvolds-Plads, nearly opposite 
the University, concerts and VarieU Theatre daily (adm. 50 0., and various 
extra-payments). — Diorama, Carl-Johans-Gade 41 : Norwegian landscapes, 
Death of Charles XII., etc.; daily 10 (Sund. 12) to 7; adm. 50 0. — Military 
Band in Studenterlunden (p. 11). 

English Church (opened in 1884), in the Maller-Gade. Service at 11 
a.m. Chaplain, Rev. A. F. Beaton. 

Chief Attractions. Walk or drive, from the 0stbanegaard across the 
Jernbane-Torv and through the Carl-Johans-Gade. Walk on the ram- 
parts of Akershus in the early morning (p. 15). The Vikings' 1 Ships (p. 12). 
Museum of Art (p. 12). The Palace (-p. 14). View from St. Banshaugen(_p. 15). 
Excursions to Oscars/tall (p. 16); to Frognersmter and the Bolmekollen 
(p. 18); to some of the neighbouring villages on the Fjord by small 
steamer starting from the Pipervik. 

Christiania , the capital of Norway , is beautifully situated at 
the foot of pine-clad hills , at the N. end of the Christiania Fjord 
and on the W. bank of the small Akers-Elv (in 59° 54' N. lat. and 
10°50'E. long.). The mediaeval town of Oslo, of which Christiania 
is the successor , lay on the E. bank of the river. It was founded 
by Harald Hardraada about 1050, and was afterwards a station of 
the Hanseatic League. In the cathedral of St. Halvard several Nor- 
wegian kings were interred, and James I. of England married Anne 
of Denmark in 1589. In 1547 Oslo was burned down by its inhabitants 
to prevent its falling into the hands of Swedish besiegers, and was 
again destroyed by Are in 1624. The same year Christian IV. of 
Denmark laid the foundation of the modern town, to the N. of the 
old fortress of Akershus, and named it after himself. In 1686, 
1708, and 1858 Christiania suffered severely from conflagrations. 
The population (almost entirely Protestant) in 1855 was 38,958; in 
1875 it was 95,836 ; in 1885 it was 130,000 ; in 1891 it had reached 
150,444. 

Christiania is the seat of the Norwegian government, of the 
supreme law-courts , of the Storthing or parliament , of a Univer- 



University. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 1 1 

sity, and of a bishop. Its trade is considerable. The chief exports 
are timber, herrings, matches, oats, beer, and ice, and the imports 
rye, colonial products, woollen goods, cotton, coal, meat, machinery, 
etc., the former being valued at over 25, and the latter at 75 million 
kroner. The town also owns about 400 sailing-vessels and 80 steam- 
ers. Near it are several considerable engine - works , breweries, 
cotton-mills, and paper-factories, most of which lie on the Akers-Elv. 

The principal street is the Carl-Johans-Gade, extending from 
the Hoved-Banegaard (principal railway station, PI. D, E, 6), at 
the E. end, to the Slot or palace at the W. end, a distance of 
3 /4 M. Following this street from the station , we soon reach, on 
the right, the Stor Torv (PI. 0, 6; 'great market'), usually known 
as Torvet ('the market'), adorned with a Statue of Christian IV., 
by Jacobsen (1874). On the E. side of the Torv rises — 

Vor Frelsers Kirke (PI. 16), or Church of Our Saviour, con- 
secrated in 1697, and restored by Chateauneuf in 1849-56. The 
altar-piece is by E. Steinle of Diisseldorf , and the marble font by 
Fladager. — In the Torv-Oade to the N. of the Torv, is the 
DampkjBkke ('steam kitchen'; PI. D; C, 6), founded in 1858, 
where about 2000 persons are daily provided with dinners for 27- 
45 0. each , either carrying them home or dining at large marble 
tables in the building. The Torvgade leads past Ankerlekkens 
Oravlund to the Akers-Elv , which forms several falls higher up 
and drives several large factories. — Farther up the Carl-Johans- 
Gade, on the left, rises the — 

Storthings-Bygning (PI. 30: C, 6), or hall of the Norwegian 
Parliament, designed by Langlet, and completed in 1866. The chief 
facade, flanked with two lions in granite by Borch, looks towards 
the Eidsvolds Plads, a handsome square planted with trees. The 
interior is shown by the ' Vagtmester' or custodian (to be found at the 
entrance from the Storthings-Gade, on the S. side; fee ^fa-i kr.). 
The Storthings- Sal, seated for 150 deputies and an audience of 300 
persons, contains a large painting by Oscar "Wergeland, representing 
the first discussion of the Norwegian constitution (p. lxxii); the 
smaller Lagthings-Sal has seats for 40 members and 130 visitors. — 
In the Akersgade, to the S. of the Storthing Building, is a monu- 
ment to the poet J. H. Vessel (d. 1785). — In the Eidsvolds-Plads 
is a statue of the poet Henrik Wergeland (d. 1845), by Bergslien. 
— On the W. this Plads is adjoined by another, called Studenter- 
lunden (PI. B, 6), in front of the University, where a military band 
often plays in the afternoon or evening. 

The University (PI. B, 6) was founded by Frederick VI. of Den- 
mark in 1811. The present edifice, with two wings at right angles to 
it, was erected in 1841-53 by Orosch, whose design was partly 
suggested by Schinkel of Berlin. There are five faculties with 55 
professors, who lecture gratis to upwards of 1000 students. 

The central building, in front of which a statue of the Norwegian 



12 Route 2. CHRISTIANIA. Museum of Art. 

jurist and politician Ant. Martin Schweigaard (d. 1870), by Middel- 
thun, was erected in 1883, contains lecture-rooms, the Zoological 
Museum (Sun., Mon., Frid. 12-2), the Botanical Museum (Mon., 
12-2), the Zootomical Museum, the Mineralogical Cabinet (Frid., 
12-1), the Ethnographical Museum, the Physical Cabinet, and the 
Medical Collections. Handeome staircase. 

The Ethnographical Museum (reached by a staircase in the N.W. corner, 
from the garden at the back; Mon. and Frid. 1-2, Sun. 12-2) contains Scan- 
dinavian costumes, furniture, and implements, and in a second ruoin a 
Laplander's tent, with reindeer and pulk. A staircase ascends to a series 
of small rooms containing curiosities from other parts of the world. 

The E. wing, known as the Domus Academica, contains the 
Festsal or Aula, a Collection of Northern Antiquities, and a Cabinet 
of Coins (Mon. & Frid., 1-2; 45,000 specimens; ascend staircase 
and turn to the left). 

The 'Collection of Northern Antiquities (Sun., Mon., and Frid., 12-2) is 
arranged in seven rooms. In the Vestibule are several finely carved church- 
doors. — Room I (farthest to the right) : relics of the flint and bronze ages. 
Rooms 1 1- IV: relics of the iron period. Room V contains mediaeval curiosi- 
ties (A.D. 1000-1500), the chief having their names and dates attached. 
Among them are three fine doors from Norwegian timber-churches, of the 
12-13th centuries. Room VI: interesting door-posts and portals of the 
same period. Room VII: curiosities of later date than 1500, including 
tankards in wood and metal, bridal crowns, trinkets, fire-arms, and tools. 

In theW. wing is the Library, consisting of 250,000 vols, (open 
to the public on the first five days of the week, 12-2 ; reading-room 
11-3; closed in July and Aug.). Entrance in the Frederiks-Gade. 

In the court at the back of the central building of the Univer- 
sity are wooden sheds containing two * Vikings' Ships (Sun., Mon., 
Frid. 12-2; at other times shown by the'Vagtmester', who lives on 
the ground-floor of the central building; fee 10-25 ».). 

As the ancient Germanic kings were buried with their war-steeds, so 
the viking chiefs were laid to rest with their arms and their treasures in 
their ships. One of the two shown here was found at Thune in the Amt 
of Smaalene in 1867, and the other at Gogstad, near Sandefjord (p. 31), 
in 1880 ; and both owe their preservation from decay to the blue clay in 
which they were imbedded. The ship from Gogstad, in the newer shed, 
is the better preserved. Its total length from stem to stern is 103 ft., 
length of keel 66 ft., breadth 16 ft. To the mast in the centre a large 
square-sail was attached by means of a pulley. In the third plank from 
the top are sixteen rowlocks. The rudder was placed on the right side 
(whence 'starboard', originally the steering side). By the mast was placed 
the wooden tomb-chamber, which was found empty, having probably been 
pillaged at an early period. — The other ship is in fragments. Adjoining 
it are several old church paintings from the Hallingdal. 

To the N. of the University is the *Musenm of Art (Iiunst- 
museet; PL 21; B, 6), built in the Italian Renaissance style by 
Adolf Schirmer, and presented to the town by the Christiania Sav- 
ings Bank. Wings uncompleted. Admission on Sun., Tues., and 
Thurs. 12-2; at other times on application to the 'Vagtmester' (fee 
1/2-I kr.). 

The Ground Floor contains the Sculpture Gallery (historical 
and critical catalogue by Prof. Dietrichson, 1 kr.). 

The Vestibule and three Rooms contain the Casts 0/ Ancient Sculptures, 



National Gallery. CHRISTIANIA. 2. Route. 1 3 

and the Staircase and Hall the Casts of Renaissance and Modem Sculptures. 

— The other rooms contain Original Works by Norwegian Masters, the 
finest of which are: 328, 329. Fladager, Angel with font (model and 
sketch); Borch, 330. Jephthah's Daughter, 331! The first lesson, 33ia. The 
Sulamite Maiden, 331b. David ; 333. Skeibrok, Ragnar Lodbrok among the 
serpents; no number, Skeibrok, The mother watching. 

A double staircase ascends to the Upper Floor, which contains 
the National Gallery, a collection of about 300 ancient and 
modern paintings founded in 1837 and belonging to government. 
Historical and critical catalogue by Prof. Dietrichson, 1 kr. 

A. "Skandinavian Painters. The collection is annually extended and 
is frequently re-arranged. We mention the most important in the order 
of their numbers. — We first enter the — 

East Room. Danish School. 198. Jens Juel, Bernt Anker, a Norwegian 
patriot of the 18th cent. ; 201. C. W. Eckersberg , Alms-giving at the con- 
vent; 202. N. Simonsen, Caravan overtaken by a simoom; 204, 205, Gron- 
land, Flowers and fruit; 206. Serensen, The Sound, near Kronborg; *Kreyer, 
Concert in the studio. — Swedish School. 210. Kjorboe, Fox ; Amalie Linde- 
gren, 214. Widow and child, 215. Grandfather's lesson; 217. Fagerlin, Dis- 
comfortsrof bachelor-life; 218. E. Bergh, Birch-wood. — We turn to the 
right and enter the — 

South Rooms (lighted from above). Norwegian School. /. C. Dahl (178S- 
1857), 230. Laurvik, 231. Waterfall: Th. Fearnley (1802-1842), 235. The 
Labrofos, 236. Grindelwald Glacier ; 241. Baade (1808-1879), Norwegian coast- 
scene by moonlight; Adolf Tidemand (1814-76), "246. A solitary couple 
(family worship in a cottage), "247. Meeting of the Haugianer (a religious 
sect), 248. The dying man ; 250. F. Bee (b. 1820), Breakfast; Eckersberg (1822- 
1870), 253. Valle in the Sjetersdal, 254. Mountain-scenery; H. F. Oude (b. 
1826), 258. Norwegian landscape, 259. Mountain - view, ''261. Christiania 
Fjord, 262. Before the rain, 263. Scene in North Wales; "267. H. A. Cap- 
pelen (1827-1852), Forest scene in Telemarken; 272. K. Bergslien (b. 1827), 
Portrait of the artist's father; Morten MUller (b. 1828), 273- 8eene on the 
Christiania Fjord, 274. Hardanger Fjord; 276. E. Bodom (1S29-1879), Scene 
in Nordmarken; P. N. Arbo (b. 1831), "278. The Valkyries, 279. Asgaards- 
rejen (The Wild Huntsman); 281. A. Askevold (b. 1834), Mountain-lake in 
summer; 285. Karl Hansen (b. 1841), In captivity; "287. L. Munthe (b. 1841). 
Coast-scene in winter; No number, Munthe, Autumn evening; E. Petersen 
(b. 1852), 289. Portrait of a lady, 289a. Siesta, 289b, Old woman; 299. Am. 
Nielsen, On the Hardanger Fjord; Heyerdahl, 300 d, Holmestrand, 300 f, 
Family party; E. Werenskiold (b. 1855), 320. Girl from Telemarken, *302a. 
Funeral of a peasant; 302b, Portrait of the novelist Bjurnson; 303. Ucher- 
man, Flemish team; 304. Skredsvig (b.1854), Subject from Northern France; 
308. Gerh. Munthe (b. 1849), A summer's day; 303. O. Sinding (b. 1842), 
Scene from the Lofoten Islands; 324. Ekslrem, Twilight; 331. Grimelund, 
Mexico Dock at Antwerp; 332. Wenzel, Old couple; 333. Chr. Krogh, Struggle 
for existence. 

West Room : Sketches and studies by Ad. Tidemand; 283. Stollenberg- 
Lerche (b. 1837), Payment of tithes at the convent. 

B. Foreign Masters. North Rooms (lighted from the roof), the first 
of which is devoted to the French, Italian, and German Schools. Italian 
Masters: "1. Fine old copy of Leonardo da Unci's Mona Lisa, wrongly 
ascribed to Bernardino Luini; 5. Venetian Master , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents; 12. B. Strozzi, The tribute-money; 13. Salvalor Rosa, Landscape. 

— German Masters: 134, 135. Barth. Beham, Portraits of 'Hans Lissalsz' 
and 'Magdalena Pittrichin' ; 141. J. J. Hartmann, John the Baptist in the 
wilderness; "145. Seibold, Portrait of a man; 155, 157. Anton Graff, Por- 
traits; 173. 0. Wagner, Ponte Rotto; 175. K. Sohn, Tasso and the two Leo- 
noras; 176. C. F. Lessing, Scene on the Rhine; "177. E. Jordan, Family 
worship; 178. E. Geselschap, Christmas morning; 179. K. Hiibner, Emi- 
grants paying a farewell visit to the graves of their relatives ; 180. A. Achen- 
bach, Beach at Scheveningen; 182. A. W. Leu, Waterfall in Norway; 183. 



14 Routed. CHRISTIANIA. Palace. 

0. Achenbach, Italian landscape; 184. A. Seel, Cloisters. — French Mas- 
ters : 187. 0. de la Fosse, Achilles discovered by Ulysses among the daugh- 
ters of Lycomedes; 317. Th. Couture, Study. 

The second North Room contains the works of the Flemish and Dutch 
Schools: "22. Pieter Claeissens, Portrait of himself; 24. Francken the El- 
der. The works of charity; 26. Air. Bloemaert, St. Jerome; 28. Pourbut 
the' Younger, Portrait; 30. R. Saverij, Landscape with accessories; 32. Al. 
Adriaenssen, Still-life; 34. Jac. Jordaens, Allegorical representations of 
the hlessings of the Peace of Westphalia ; 35. L. van Uden, Drunken peasant ; 
"38. Jan Fyt, Fight between dogs and wolves; 50,51. P. v. Bloemen, Ca- 
valry skirmish , Cattle driven off by armed horsemen ; 56. J. Horemans, 
Peasant meal; ''59. Hellemans, Forest-scene, with sheep by /. Verboeck- 
hoven; 63. Mierevell, Portrait; 67. B. v. d. Ast, Fruit; "71. Corn. v. Keulen 
(Ravesteyn?), Portrait of a woman; 72. E. v. d. Velde, Landscape; 73. 
J. v. Goijen, Sea-piece ; "81. Jan Davidsz de Seem, Oysters and Rhine-wine ; 
84. School of G. Dow, Schoolmaster ; 86. B. v. d. Heist (?), Man with a glass 
of wine; 94. 6. Lunders, Family portraits ; *104. M. d'Hondecoeler, Dog, cat, 
and game: 80. Old copy of Rembrandt, Descent from the Cross. 

A glass-door in the West Room leads to the staircase, by which we 
ascend to the Collection of Drawings and Engravings (5000 in number; 
founded in 1877). 

Farther N., at the corner of the Universitets-Gade and the Pi- 
lestraede, is the building of the Kunstforening , or Art Union (PI. 
K; B, 5, 6; adm. daily, except Sat. and Sun., 12-2.30; 20 ».), 
adorned with medallion portraits of celebrated artists by Jacobsen. 
On the ground-floor is the Art Industrial Museum (daily, 12-2, free), 
founded in 1877, containing interesting specimens of Norwegian 
embroidery, trinkets, etc., mediaeval reliquaries resembling the old 
timber churches, Chinese porcelain, lacquer-work, etc. 

On a height at the W. end of the town, in the beautiful Slots- 
park, stands the Palace (Slot ; PI. A, 6), a plain edifice with a class- 
ical portico , erected in 1825-48. The interior is shown by the 
'Vagtmester', who lives on the sunk floor of the S. wing (daily, 2-4 ; 
fee i/ 2 k r - f° r eac ^ member of a party). The staircase is embellished 
with two reliefs in marble : on the right, Charles XIV. John laying 
the foundation-stone of the palace, by Stephen Sinding ; on the left, 
Oscar II. unveiling the statue of Charles John, by M. Skeibrok. The 
Festsal is borne by Corinthian columns ; Dining Room in the 
Pompeian style; the walls of the Throne Room, the Coursal, and 
the Audience Chamber are hung with landscapes by Flinto. The 
private apartments contain paintings and sculptures by Norwegian 
artists (among them Tidemand's Village Catechising, and O. Sin- 
ding's Battle of Svolder), mostly presented to the king and queen 
on their silver-wedding in 1882. Fine *View from the roof. 

In front of the palace rises an Equestrian Statue of Charles 
XIV. John (Bernadotte), by BrynjulfBergslien, inscribed with the 
king's motto 'The people's love is my reward'. 

The extensive quarter to the W. of the palace, namedffomons- 
by, consists of villas and gardens. To the S.E., above theRuselekvej, 
is the Victoria Terrace (PI. A, 7), conspicuous from the sea. Below 
are two rows of shops, one over the other, and above them are three 
large turreted dwelling-houses. 



Akershus. CHRIST1ANIA. _\ Route. 1 5 

From the Storthings-Building the Akersgade leads to the S., past 
the handsome Athenaeum (PI. 1 ; 0, 6), which belongs to a reading- 
club, and the Norslce Forening, to the Johannes Kirke (PL 13 ; C, 7), 
a brick edifice by Bull, completed in 1878. Altarpiece by E. Pe- 
tersen; eight monolith columns of granite; marble font, etc. ('Kir- 
ketjener' or sacristan, Akersgade 1, on the W. side of the church.) 

The Raadhus-Gade and Kongens-Gade lead hence to the Bank- 
plads, with the Theatre (PL 33), and past the Freemasons' Lodge 
(PI. 7) to the Fortress of Akershus (PL C, 8; open to the public), 
the ramparts of which afford a charming view of the fjord by morn- 
ing light. Akershus was unsuccessfully besieged by Duke Erik of 
Sweden in 1310, by Christian II. of Denmark in 1531-32, and by the 
Swedes again in 1567 and in 1716 (under Charles XII.). It is now 
used as an arsenal and a prison. The garrison-church is within its 
precincts. Leave to visit the Artillery Museum is obtained at the 
office of the 'Feldteimester' in the first building to the S. of the 
Freemasons' Lodge, in the Fsestnings-Plads (PL C, 8). 

In the fjord, about l fe M. to the S., is the Hovedtf with the remains 
of a Cistercian abbey, founded by English monks in 1142 and destroyed 
in 1532. The island now belongs to the fortress. The view it commands 
of the town is the only attraction. Bowing-boat from the Pipervik or 
from Grev Wedels Plads, according to tariff, there and back, with stay of 
>/ 2 hr., 1 pers. 90, 2 pers. 1 kr. 35, 3 pers. 1 kr. 80, 4 pers. 2 kr. 70 e. 

The Trefoldigheds-Kirke (PL 15 ; C, 5, 6), or Trinity Church, 
in the Akersgade, a Gothic edifice with a dome, partly designed by 
Chdteauneuf of Hamburg, was erected in 1853-58. The interior, a 
handsome octagon , contains an altarpiece by Tidemand and a font 
with an angel by Middelthun. 

By the Roman Catholic St. Olafs-Kirke (PL 14; C, 5), erected in 
1853, the Akersgade divides into the Akersvei, to the right, and the 
Vlevoldsvei, to the left, the former leading direct in 12 min., the 
latter past the Gamle Akerskirke in 15 min. to St. Hanshaugen. 

Between these two roads lies Vor Frelsers Gravlund (PL B, 5), 
a well-kept cemetery, which we may now visit. It may be entered 
by the lower gate and left by the upper. — In the Akersvei, a 
little to the N. of the cemetery, rises the Gamle Akers Kirke (PL 
B, 4), one of the oldest churches in Norway, mentioned before 1150, 
perhaps founded by King Olaf Kyrre, and restored by Schirmer and 
Hanno in 1861. The church is a basilica in the Anglo-Norman 
Romanesque style, with aisles. A curious arrangement in the in- 
terior is the separation of the space in the centre of the church from 
the nave, transepts, and choir by means of walls with portal-like 
openings. The 'Kirketjener' lives in the small house opposite the 
church, on the N.W. side. 

*St. Hanshaugen, or 'St. John's Hill' (PL A, 3, 4; 280 ft.), is 
laid out as a public promenade. On the top is a reservoir of the 
city waterworks, the tower of which commands an excellent survey 
of the town, the fjord with its islands, the Ekeberg to the left, Os- 



16 Route 2. OSCARSHALL. Environs 

carshall to the right, and the Frognersaeter on the hill to the N.W. 
The attendant, for whom the visitor rings, names the chief points 
(fee forbidden). The lower entrance to the grounds is within the 
city radius of cab-fares. 

Another very fine view, especially of the harbour, is obtained 
from Kampen, a second reservoir of the waterworks, a little to the 
E. of the Botanic Garden (PI. E, F, 4), and marked by a flagstaff. 
The Botanic Garden is also within the city radius. 

Environs of Christiania. 

Comp. Map, p. IS. 

*0SCAESHALL : 21/2-3 hrs., including stay. We either walk to the 
ferry of Skarpsno and row to the chateau, or take the small steamboat 
plying from the Pipervik (PI. B, 7) at 7, 8, and 9 a.m., and hourly from 1.30 
to 10.30 p.m., to Fredrilsborg , Oscars/tall, and Sceterhytten (Com. 103, 104, 
104 b ; fare 20, 10 0). The railway station of Bygdtf (p. 19) is 1 M. to the 
N. of Oscarshall. — Cab with one horse, 2.40, 3.20, 3.60, or 4 kr., with 
two horses 4, 4.80, 5.20, or 5.60, according to the number of persons. 

Leaving Christiania by the Drammensvei (PI. A, 7), which is 
bordered by villas and pleasant gardens, we soon reach ( 3 / 4 M. from 
the University) the Skarpsno ferry, crossing (in 6-8 min. ; fare 7 ».) 
to the wooded peninsula of Bygde, on which the white chateau is 
conspicuous. The ferry-boat lands us at the steamboat-pier at the 
foot of the chateau, to which we walk in 5 min. more. — The Sce- 
terhytten steamer, mentioned above, conveys us direct from the Piper- 
vik to Oscarshall in i/ 4 hr. ; or we may take one of the steamers to 
Fredriksborg, a summer resort on the Langvik, 1 M. from the cha- 
teau. (Ask to be shown the beginning of the way from Fredriks- 
borg ; then follow the broad road, from which one road leads to the 
right to Oscarshall, and another to the left to the church of Gol and 
other ancient buildings ; see below.) 

The chateau of *Oscarshall (80 ft.) was erected in the English 
Gothic style by Nebelong for King Oscar I. in 1849-52, and adorned 
with paintings by eminent Norwegian artists. It was sold to the 
government by Charles XV., but is still kept up as a royal resi- 
dence. It deserves a visit for the sake of its pictures and the view. 
(Apply to the gardener, who lives at the back of the chateau, on 
the N.W. side; fee i/ 2 -l kr.) 

The Dining Room, on the ground-floor of the smaller separate build- 
ing, is adorned with six grand Norwegian landscapes by J. Frich (d. 1858), 
the finest being the Ravnedjuv, the Romsdalshorn, and the Norangsfjord, 
above which are ten famous works by A. Tidemand (d. 1876), representing 
'Norsk Bondeliv', or Norwegian peasant life. — The Drawing Room, on 
the ground-floor of the principal building, with its oak panelling, is em- 
bellished with statues of Harald Haarfager, Olaf Tryggvason, St. Olaf, and 
Sverre, in zinc, by Michelsen. — A room on the 1st floor contains nine 
basreliefs from Frithjof's Saga, by C. Borch, and four fine landscapes by 
H. Gude (b. 1825) from the same Saga. — Several rooms on the 2nd floor 
contain paintings, wood-carvings, etc. 

We now ascend by a winding staircase of 28 steps to the flat roof of 
the chateau, from which 43 steps more lead us to the top of the tower, 
where we enjoy a charming 'View of Christiania, its fjord, and environs 
(best by evening light). 



of Christiania. EKEBERG. ?. Route. 17 

The chateau stands in a wooded park. About '/ 2 M. to the \V. 
of it (beyond the road from Fredriksborg, mentioned above) a portal 
erected in ancient Norse style forms the entrance to a clearing, 
where several interesting old Norwegian buildings have been re- 
erected. In the centre is the *Church of Qol in the Hallingdal 
(p. 40), a 'Stavekirke' or timber-built church of the 12th or 13t,h 
cent. (comp. p. 26). Around it are placed: a farm-house from 
Hove in Telemarken, fitted up with the original furniture ; a Stab- 
bur, or store-house, from Telemarken, with carved work; and a farm- 
house from the Gudbrandsdal (attendant 25 m. for each). 

About % M. to the N. is the Saterhytte, a restaurant on the 
Dronningbjerg, the terminus of the Oscarshall steamer. Near it is 
a monument to Count H. Wedel-Jarlsberg (p. lxxii). 

The Ekeberg : By tramway from the Stor-Torv to Oslo (comp. PI. 
C, D, B, 6, 5); by steamer from the Jernbanebrygge (PI. D, E, 7) to Kongs- 
havn or Ormsund (about 12 times daily) ; or by railway from the principal 
station to Bwklcelaget (p. 75). 

The Ekeberg (400 ft.), a wooded hill to theS. of Oslo, commands 
beautiful views. One of the finest points is a rocky knoll, im- 
mediately to the left of the Liabro road (which, with the railway, 
skirts the fjord), 1 Engl. M. to the S. of the Oslo tramway terminus. 
Near this point is the steamboat-station Kongshavn, not far from 
which is a 'giant's cauldron' or cave, named Kong Kristian II.'s Hul. 
— Another good point is reached thus : beyond the tramway ter- 
minus follow the main road for8min., turning to the left beyond 
the bridge ; ascend the stony old road to the right for 12 min. ; turn 
to the right and follow the new road for 4 min. ; again go to the 
right, parallel with the slope next the town, pass the farm of Eke- 
berg (445 ft.), and follow a field-road towards the wood on the N.W. 
slope of the Ekeberg. After 5 min. we reach a fence and go to the 
right for a few hundred paces to a rocky platform affording a fine 
*View of the town and harbour. Then back to the farm of Ekeberg ; 
follow the top of the hill towards the S. for 8 min., and then to 
the W. (10 min.) to the farm Jomfrubraaten ; descend thence to 
the right to the (20 min.) above-mentioned Liabro road. 

Frogners^eter and Holmekollen: a walk of 7-8 hrg. or a drive 
of 5 hrs., there and back, including stay. Cab and pair to Holmekollen 8, 
to the Frognersseter 10 kr., there and back, including stay of l'/2 hr. ; 
better carriages at the hotels 15-16 kr. — Cab with one horse as far as 
the road between Grimelund and Eis (in s/ 4 hr.) 2, 2.80, 3.20, 3.60 kr., with 
two horses 3.20, 4.40, 4.80 kr., according to number of persons. From 
Grimelunds Grinden to the Frognerseeter is a walk of f/4 hr. 

We leave Christiania by the Hiegdehaugsvei (PI. A, 5) or by 
the Ulevoldsvei (PI. A, 3). The former leads by Majorstuen and 
Borgen , turns to the right about 2'/2 M. from the Stortorv , and, 
3 / 4 M. further, to the N. of the farm of Grimelund, joins the other 
route. The Ulevoldsvei , rather longer , leads past the foot of the 
hill on which stands Vestre Akers Kirke, past the lunatic asylum of 
Oaustad, which lies 3/ 4 M. higher, to the right, and below the farm 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden, fith w.dit. 2 



18 Route 2. FROGNERSAETER. 

of Ris. The actual ascent begins near the union of these two roads. 
A gate called Orimelunds Grinden leads into the wood, and there 
are several other gates farther on. At the Svenstue, an old cottage, 
we follow the road to the left. At this point begins the estate of 
the late Consul T. J. Heftye (d. 1886) , which was purchased by 
the city of Christiania in 1889 for the sake of the Frognersaeter and 
its famous view. About 5inin. farther we pass a small 'bauta' stone 
erected to Heftye 'by the youth of Christiania'. The road divides: 
the branch to the left leads to Holmekollen (see below), that to the 
right ascends past Bakkene to the Frognersaeter ("to which a path be- 
tween the two roads also leads). 

The *Frognersseter (1380 ft.), formerly Hr. Heftye's villa, now 
contains a collection of Norse antiquities (adm. 25 ».). Refresh- 
ments at the adjoining outbuildings. The veranda below and the 
balcony of the upper floor command a beautiful view of Christiania 
and the fjord. One of the adjoining buildings is from the Halling- 
dal (16th cent.). — The view is still more extensive from a 
wooden scaffolding on the Tryvandshaide (1710 ft.) , to which we 
ascend past the 0vre Frognerscster in 25min. more. In clear wea- 
ther we see the mountains of Telemarken to the N. (Gausta, p. 27), 
those of the Hallingdal to theN.W. (Norefjeld, p. 39), and the hills 
on the Swedish frontier to the E. 

The Maridalsvand , 4 M. to the E. of the Tryvandsb0ide, supplies 
Christiania with water. About 2 M. to the S.W. lies the Bogstadvand 
(475 ft.) , on which lies a farm of Baron Wedel-Javlsberg. A road de- 
scends from Bogstad to Lysaker (p. 19). 

The 'Reiser- Wilhelms Vei', a road opened on the occasion of 
Emp. William's visit in 1890, descends from the Frognersaeter, with 
pleasant views to the S.W., to the (!/ 4 hr.) Peisestue (Refreshmts.), 
situated on the Besserud-Tjern (1015 ft.), an artificial lake, where 
a finger-post indicates the way to the view-tower on the Holme- 
kollen or Holmenaas (^ hr.). Continuing to descend the road, we 
reach (10 min.) *Holmenaasens Sanatorium (957 ft.), a good hotel 
and restaurant which commands an even finer view of Christiania than 
the Frognersaeter. The road descends, forming a long bend at first, 
by the hill of Besserud (486 ft.), 0vre Holmen, and Smedstad 
(233 ft.), to the first of the two roads mentioned above, which 
leads to Christiania by Borgen and Majorstuen. 

Trips on the Fjord. Besides the steamers already mentioned, Nos. 93, 
96, 97 in the 'Communicationer' afford pleasant trips. The Bundefjord is 
worthy of a visit. 

3. From Christiania to the Randsfjord by Drammen 
and Hougsund. 

142 Kil. Railway (' Vestbane'') to Drammen (Com. P), express in l'/ 2 hr. 
(fares 2 kr. 95 0., 2 kr.), ordinary train in 2 1 /* hrs. (fares 2 kr. 40 i kr. 
60 0.); thence to Randtfjord (Com. I) three trains daily in 3-4 hrs.' (fares 
4 kr. 45, 2 kr. 60 0.). Narrow-gauge line. Second and third class only. 
— The railway traverses beautiful scenery, particularly between Riaken 
and Drammen and between Hougsund and H#nefos. 







Geo|rapliJai3t , t. Wagner A3)el)Ba 



iSTIANIA-KONGSii 




^tt BERG- RING 




^ 




Metres 



En^LMile 



KROGKLEVEN. 3. Route. 19 

The train starts from the Vest-Banegaard at Christiania (PI. B, 
7; p. 8). The finest -views are on the left. To the left we soon 
ohtain a yiew of the beautiful Christiania Fjord and of the penin- 
sula of Bygda, with the white chateau of Oscarshall and numerous 
villas. 

3 Kil. Bygde , on the hay of Frognerkilen , is the station for 
Bygd0 and Oscarshall (1 M. ; see p. 16). About l l / 2 M. distant 
is Kastelbakken, where snow-shoe races ('Skirend'; 'Skier', snow- 
shoes) take place in winter. — 6 Kil. Lysaker , at the mouth of 
the Serkedalselv , descending from the Bogstadvand (p. 18). 

To the right rises the porphyry range of the Kolsaas (1255 ft. ; 
extensive view) , the Skougumsaas, etc. The Silurian strata are 
here intersected by massive dykes of greenstone, especially near 
(10 Kil.) Hevik, where a dyke 2 ft. thick intersects the disinte- 
grated slate. The train skirts the Enger-Vand, on the right. 

13 Kil. Sandviken (Harreschou, well spoken of; Skyds-Station, 
near the railway-station), a beautifully situated village. 



From Sandviken to Kkogkleven and H»nefos, 43 Kil. — By 

early train from Christiania to Sandviken; thence by Skyds , ordered by 
telephone the day before (Tarifflll), to Sundvolden; ascend the Krogklev ; 
go on to H0nefos in the afternoon. 

The road crosses fheSandvikselv, diverges to the right from the 
Drammen road, and gradually ascends on the bank of the stream, 
with the Kolsaas (see above) rising to the right. We next ascend 
the Isidal. The road becomes steeper. The highest point is 1070 ft. 
above the sea. To the left, far below, we survey the Holsfjord, the 
S.E. arm of the Tyrifjord (210 ft.). The road is hewn in the rock 
at places. Beyond a rocky gateway called Skaret our road joins the 
'Svangstrandsvei' (p. 20) coming from Drammen and reaches the 
first station — 

16 Kil. (pay for 22 Kil. in this direction) Humledal, finely 
situated high above the Holsfjord. Then a beautiful descent to 
the fjord, the bank of which we follow to — 

13 Kil. Sundvolden (*Inn, R. 1 kr. 20, B. 80, D. 1 kr. 60 ». ; 
not a skyds-station, but carriages for hire). From Sundvolden we 
ascend by a rough path (best in the morning, if the weather is 
clear; horse 2 kr. 40 ».) to the (iy 2 hr.) *Krogklev, a rocky height 
[Kiev, 'cliff'), on the old road to Christiania. Ascending through a 
romantic gorge, we first come to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Klevstuen (1245 ft.), a 
poor inn, 5 min. below which, to the N.W., is the Dronningens 
Udsigt (Queen's View). Continuing to ascend to the W., following 
the white crosses on the trees we next reach the (25-30 min.) 
*Kongem TJdsigt (King's View; 1455 ft. above the sea, 1240 ft. 
above the fjord) Beautiful view, embracing the Tyrifjord with its 
islands the district of Ringerike, the Jonsknut near Kongsberg 
(p. 24),' the Norefjeld to the N.W. , and the Gausta (p. 27) to the 
W. in the distance. 

2* 



20 Route 3. VIK. From Christiania 

The view frpm the Gyrihang (2215 ft.; 4 M. to the N.E. of Sundvolden) 
is said to he even finer, but its ascent is more troublesome. It is gener- 
ally made direct from Christiania, via, Bogslad (p. 18) and the Serkedal, 
where tolerable quarters may be found at Lyse. Descent through a nar- 
row ravine to Sundvolden. — According to the legend the numerous is- 
lands in the Steensfjord are said to be stones once hurled by the giantess 
('Gygr' or 'Gyvr') of the Gyrihaug at the church of Steen (see below), 
which missiles, however, including even one of her own legs, all came 
short of their aim and fell into the lake. Like the battle of the giants 
against Odin and Thor in the Bdda, this legend is symbolical of the impo 
tent wrath of the powers of nature against the advance of human culture. 

The road to Henefos crosses the Krogsund, which connects the 
Tyrifjord with the Steensfjord. 

The nest station, 16 Kil. from Humledal and 3 Kil. from Sund- 
volden, is Vik (travellers in the reverse direction may drive on to 
Sundvolden without change of horses). About i / i hr. further, on 
the right, are the ruined church of Steen and (a little farther on) 
the tumulus of King Halfdan the Black (d. 860). After another 
V 4 hr. the road passes Norderhovs Kirke (375 ft.), in which Anna 
Kolbjernsdatter is interred. She was the wife of the pastor of the 
place, and in 1716, while her husband was ill, succeeded by stra- 
tagem in betraying 600 Swedish invaders into the hands of her 
countrymen. 

11 Kil. Henefos, see p. 23. 



The train to Drammen ascends through cuttings and two short 
tunnels to (15 Kil.) Slabende, where horse-races are held in June, 
and (20 Kil.) Hvalstad (219 ft.) , at the foot of the massive Skou- 
gumsaas (1130 ft.). It then crosses a wooden viaduct, 90 ft. high. 

23 Kil. Asker (340 ft.). The train skirts the foot of the Varde- 
kolle (1440 ft.), a granite peak rising to the S.W., and passes the 
small lakes Bondivand (325 ft.) and Gjellumvand (315 ft). At 
the S. end of the latter is (29 Kil.) Hceggedal , beyond which we 
pass the base of the precipitous Brejmaas. Beyond (34 Kil.) Beken 
(435 ft.) the train turns abruptly to the W. Numerous cuttings. 
Beyond a tunnel, 240 yds. long, a most picturesque and impos- 
ing *Vikw of the Drammens-Fjord, the town of Drammen, and the 
fertile valley of the Lier is suddenly disclosed to the left. The 
road from R»ken to Drammen descends at once to the fjord, while 
the railway passes through another tunnel and describes a long 
curve towards the N., descending gradually to the valley of Lier 
and the (46 Kil.) station of that name. 

From Lier (skyds-station Eikengen) a pleasant route, with 'fast' Skyds- 
stations, leads to the N., on the E. side of the valley, past the Paradis- 
bakker and the Engerfjeld, to the Holsfjord (p. 19). 14 Kil. Eager (well 
spoken of). The road, now called "Svangslrands-Veien, famed for its 
beauty, next ascends the Burderaas and leads high above the Holsfiord to 
(13 Kil.) Humledal (p. 19). 

From Lier the train runs towards the S., through a fertile tract, 
to (51 Kil.) Bragere, the E. end of Drammen (Bragernces) , and 
crosses the Drammens-Elv, and the island of Mellerholm or Hoi- 



to the Rands fjord. DRAMMEN. 3. Route. 21 

men with its timber-yards , to the Tangen and Stremse quarters, 
on the S. bank of the river. 

53 Kil. Drammen (comp. Plan, p. 19). — The Station ("Restau- 
rant) is close by the bridge. Drammen is the junction for Hougsund 
(change carriages ; p. 22) and for Laurvik and Skien (p. 33). 

Hotels. InStremse: "Central Hotel, opposite the station, entrance 
in a side-street, R. 2, L. V2, B. i, D. 2 kr.; Britannia, in the Frem-Gade, 
leading E. to Tangen. — In Bragernws: Hotel Kong Caul, Stor-Gade, 
near the market-place. 

Cab with one horse , for 1 person 40 0. per drive ; with two horses 
for 2 persons 60 0. — Omnibus from Bragernaes-Torvet to Tangen. 

Baths : Sommerfryd-Badeanstalt, on the E. side of Bragernses, at the 
end of Erik-B0rresens-Gaden , near the fire-engine station ; River Baths 
(Strembad) at Bragernaes. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Karl Gram. 

Steamboats to Holmestrand (p. 33) daily except Sun. (Com. 208); to 
Christiania 4 times a week (Com. 143) ; besides many others. 

Drammen, with 20,600 inhab., situated on both banks of the 
Drammenselv, consists of Bragernaes on the N. bank (rebuilt after 
its almost total destruction by fire in 1866), Stremsei on the S. side 
(which suffered severely from fires in 1870 and 1880), and Tangen 
to the S.E. The situation of Drammen on the estuary of the river, 
between lofty hills, is very picturesque. The trade of the place is 
considerable , consisting chiefly in the export of timber (annual 
value over 5,000,000 kr.), and of zinc and nickel from Skouger 
and Ringerike. The commercial fleet of Drammen is one of the 
largest in Norway (over 200 sailing-vessels and steamers). Sea- 
going vessels are berthed at the stone quays of Bragernaes. 

Close to the railway-station a Timber Bridge crosses the Dram- 
menselv, connecting Str»ms» and Bragernaes, and affording a pleas- 
ant and cool promenade in hot weather. The Brandposten (see 
below) , with its two flagstaffs , is conspicuous on the hill to the 
right. The bridge leads to the Bragemms-Torv, in which , to the 
right , are the Exchange (with the Post and Telegraph Offices, 
entrance in the Stor-Gade) , and facing us the Raadhus and Byret 
(court-house) , with the inscription Ret og Sandhed ('justice and 
truth'). Ascending straight on , between the two small towers of 
the Kirke-Gade, we reach the conspicuous Bbagbkn^s Church, a 
handsome Gothic brick edifice by Nordgren, built in 1866-71 . It 
contains a Resurrection by Tidemand (d. 1876), and an Angel 
over the font by Borch. (The 'Kirketjener' lives in the one-storied 
white wooden house opposite the sacristy, to the left.) 

To the E. of Bragernaes church we reach (12-15 min.) the 
*Brandpostbn , one of the finest points of view near Drammen, 
affording an extensive survey of Tangen, Str»ms0, and Bragernaes, 
of the island of Holmen , the valley of the Drammenselv, and the 
fjord. The veranda of the watchman's house is open to the public. 

The road ascends hence to the (35-40 min.) Klopkja-m (755 ft.), 
a sequestered lake in the midst of wood, which supplies the town 
with good water. Refreshments at the small house. A path ascends 



22 Route 3. HOUGSUND. 

to the right in 5 min. to Prinds Oscars Vdsiyt , overlooking the 
Lierdal and the fjord. 

A promenade ('Oscarsstien') connects the Klopkjaern with 
several fine points of view on the slopes of the *Bb,ag:ernjesaas, 
which may also be reached direct from Bragernies in 35-40 min. 
by a zigzag road, with numerous benches (Albumstien'). The 
views embrace the town and fjord , the valley up to Hougsund, 
etc. The finest points, Toppen , Furulund, and *Breidablik, are 
marked on the plan. The last affords the best view up the valley, 
most striking at sunset. 

Another fme point of view is the Sto'rstenfjeld (1750 ft.) , 8 M. to the 
N. ofDrammen, also ascended from Lier (p. 20). 

The Randsfjord Railway (carriages usually changed at Dram- 
men ; best views to the right) ascends the broad valley of the 
Drammenselv. 56 Kil. Gulskog ; 64 Kil. Mjendalen. 

70 Kil. Hougsund (*Bail. Restaurant), junction for Kongsbtrg 
(p. 24; change carriages). To the W. rises the Jonsknut (p. 24). 
Near Hougsund is the Hellefos, a fall of the Drammenselv, with 
salmon-fishery. 

The Randsfjord train turns to the N. and continues to ascend 
the Drammenselv. Beautiful scenery. Views on both sides. Several 
fine waterfalls. 75 Kil. Burud. Beyond (80 Kil.) Skotselven the 
train crosses the Drammenselv, which here forms the Deviksfos. 
86 Kil. Aamot, on the left bank of the river. On the opposite 
bank are seen the waterfall of the Simoa , descending from the 
Sigdal, and the Nykirke. Scenery at this point remarkably fine. 
A little farther on is the influx of the Snarums-Elv , descending 
from Lake Krederen and the Hallingdal. The train recrosses to 
the right bank. 92 Kil. Ojethus , near the Gravfos, with a large 
paper-mill. Pretty walk hence to the Hirsdal with the St. Olafs- 
gryder, large giants' cauldrons. 

96 Kil. Vikersund, junction for Lake Krederen (p. 39), lies at 
the efflux of the Drammenselv from the Tyrifjord. A bridge crosses 
the river to the church of Heggen. Thence to the Holsfjord, seep. 20. 

To the W. of Vikersund (carriages at the station , or at the neigh- 
bouring posting - station Krona) lies (i Kil.) St. Olafs-Bad, a favourite 
watering-place, with a chalybeate spring, mud-baths, inhaling-apparatus, 
and other appliances (pension, including baths, medical advice, etc., from 
6 kr. upwards). Beautiful walks in the neighbouring woods, with views 
of Ringerike and the Tyrifjord, also to the Kaggefos and other falls of 
the Snarumselv. This district is the scene of many traditions of St. Olaf. 
About 5 Kil. to the W. are the Cobalt Mines of Modum, worked by a Ger- 
man company, and the Hattgsfos. 

The train skirts the W. bank of the Tyrifjord, of which it 
affords beautiful views to the right. The wooded hills opposite are 
the Krogskog (with the Krogklev, p. 19) and the Gyrihaug (p. 20). 
105 Kil. Nakkerud. Ill Kil. Skjeerdalen, with several saw-mills. 
Near it is Ringerikes Nikktlverk. 118 Kil. Ask. The train now quits 
the Tyrifjord. 



H0NEFOS. 3. Route. 23 

124 Kil. Kenefos (*Glatved's Hotel, with a garden, pleasantly 
situated on the river in the N. part of the town, K. 2, D. 2, B. 
1 kr. 20 0.; Jernbane Hotel, near the station; Skyds-Station, in 
the S. part of the town), a small town with 1480 inhab., lies at the 
confluence of the Bcegna or Aadals-Elv, which descends from Lake 
Spirillen, and the Bandselv, coming from the Randsfjord. These 
rivers form the Storelv , which falls into the Tyrifjord, and after- 
wards emerges from it under the name of Drammenselv. 

The Bsegna-Elv, the larger of the two rivers, forms a waterfall 
and a cataract , close to the town , which are together known as 
the *Henefos. Though of no great height , these falls present an 
imposing appearance , especially in May and June , during the 
melting of the snow. A fine view of the falls and the environs is 
afforded by the bridge crossing the fall above the town , near the 
station, and by the two bridges within the town close to the falls. 
A number of flour-mills and saw-mills are driven by the falls. A 
channel on the left bank of the N. fall, which conveys the timber 
to the mills , is worth seeing. A road on the left bank of the 
Aadalselv leads in 1 hr. to the Hofsfos, another cascade, close to 
the railway to Heen. 

Travellers on their way to Valders, who have left Christiania by the 
first train , have time to alight at Hizrnefos , see the falls, walk in about 
IV2 hr. to Heen (see below), and there catch the Spirillen steamboat. 
They should, however, consult (he Communicationer and take a guide. 

The Ringkollen (2265ft), 5 M. to the E. of Htfnefos, is a beautiful 
point of view. To reach it we drive (in about 1 hr.) to Gjermundbo, and 
ascend thence on foot or on horseback with a guide in I1/2 hr. (Halfway 
up is the Gjermundswter, with a tourists' hut containing two beds.) 

From Hjzinefos to (14 Kil.) Stmdvolden , from which we may ascend 
Krogkleven, see p. 19; carrioles may be ordered at the hotels. 

From the station the H»nefos is seen from above, but not to ad- 
vantage. The train ascends the course of the Baegna and crosses it. 

131 Kil. Heen or Hen (Heen's Hotel; Skovheim) is a skyds- 
station. — To Lake Spirillen, see p. 44. 

Turning to the E., the train skirts the Hejaas (1490 ft.) and 
the Askelihoug (1410 ft.), traversing a sequestered wooded district. 

142 Kil. Randsfjord Station (*Inn), see p. 46. 

4. From (Christiania) Hougsund to Kongsberg and 
the B/jukanfos. 

From Hougsund to Kongsberg, 23 Kil., Railway (Com. K) in l>/3 hr. 
(fares 1 kr. 45, 80 0.). — From Kongsberg to Tinoset, 50 or 60 Kil. according 
to route, by Carriage in 10 hrs. (or drive to Bolkesjtf only, 4-4'/2 hrs., 
then row across the Folsj0, and walk to Tinoset, 5 hrs.). — From Tin- 
oset to Strand, 30 Kil., Steamboat in summer daily except Sun. in 2 3 /4 hrs. 
(Com. 334; fare 2 kr.; extra-trips 36 kr. for 9 pers.; 2 kr. for each pers. 
more). — From Strand to the Rjukcmfos: a drive of 3 hrs. to (22 Kil.) 
Vaaer (carriole 3.60, there and back 5.40; stolkjan-re 5.40 or 8.10; can-, 
and pair for 2-4 pers., there and back, 12, 16, or 18 kr., and 2.18 more 
if a night is spent out). Walk thence of 3 ,4 hr. to the fall. 



24 Route 4. KONGSBERG. From Hougsund 

From Christiania to Hougsund, see pp. 19-22. The Kongsberg 
train (finest views to the left) first stops at — 

5 Kil. Vestfossen, with several factories, near the beautiful 
Elcersje or Fiskumvand (60 ft.) , bounded by lofty mountains on 
the E. side. 11 Kil. Darbo. 15 Kil. Krekling , where the slate- 
formation predominates. Farther on we obtain a fine view of the 
mountains towards the S. At (22 Kil.) Skollenborg (540 ft.) sand- 
stone appears and the country becomes sterile. The Labrofos (see 
below) is 3/ 4 M. to the S.W. To the left rises the Skrimsfjeld (see 
below). The train approaches the Laagen, which forms a waterfall. 

28 Kil. Kongsberg. — Hotels. Victoria, far from the station, in 
the W. part of the town, on the right bank, R. & L. 2 kr., A. 40, B. 
80 0. ; Bkitannia, on the left hank, near the station, well spoken of; 
Nokbte's Privat-Hotel. All three often crowded in summer. 

Carriages to Tinoset: Carriole for 1 pers. 15, there and hack 23 kr. 
46 0. ; carriage and pair for 2 pers. 30 or 49 kr. 68 0., for 3 pers. 36 or 
62'/2 kr. ; for stay at Tinoset of more than one night , 4 kr. extra per 
horse for each day. To Bolkesje or Hitterdal, carriole 8 kr. 12, carriage 
and pair for 2 pers. 12 kr. 96, for 3 pers. 16 kr. 20 0. 

Kongsberg (490 ft.) , an uninviting but not unpicturesque 
town, on the Laagen or Laugen, in the S. part of the Numedal 
(p. 28), contains 5250 inhab. (only half its former population), 
who are almost all dependent on the mines. Most of the houses 
are timber-built, but the large Church of the 18th cent, and the 
Raadhus are of stone. The town owes its origin to the Silver Mines 
in the vicinity, and was founded in 1624 in the reign of Christian IV. 
In the town are situated the Smeltehytte, or smelting-works, where 
specimens of the ore may be purchased , the Mynt (mint) , and a 
government Vaabenfabrik (weapon-factory) , the last of which is 
near the Hammerfos. The rapid Laagen is crossed by two bridges. 
A monument to Christian IV. was erected here in 1883. 

The Silver Mines of Kongseekg, the property of government, now 
yielding b l ji-l tons annually, are about 4 M. to the W. of the town. They 
were discovered in 1623 and have been worked with varying success. Of 
130 mines opened since the discovery of the ore , seven only are now 
worked, and four only are of any importance, viz. the Kongens-Grube, 
Gottes-Hiilfe, Armen-Grube, and Haus-Sachsen (greatest depth about 1400ft.). 
Besides the shafts descending to these mines there are two level adits, the 
Fredriks-Stollen and the Christians- Stoll en, entering them from the hill-side, 
the latter being 300 ft. below the other. The veins of native silver are 
mingled with sulphuret of silver and copper-pyrites , occurring generally 
in layers of calcareous spar. — Permission to see the mines is obtained 
at the offices in the market-place, but the visit hardly repays the fatigue 
(guide 2 kr.). 

The Jonsknut (2950 ft.), which rises about 2'/2 M. to the W. of the mines, 
commands an extensive view of Telemarken. It is ascended from Kongs- 
berg in 4 hrs. (there and back 6 hrs.). A path indicated by red and 
white marks leads from the Jonsknut, by the Li-Sueter , the Nor-Sceter, 
and the Selsli- Salter, to (7 hrs.) Bolkesju (p. 25). — About 10 M. S. of 
Kongsberg rises the Skrimsfjeld (2946 ft.), another point of view. 

About 3 M. below the town the Laagen forms the Labrofos, a fine 
waterfall, 140 ft. in height, which deserves a visit. — Another fall of the 
same river is the Hvitingfos, 12 M. further distant on the Laurvik road. 

Feom Kongsberg to Tinoset there are two roads, the shorter 




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to the Bjukanfos. BOLKESJ0. 1. Route. 25 

and more picturesque, but rougher, via Bolkesje (no Skyds) , and 
the high-road via, Hitterdal. 

a. Via Bolkesw. We follow the road ascending the Numedal 
on the right hank of the Laagen for 4 Kil. (p. 28) , turn to the 
left into the Jondal, and ascend through the pines on the right 
bank of the Jondals-Elv. Farther on we cross to the left bank. 
After about 4 hrs. (including a short rest) we reach the culmi- 
nating point of the route (1825 ft.), where we obtain a magnificent 
view of the mountains of Telemarken, the most conspicuous being 
the Lifjeld (p. 30) and the Gausta (p. 27), appearing from this 
point like a blunted cone. Near Bolkesja the landscape becomes 
more smiling, the foreground being formed, by the Bolkesje (1030 ft.) 
and the larger Folsje (710 ft.). 

28 Kil. (from Kongsberg) Bolkesj> (1285 ft. ; Hotel and Sa- 
natorium, R. 2, B. 1, D. 2, S. 1 kr.). — [Walkers may cross the 
Bolkesj» by boat, descend to the Folsjfl and row across it to Vik 
(17 2 br. ; fare from 1 kr. 20 to 2 kr. 25 m. for 1-4 pers.), and 
walk thence to (3i/ 2 hrs.) Tinoset.] 

Beyond Bolkesje the road leads through wood, high up on the 
N.W. bank of the Folsje, commanding views of the Bleifjeld 
(4490ft.) to the right. At the W. end of the lake lie the houses 
of Vik, li^hr.'s drive from Bolkesja. The road descends to the 
Tin-Elv, and crosses it near the church of Orandsherred. About 
5 min. later (II/4 hr.'s drive from Vik) we reach the high-road 
described below, on which a drive of 35 min. to the N. brings us 
to Tinoset. 

b. Via Hitterdal. The road at first runs towards the S., but 
after 4 Kil. turns to the W. into the valley of the Kobberbergs-Elv. 
To the right rises the Jonsknut (p. 24). The road gradually ascends 
the wooded Meheia and after 2-21/2 hrs. reaches Jerngruben 
(tolerable inn ; 1330 ft.), where the horses are usually rested for an 
hour. The road continues to ascend for some distance , and then 
traverses the plateau (1450 ft.) in numerous undulations. On 
emerging from the forest it descends into the Hitterdal , com- 
manding a beautiful view : in front the mountains of Telemarken, 
the Himingen (3450 ft. ; p. 30) and the Haksfjeld, to the left the 
Hitterdalsvand. Our road unites with that coming from Skien 
and skirting the E. bank of the Hitterdalsvand (p. 36). 

28 Kil. (pay for 36) Notodden {Hotel Furuheim, kept by J. G. 
Thomassen, R. 2, D. 2, S. 1 kr., B. 80 0. ; horses obtainable; 
Victoria, with the skyds-station , 3 / 4 M. distant, near the pier of 
the Hitterdal steamers , p. 36), near the N. end of the Hitterdals- 
vand. The drive from Kongsberg to Notodden takes 4y 2 hrs. , in the 
reverse direction at least 5i/ 2 hrs. The horses are rested here 2 hrs. 

The road now crosses the Tin-Elv. About 5 min. above the 
bridge the river forms the beautiful *Tinfos , which is best sur- 
veyed from the adjoining mill. The road, now almost level, ascends 



26 Routed. TINOSET. From Hougsund 

the valley, passing Lysthus. About 6 Kil. from Notodden, on the 
right, rises — 

*Hitterdals Kirke, a grotesque - looking church, the largest of 
the fifteen mediaeval Norwegian 'Stavekirker' or timber -built 
churches which are still preserved. The architecture and ornamen- 
tation of these singular churches date as far back as the 12th cent., 
the plan corresponding, so far as the difference of material allows, 
to that of Anglo-Norman churches of the same period. To the 
body of the church, nearly square in form, is added a square choir 
terminating in a semicircle. The broad and lofty nave is separated 
from the low aisles by means of wooden columns. Over the gable- 
end of the nave rises a square tower , which also has a gabled roof 
and terminates in a slender spire. The ornamentation of these 
gables resembles that of the prow of a ship. The roof of the choir 
is lower and is adorned with round turrets. Round the whole of 
the outside of the building runs a low arcade (Lop) , probably 
added as a shelter for the congregation in bad weather before or 
after the service ; the lower part is closed , while the upper part 
is open and borne by small columns. The capitals of the columns, 
the doors and door-frames , and other suitable parts of the edifice 
are embellished with elaborate and fantastic carvings , represent- 
ing entwined dragons, intermixed with foliage and figures. The 
projections from the ridges of the roof and gables are also carved 
in grotesque forms. The church has suffered greatly from unskilful 
restoration in 1850. The key ('Neglen') is obtained at the par- 
sonage, opposite the entrance to the church. 

The road continues tolerably level. The gaards of Bamle and 
Kaasa are passed. To the left the Himingen and the Hfeksfjeld 
remain conspicuous. To the right rises the Kjeivingfjeld(21Qb ft.), 
which our road skirts towards the N., while the road to Leivheim 
(p. 30) diverges to the left. "We ascend the course of the 0rvalla, 
a stream which has forced its way through huge masses of debris, 
now overgrown with pines and firs, and cross it several times. At 
the 'Plads' Bakken, about 21 Kil. from Notodden, the horses are 
rested. The road from Grandsherred and Bolkesje (p. 25) joins 
ours on the right, 5 Kil. farther on. After 5 Kil. more we reach — 

32 Kil. Tinoset (KaaWs Inn, at the pier, tolerable, often full, 
R. 1 kr. 20, B. 80, D. 1 kr. 50 »., S. 1 kr.), a group of houses at 
the S. end of the Tinsj# (615 ft.), a lake about 22 Engl. M. long 
and I-IV2 M. in width. A small screw-steamboat ('Gausta') plies 
on the lake daily (see p. 23) between Tinoset and Sigurdsrud at the 
N. end. Small boat to Strand 13 kr. 60 e. (not recommended). 

The Tinsjtf resembles the Spirillen, but its banks are lower. The 
steamer calls at Sanden (on the left) and Hovin (on the right), and 
at several other stations. The finest point in the landscape is the 
Haakencesfjeld, which the steamer skirts. Beyond it, 23/ 4 hrs. from 
Tinoset, we reach — 



to the Rjukanfos. UJUKANFOS. 4. Route. 27 

Strand {Fagerstrand's Hotel, at the pier, It. li/ 2l D- 2, S. 1 kr., 
B. 80 e\ ; Brnces Hotel; Framnas Hotel), near the church ot Mcel, 
at the mouth of the Maan-Elv. 

The good, and for the first 18 Kil. tolerably level, road (carriages 
p. 23) ascends the beautiful Vestfjord - Dal, on the left bank of 
the Maan-Elv. To the right opens the Haakedal. The imposing 
Gausta soon becomes visible on the left. In 1 hr. we reach (9 Kil.) 
Nyland (small *Inn), the station for the ascent of the Gausta 
(6180ft.; view disappointing), the highest mountain in S. Norway 
(ascent 6, descent 4 hrs. ; guide 6 kr. ; the night may be spent at the 
sseter of Svineroi, 3 hrs. from Nyland). We pass (3 Kil.) the strag- 
gling village of Dale (no inn), at the foot of the Gausta. (From Dale 
to Moseb» and Lavheim, see p. 30.) About 6 Kil. farther the road 
becomes steeper and ascends the left side of the beautiful valley. 
Grand view of the Gausta, as we look back. We alight at — 

4 Kil. Vaaer, or Vaa, a small hamlet (no inn), 22 Kil. from 
Strand (a drive of 3-3 y 2 hrs.). A steep path (guide unnecessary) 
ascends hence to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Krokan (2300 ft. ; *Inn of the Turistfore- 
ning, small and often full, It. lkr. 60 «., S. 2, B. 1 kr. 20), about 
250 paces beyond which, passing a memorial-stone of Consul Hef- 
tye, we reach the point where the magnificent *Bjukanfos ('reek- 
ing' or 'foaming fall') bursts upon the view. The waterfall, formed 
by the copious Maan-Elv, is about 800 ft. in height. The scene is 
stupendous in the early summer, when the river is swollen with 
melted snow. The adjuncts of the fall are also very picturesque. 
Our point of view is 500 yds. from the fall, but it is not advisable 
to approach nearer, as some of the projecting rocks are not very se- 
cure. A well-defined path (rather slippery in wet weather), which 
the traveller should not quit, descends into the valley (10 min.), 
affording a view of the fall from below. 

Fkom the Rjukanfos 10 the Haedangee Fjokd : two routes, one to 
Odde, another to Eidfjord; the former is preferable, but both are fatigu- 
ing and should not be attempted before July. Guide at Krokan (bargain 
advisable). 

To Odde, 4-5 days: — 1st Day. From Krokan a steep ascent, following 
the upper course of the Maanelv, by a fatiguing path, often through snow 
in the early summer, to (4 hrs.) Holvik (tolerable inn), on the Mjesvand 
(2945 ft.), a lake 22 M. long and l-2'/ 2 broad. To the YV. rise the huge 
Raulandsfjeld (5175 ft.) and the Teseggen. The lake is then crossed by 
boat, passing Mjessiranden, to (3'/2 hrs.) the W. bank, whence a path, 
rough and marshy at places, and crossing the Bitdalselv, leads in 6 hrs. 
to Rauland (Inn, tolerable), or to Berge (Inn, fair), a little farther on, both 
on the N. bank of the Totakvand (2230 ft.). ' [A rough and marshy bridle- 
path leads direct from Holvik to Berge in 7-8 hrs.; or we may row from 
Holvik to Erlandsgaard in l 1 ^ hr., walk to Oibeen in 2'/2 hrs. by a path 
indicated by marks, cross theS. arm of the Mjosvand in V2hr., and walk 
to Berge, passing the handsome gaard of Gjuveland, in 5 hrs.] — 2nd Day. 
Row (each pers. 1 kr.) from Rauland or from Berge in 1 hr. to Kostveit 
on the S. bank; ride or drive thence in 21/2 hrs. to (14 Kil.) Jamsgaard 
i Vinje, and thence to (4 Kil.) Heggestal, Botten, and Haukeli (see p. 32). 
[Or we may row from Berge or Rauland to Brmielid in 2 hrs. (3-4 kr.), 
ascend through the steep Grungedalsbygd to Nylwnd (p. 31) in 3 '/a hrs., and 
go on thence to Haukeli.} From Haukeli to Odde (two days), see p. 62. 



28 Route 4. SKJ0NNE. 

To the V0RING9FOS and Eidfjord, 3-4 days, f(ir walkers i inly : — 1st Day. 
From Krokan to Holvik (see above) in 4 hrs.; row thence in 3'/'2 hrs. to 
Mjesstrand, and in 3'/2-4 hrs. more to the N. end of the lake; walk in 
Va hr. to Mogen (poor quarters). — 2nd Day (with guide to Eidfjord, 16 kr.). 
The path ascends N.W. to the (6 Kil.) Gjuvsje, abounding in fish, passes 
several small tarns on the left, and crosses (9 Kil.) the Gjuvaa or SkvaeUa. 
It next passes three mountain-lakes, where the soil is boggy and the 
scenery desolate. The Fjeldsje remains to the left, the Lakensje and the 
large Nordmcmdslaagen (4155 ft. ; refuge-hut) to the right. Lastly we cross 
the Bessaelv, a considerable stream which falls into the Normandslaagen, 
and soon reach (after a laborious walk of 12-13 hrs. in all) the stone hut 
of Bessabu (very poor quarters). — 3rd Day. Over the wild and bleak 
Hardanger Vidda to (25 Kil.) Bwrrastelen in 5-6 hrs., whence a good path 
leads in 2 hrs. to the (9 Kil.) Veringsfos (p. 102), near which is the gaard 
Hel, where the night may be spent. From H0l to Eidfjord 3>/z-4 hrs. 



From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the Numedal. 

4-5 Days. Of the three great routes (comp. pp. 44, 53) leading from 
E. Norway across the Fjeld to the W. coast, this is the least attractive. 
The inhabitants, however, are interesting, as they have retained more of 
their primitive characteristics and traditions than those of Valders or the 
Hallingdal. 

A Carriage-Road with fast stations leads through the Humedal to 
Bresterud in the Opdal (123 Kil.), from which driving is also practicable to 
Floten, 11 Kil. farther, beyond which the traveller must ride or walk. 

The road follows the right bank of the Laagen, which descends 
from the Nordmandslaagen in Hardanger (see above). Scenery 
rather monotonous. 

17 Kil. Svennesund. Farther on we pass the church of Flesberg, 
on the left bank of the Laagen. 14 Kil. Sendre Flesberg ; 16 Kil. 
Alfstad (good quarters); 17 Kil. Helle, near the S. end of the Kra- 
vik-Fjord (868 ft.). The scenery improves. The road runs for 22 Kil. 
along the bank of the Kravikfjord and Norefjord, which had better 
be traversed by boat, and passes many thriving farm-houses. One 
of the old buildings of Gaard Kravik is said to date from the 12th 
century. The Nore-Kirke, on the W. bank of the Norefjord, an old 
timber-built church now doomed to demolition, contains curious 
paintings and inscriptions. — The Eidsfjeld (4940 ft. ; guide, El- 
ling Vaale of Brobakken, 4 kr.), rising to the S., may be ascended 
from Nore in one day. 

27 Kil. Skjeume (920 ft. ; good quarters). 

From Skjflnne across the Fjeld to Hoi in the Hallingdal, 1V2-2 days. 
The bridle-path ascends rather steeply, skirting the Laagen, which rushes 
through its channel far below, and passing the 0ygaarde, to the (11 Kil.) 
S. end of the Tunhevd-Fjord (2625 ft.). At Haga we take a boat and 
ascend the lake, being towed through several rapids, to the (18 Kil.) N. end. 
Then a steep ascent to Tunhevd, a hill-farm (good quarters). Next day we 
cross monotonous 'Heier' (barren heights), skirting the EedungsvandCiSlO ft.) 
and the base of the Sangerfjeld (3900 ft.), and passing several sseters, to 
Hoi (p. 43). 

Beyond Skjemne the road turns to the W. into the Opdal, and 
the scenery becomes very picturesque. Within the next 8 Kil. the 
road ascends 600 ft. to the Fennebufjord (1525 ft.), at the W. end 
of which is (1 1 Kil.) Liverud. Thence to ( 21 Kil.) Bresterud (2625 ft.) 



NUMEDAL 5. Route. 29 

a continuous and rather monotonous ascent. Quarters may also be 
had at Nerstebe, a little higher up. 

From Br0sterud to Hoi in the Hallingdal a mountain-path leads in I-IV2 
days. It ascends past the Vass and Hefde sseters in 4 hrs. to (17 Kil.) 
Aasberg (quarters and horses at Gunnar Aaasberg's and Halvor Kjanaas's) 
in Dagalid (2750 ft.). The hill which we have first to cross (3960 ft.) com- 
mands a view, to the N.W., of the Hallingskarv (5735 ft.) and the whole 
of the Jotunheim chain (p. 134). We again cross the Fjeld to the Bkurdal 
(10 Kil.; 2740ft. ; quarters at Guttormsgaard), and then another height by a 
road to the (17 Kil.) Ustadal (quarters at Jeilo and Tufto); lastly past several 
farms to Hammersbeien and Hoi (p. 43). 

For the route across the mountain ' Vidda' ('width', or 'ex- 
panse') to theHardanger (100 Kil., two days at least] a guide should 
he engaged lower down the valley (12 kr.), and a supply of pro- 
visions obtained. The route starts from the FLoten farm (2390 ft.), 
2'/2 Kil. N.W. of Brersterud (good quarters), at first follows the 
sseter-path, and then traverses a lofty plateau (4000 ft.) command- 
ing an extensive view in every direction. It passes the S. side of the 
Solheims fjeld, the Skarsvand, and the Ylgelidbjergetsceter, near which 
a tourists' hut was erected in 1891, and then leads round theHelje- 
bretefjeld to the Ojetsje, where the Laagen is crossed by boat. We 
next go either direct along the Store Nordmandsslcebet to the Hol- 
metjem (see below), and pass the night in one of the fishermen's 
huts on the Gjetsj«r (indifferent quarters), or to Hansbu (3380 ft.), 
a fisherman's hut at the E. end of the Langesje (3990 ft. ; 45 Kil. 
from Floten), near which a second tourists' hut was opened in 1892. 
— Next morning our route leads round the Eedhellerfjeld (4690 ft.) 
to the N.W. to the Holmetjern, and then, crossing the boundary 
between the Numedal and the Hallingdal, and skirting the Svinta, 
reaches the Nybu-Scetre (3600 ft.), on the Nybusje, the first on the 
W. side of the fjeld (Vestenfjeldske Norge). Beyond this we gener- 
ally follow the course of the Bjereia, which lower down forms the 
V»ringsfos(p. 102), and cross patches of snow, brooks, and marshes. 
The path is marked by 'Varder', or signals, as far as Storlien; thence 
to Maurscet (2370 ft.) and the gaard of Hel it cannot be mistaken 
(comp. p. 102). 



5. From Christiania to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord. 
Telemarken. 

Comp. the Maps, pp. 24, 98. 
Telemarken, one of the most picturesque districts in S. Nor- 
way, extending from the vicinity of Kongsberg on the E. to the 
Haukeli-Saeter on theW., and from Kragera on the S. to the Har- 
danger Vidda on the N., contains several beautiful lakes, a number 
of fine waterfalls, and much wild mountain-scenery. Many of the 
lakes afford excellent trout - fishing , and some of the mountains 
and forests afford good shooting. The following description em- 



30 Route 5. L0VHEIM. From Christiania 

braces the two chief routes through the district from E. to W. The 
above Ii. 4 also traverses part of Telemarken. 

a. Via Kongsberg. 

393 Kil. Railway to Kongsberg, 98 KiL, see RR. 3, 4; carriage-road 
thence to Odde, with fas^t stations, 295 Kil. (Tariff III). 

This route may easily be accomplished in 4-5 days, but 8-10 days should, 
if possible, be devoted to it. Travellers by this route, desirous of seeing 
the Rjukanfos and of avoiding the rough route thence to Odde (p. 27) may 
visit the waterfall from Hitterdal, returning by the same route, in 2 days. 
The direct route may be divided into the following stages: — 1st Day. 
Early train to Kongsberg (arr. about noon) ; drive to Levheim in 8-9 hrs. 
— 2nd Day. Drive to Mogen in 10-12 hrs. — 3rd Day. Drive to Haukeli 
in 12 hrs. — 4th Day. Drive to Reldal in 4 hrs., and either go on the 
same day to Odde, or — 5th Day. Drive to Odde in 9-10 hrs. 

From Christiania to Kongsberg, and thence to Notodden and the 
church of Hitterdal, see It. 4. About 10 Kil. beyond the church of 
Hitterdal the road to the Tinsj» (p. 26) diverges to the right (N.), 
while our route leads to the W. — Pedestrians will be repaid by 
leaving the high-road about 1 Kil. beyond Hitterdals-Kirke, cross- 
ing the river, ascending the Himingen (3450ft.), an isolated, 
pyramidal hill which commands an admirable view in every direc- 
tion, and descending thence to Mosebe (see below), a walk of 
7-8 hrs. (guide desirable). 

22 Kil. L«vheim (good station), amid pretty scenery, a little to 
the E. of Saulands Kirke, 

From L#veeim to Siljokd (p. 31), about 24 Kil., a mountain-path leads 
to the S.W., ascending the Grundingsdal, watered by the Mjcella. On the 
Slaakuvand, halfway, is the Hotel Lifjeld, the starting-point for the ascent 
of the Lifjeld (see below). 

Less than 2 Kil. further is Mosebe (quarters at the Landhand- 
ler's). 

From 3Ioseb0 to Dale (p. 27), about 40 Kil., an interesting route. Car- 
riage-road to Been in the Tudal, 23 Kil.; thence by a sfeter-path (with 
guide) across the spurs of the Gausta and past the Langefond-Soster to Dale 
in 4-5 hrs. By sleeping at B0en and starting very early next morning, we 
may ascend the Gausta on the way (p. 27). 

The scenery becomes wilder and grander. We pass the Hjarsje 
(490 ft.) on the left. 

18 Kil. Skovheim i Hjcerdal or Hjartdal (good station), start- 
ing-point for the ascent of the Vindegg (4890 ft. ; 5-6 hrs., with 
guide; there and back 8-10 hrs.), which towers to the N. 

The road continues to ascend. About 7 Kil. from Skovheim we 
follow the road to Flatdal, which diverges to the S., while the road 
to Aamotsdal leads to the N.W. 

From Skovheim to Aamotsdal 23 Kil. ; thence to Rauland on the To- 
takvand (p. 27) about 30 Kil., or to the Mjesvand (p. 27) 20 Kil. ; by Ra- 
pelid to Vaaer (p. 27) 28 Kil. 

The Flatdal road crosses the watershed of the Hjserdal and de- 
scends in zigzags, commanding beautiful views, to Flatdal, with its 
little church and sprinkling of farms. It then skirts the E. bank 
of the Flatdalsvand, ™t>, the- Skorvefield f4380 ft.) rising in the 



to Odde. MOGEN. 5. Route. 31 

background. Adjoining the lake is the Spaadomsnut, the falling of 
which into the water, according to tradition, will be the prelude to 
the end of the world. Farther on we obtain a view of the Siljords- 
vand (385ft.), a picturesque lake, 8'/2 M. in length, and the Lifjeld 
(5085 ft.), on which two French aeronauts descended in 1870, 
having arrived in their balloon from Paris in 15 hours. At the W. 
end of the lake, which our road passes, lie the church of Siljord 
and the gaard of Orov, at the junction of a road to Skien. 

22 Kil. (pay for 28) Utb«en i Siljord (fair quarters ; also at the 
adjacent Oppebaeri), prettily situated beyond the stream flowing 
into the lake. 

We pass, 14 kil. from Siljord, Brunkebergs-Kirke (1290ft.), 
splendidly situated on the watershed, where the road forks. The 
left (S.) arm leads to (17 Kil. from Utbeen) Kirkebei, a station of 
the steamer which plies on the Hvidesjtf and the Bandaksvand 
(p. 36). Our road leads to the right (N.W.) through the Morge- 
dal, passing two small lakes (1390 ft.), to — 

16 Kil. (pay for 22) Hemmestveit i Brunkeberg (good station). 
19 Kil. (pay for 26) Mogen iHeiidalsmo(j>ooi station), near several 

lakes, where a road diverges to the S. to (llKil.) Laurdal on the Ban- 
daksvand (p. 37). A hilly but picturesque bye-road leads hence to- 
wards the N. to (37 Kil.) Rauland on theTotakvand (p. 27). — We 
cross a range of hills of considerable height. Near Aamodt (2 Kil. 
short of Tveiten) the road crosses the Toke-Elv, which descends 
from the Totakvand and forms a fine fall called the Hyllandsfos 
3 /4 M. to the N. of Aamodt. 

17 Kil. (pay for 24) Tveiten or Tveten (poor station). — Farther 
on is the house of Mule, prettily situated above the E. endofthe Vinje- 
vand. The hilly road then ascends the N. bank of the lake for about 
200 yds., passing several farms, among which hJamsgaard, where 
a road diverges to Kostveit on the Totakvand (p. 27). We then 
descend abruptly to the church of Vinje, at the N.W. end of the 
Vinjevand. Here a beautiful view is obtained of the Midtfjeld 
(4580 ft.) and of the Orm-Eggen to the S.W. 

12Kil.(pay forl9)Heggesterl (tolerable station). The road crosses 
the Orungedals-Elv by a lofty bridge, where it is joined by the new 
road fromDalen on the Bandaksvand (p. 38), and follows the right 
bank of the river towards the N. , first passing through a pine-wood, 
and then ascending to the hamlet of Kringlegd. The Flaatebunut 
on the Totakvand comes into sight to the N., and remains in view 
during the rest of the journey through the somewhat monotonous 
valley. The road crosses the river, and is here joined on the right 
by a footpath from Brunelid on the Totakvand (p. 27). It then turns 
shaTply to the W. and soon reaches the pretty Grungedalsvand 
(1590 ft), abounding in fish. 

13 Kil. Nylasnd (*Grunyedals Hotel, R. l-iy 2 , D. l'/V^ kr -J- 
The next part of the route, skirting the green but shallow lake, 



32 Route 5. BOTTEN. From Christiania 

and affording a good view of the Ourifjeld, is very picturesque. 
Beyond the Church of Orungedal we reach the farms of Edland or 
Eilandt, -where travellers in the reverse direction generally halt for 
t/2 hr. The road crosses the foaming Geislauselv and. follows the left 
bank of the Flaathyl-Elv. To the left (S.) we see the fine Vafos 
descending from the Nedre Langeidvand in a series of hold leaps. 
The route now ascends a monotonous valley, passing several farms, 
of which the two of Flaathyl are the most important. After having 
forced its way through a rocky barrier in a series of falls and rap- 
ids, the Flaathylelv forms several Hel, or deep pools. The largest 
of these waterfalls (to the left, close to the road) is the Lille Rjukan- 
fos ('little foaming fall'), the best point for surveying which is the 
projecting rock near its foot. The largest Hal is the Ekelidhel 
(2290 ft.). Continuing to ascend, we at last reach — 

26 Kil. Botten i Orungedal (2590 ft. ; good station ; shooting 
and fishing), on the pretty Voxlivand (2500 ft.). 

Fkom Botten to Stavangee. Good walkers (for the path is almost 
too rough for riding) may go to the S. W. to (45 Kil.) Jordbrmkke, a walk 
of 14-16 hrs., and (7 Kil.) Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand (see p. 92). 

The road skirts the Voxlivand, passing the farm of Voxli 
on the right , and the *Hotel Nystel on the left , and then the 
Arrebuvand and the Evenbuvand. This region is almost uninhab- 
ited, a few old and dying pines alone relieving its monotony. 
The road keeps to the right, on the hill, and reaches a point 
commanding a fine *View of the mountains to the W. : to the left 
Vasdalseggen (5765 ft.), then Kistebunuten , the Kallevasheia, 
and Sveien. Below us , to the left, lies the Kjcelavand (2940 ft.), 
to the S. of which rises the Kjcelatind. Trees disappear. 

18 Kil. Haukeli-Sseter, at the E. end of the Staavand (3085 ft.). 

Good quarters (from 15th June to 15th Sept.) at fixed rates: hedroom 
1 kr. ; bed in one of the 'cabins' 50 0. ; two pers. in one room 70 0. each ; 
B. or S. 60 0.-1 kr., D. l-l 3 /4 kr. according to number of courses. Adjoin- 
ing the inn is a tasteful new 'Stabbur', with small bedrooms and good 
beds on the upper floor. New dining-room, opened in 1891. — Skyds 
according to tariff II. 

The saeter lies amidst imposing scenery, and commands an un- 
impeded view of the fjeld. The peaks and even parts of the plateau 
remain covered with snow as late as August. Herds of reindeer 
browse in the vicinity, descending to the lake in the afternoon. 

The road to Reddal, opened in 1886 , leads N.W., skirting the 
Staavand. After about 10 min. we get a glimpse of the Storefond 
to the right, and y t hr. farther on is a ruined bridge on the left, 
over which the old bridle-path led. About 21/2 M. from Haukeli, 
we cross the JJlevaa-Elv, which descends from the N. and forms the 
•boundary between the districts of Bratsberg and S«ndre Bergenhus ; 
to the right it forms several low but very broad cascades. After 
1 M. more we reach the VLevaavand (3095 ft. ; 2 M. long), to the 
left, the N. bank of which our road skirts. We are now in the heart 
of a fjeld solitude. rr " +T >» rio-bt we have a fine view of the preci- 



to Odde. DYRESKARD. 5. Route. 33 

pitous Store Nup and the Store fond, and to the left Sveien; in front 
rises the Stafsnut, to the right of which are the Rekkingsnut and the 
Midtdyrnstene. 

After a drive of I-IV4 hr. (5^2 M.) from Haukeli, we cross the 
Midtdyr-Elv, turn to the S., and at the foot of the Dyrnut, the E. 
part of the Stafsnut, begin to ascend the pass of Dyreskard (3715 ft; 
watershed), the top of which we reach in t/ 2 hr. more. To the left 
is a 'Varde', erected by King Oscar II. The road now leads to the 
W. through a wilderness of snow and stones, sometimes descending 
slightly. To the right is Stafsnuten, to the left Sveien and the 
narrow green 0isteinvand. To the left , below the road , about 
9Y2 M. from Haukeli, lies the Midtloiger- Sorter ; and on the road, 
5 min. farther, is the Nye Midtlager-Sater (milk and bread). About 
10 min. later the three houses of Svandalsflaaene and several small 
lakes appear below us to the left; in 10 min. more we reach the 
hill of Staven, and in 5 min. more begin to descend. To trie right, 
below, lies the Tarjebudal, with the saeters of Tarjebudal and Nya 
Stel; to the W. , in front of us, is the Horrehei. In 10 min. we 
cross by the Risbubro to the right bank of the Risbu-Aa, and then 
descend, rapidly in huge zigzags. Near (10 min.) the 0stmanlid 
Sater we have a fine glimpse of the Reldalsvand. Walkers here 
take a short-cut. The scenery improves. After 20 min. we cross 
the Vasdalselv and follow its right bank. In front of us is the 
Novle-Fos, near which the road passes 10 min. later. The Rel- 
dalsvand again (5 min.) comes into sight, backed by the Holmenut 
and Reldalsaaten (4125 ft.). A drive of 12 min. more brings us to — 

30 Kil. Gryting i Reldal (p. 93). From this point to (28 Kil.) 
Seljestad and (26 Kil.) Odde see pp. 93, 94. By spending a night 
at Reldal the traveller will be enabled to enjoy the Seljestad road 
more thoroughly. 

b. Via Skien. 

6 Days , or less , if need be (finer than the route by Kongsberg) : — 
1st Day. From Christiania to Skien by rail, 204 Kil. (Com. F; express in 
6'/2hrs., fares 9 kr. 75, 6 kr. 55 0.; ordinary train in 7-11 hrs., fares 9 kr. 
20, 6 kr. 15 0.). The s'eamers (daily, Com. 154, 155, 156) take 12-15 hours. 
From Skien to Vlefos by steamer, in connection with the express train, 
in 2-2!/.2 hrs. (There are at least two steamers daily; see Com. 336, 155, 
156; fare 2 kr.) — 2nd Day. From TJlefos to Dalen bv steamer (Com. 340) 
daily (except Sun.) in 9-10 hrs. (fares 3 kr. 60, 2 kr. 25 0.). — 3rd Day. 
Drive from Dalen via Eidsoorg Church (whence Ravnedjuvet should be 
visited) to Mogen i HeidaUmo (p. 31) in 37a hrs. ; or drive from Dalen by 
the new road to Rykkelid i Mo and Heggestel (p. 31) in 6-7 hrs. ; or better, if 
possible, walk or ride from Dalen to the Ravnedjuv (37a hrs.) and thence 
to Thveiten on the great Telemarken route (3 hrs.; p. 31). Travellers en- 
cumbered with luggage had better visit the Ravnedjuv as a separate ex- 
cursion, either from Dalen (7 hrs. there and back) or from Eidsborg. — 
4th, 5th, and 6th Days, as in Route a. 

From Christiania to (53 Kil.) Drammen , see R. 3. Through- 
carriages. The railway ('Jarlsbergbane') from Drammen to Laurvik 
and Skien turns to the S.W. (fine retrospect), past the suburb of 
Tangen, and slowly ascends (1 : 80) the Kobberviksdal, the highest 

3 



34 Route 5. LAURVIK. From Christiania 

point of which (250 ft.) is reached at (63 Kil.) Skouger. 69 Kil. 
Oalleberg. 73 Kil. Sande, with the church of that name, near the 
Sandebugt, of which we get a fine view to the left. The train now 
skirts the picturesque fjord. 

86 Kil. Holmestrand (Hotel du Nord; Victoria; Vesman's; Rail. 
Rest.), a sea-bathing place with 2350 inhab., lies at the foot of a 
steep porphyry cliff. The train now runs a little inland to (96 Kil.) 
Nykirke. 100 Kil. Skopurn, near the Borrevand; branch-line hence 
to Borre and (7 Kil.) Horten on the Christiania Fjord (p. 7). — 
103 Kil. Augedal; 109 Kil. Barkaker. To the right we see the cha- 
teau of Jarlsberg. The train passes Tmisberg on the left, and runs 
back for 2 Kil., passing through a short tunnel to — 

115 Kil. T«rnsberg ( Victoria Hotel ; British consular agent, Mr. 
Alf. Monsen), with 7250 inhab., famous as seafarers, the oldest town 
in Norway, dating from the time of Harald Haarfager. About fifty 
whalers and seal-hunting vessels (one-third steamers) annually 
start from this port. Most of the sailors live on the Netere and the 
Tjeme , to the S. of Tensberg. The castle-hill above the town, 
under which the railway tunnel passes, commands a beautiful view. 

At (121 Kil.) Sam or Sem the train crosses the Oulie-Elv. 
128 Kil. Stokke; 135 Kil. Raastad.* To the right lies Gogstad, where 
one of the vikings' ships was found (see p. 12). 

139 Kil. Sandefjord [Hotel Kong Karl ; Johnsen' 's Hotel ; Heide- 
marfc's Hotel, well spoken of), a favourite watering-place with 
4250 inhab., and sulphurous, saline, and chalybeate springs, pret- 
tily situated on the fjord of the same name. Steamboat to Christi- 
ania twice a week (Com. 153). The sea swarms with medusae ('ma- 
neter'), which are said to be beneficial to bathers. — The Jatte- 
gryder near the OaardAasen are interesting ; the largest is 23 ft. deep. 
Similar 'giant-cauldrons' at the^/jM.) Vindalsbugt may be visited 
by boat. The whole region between T»nsberg and Laurvik is historic 
ground. At Hjertnas are several 'bauta' stones. 

144 Kil. Joberg, in a wooded and monotonous district; 149 Kil. 
Tjelling, with a view of the Laurviksfjord as far as Fredriksvasrn. 
The train crosses the Laagen or Lougen (p. 24) by abridge 183yds. 
long to the suburb of Thorstrand, passes through two tunnels, and 
reaches — 

158 Kil. laurvik. — Hotels. Victokia (English spoken), Centbal 
Hotel , Thora Hansen's Hotel (moderate), all near the railway-station ; 
Johannesen's, further off, adapted for some stay, E. 2 kr.-, Kons Kael, 
Lille Torvet, with cafe\ 

Bath-Hodse (Dr. J. C. Holm's), adjoining Johannesen's Hotel, with 
mineral and sulphur springs and mud-baths; pension 18 kr. weekly, 64 kr. 
monthly, R. 20-50 kr. per month. 'Kurpenge', or visitors' tax, for baths, 
physician, etc., 22 kr. per week for the first fortnight, 20 kr. per week 
for the second fortnight, and afterwards 15 kr. per week. — Sea-Baths, 
to the W. of the harbour. — British Vice-Consul, Mr. Fred. Dahm. 

Laurvik, Laurvig, or Larvik, formerly the capital of the county 
of that name , with 11,300 inhab. and the suburbs of Langeatrand 



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to Odde. SKIEN. 5. Route. 35 

to the W. and Thorstrand to the E. , is beautifully situated on the 
Laurviksfjord, near the mouth of the Laagen. 

The station lies on the quay, which the railway skirts. Pleasant 
walk on the quay and past the bath-establishment to the Farisvand, 
which drives several factories. If time is limited, turn to the right 
beyond Johannesen's Hotel and ascend to the *Begeskov, a flue 
beech-plantation above the highest houses on the N. side of the 
town. We enter the wood on the W. side and obtain a fine view 
, of the Farisvand to the left. A few hundred yards higher up a 
*View of the sea opens to the right. We follow the top of the hill 
to a dairy at the E. end of the wood and descend to the right to the 
town. To the right, on a bare rock, is the Brandvagt. Another 
walk may be taken from the station to the E. to Laurviks Kirke 
(fine view of the fjord), and to Herrgaardsbakken (in all l^-^nrs.). 

The train (best views to the right) crosses the Fariselv, ascends 
to the Farisvand, and skirts its W. bank, passing through a series 
of short tunnels. 169 Kil. Tjose; 182 Kil. Aaklungen, on the small 
lake of that name (135 ft.). Then past several lakes. 188 Kil. 
Birkedalen (235 ft.); 191 Kil. Eidanger (Hotel), i/ 2 hr. from the 
station, pleasantly situated on the Eidanger-Fjord. 

195 Kil. PorsgTund (Stianseris Hotel, well spoken of; Victoria, 
with cafe, R. & L. 2 kr. 55 0., tolerable) , a town of 3800 inhab., 
lies on both banks of the Skiens-Elv , which descends from the 
Nordsjtf and enters a bay of the Friers fjord l l /% M. below the town. 
We now ascend the left bank of the broad Skiens-Elv to — 

204 Kil. Skien. — Hotels. "Hoier's Hotel, at the pier of the 
southward -bound steamers, E. 1 kr. 50, B. 1 kr. 20, S. 1 kr. 50 0., D. 
2 kr. ; "Royal, E. 2, S. li/2kr.; Grand Hotel; also several smaller inns. 

Steamers. To Telemarken ( Ulefos and Tangen i Hitterdal) twice daily, 
in 2 and 5 hrs., fares 2 and 372 kr. (see Com. 336, 156, 156). To Pors- 
grund, Langesund, and Christiania at least once daily (Com. 215, 154, 155, 
156, 157). To Arendal thrice, to Christiansand once weekly (Com. 217). 
To Fredrikshald twice weekly (Com. 216). The quays of the northward 
and the southward hound steamers are l /i M. apart. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Jas. Franklin. 

Skien (pron. SKien or Skien), the ancient Skida, a town with 
8900 inhab., dates from the 14th cent., but has been repeatedly 
burned down (last in 1886) and has been rebuilt in a more sub- 
stantial style. Several interesting paper-mills. Skien is the birth- 
place of the poet Henr. Ibsen (b. 1828). To the S. of the town 
the Skiens-Elv forms the Klosterfos and the Damfos , two large 
waterfalls, which are crossed by bridges. On a small island between 
the falls formerly stood the nunnery of Oimse , founded in 1110. 
On the steep Bratsbergklev, to the E. of the town, are the ruins of 
the Bratsberg Chapel (to which a flight of wooden steps at the 
back of the railway station ascends in V2 nr > belonging to the 
adjacent Bratsberg- Oaard, which has given its name to the entire 
district (fine view). 

The steamer for Ulefos , which starts from the lock above the 

a* 



36 Route 5. KIRKEB0. From Christiania 

Damfos, ascends the Skiens-Elv, passing through the three curious 
locks of Leveid, and after 3/ 4 hr. enters the Nordsj* (50 ft.) , a 
picturesque lake 28 Kil. (1772 M.) in length. To the right in the 
rocky bank, 114 ft. above the lake, is the Mikkelshul, or Michael's 
oave, where Roman Catholic services were formerly held. It may 
be visited by boat from Le>veid. In l 1 /^ hr. more we reach — 

TJlefos i Hollen or Holden (Skyds-Station at the pier, small but 
tolerable; Hotel Aaheim , iy 4 M. from the pier, on the way to 
Strsngen, R. 2, D. 2, S. 1 kr.; Peer Jensen's Inn, on the N. side 
of the river, 1 M. from the pier), with numerous saw -mills, 
iron-works, two churches, and villas belonging to wealthy timber- 
merchants. It lies picturesquely on the "W. bank of the lake, and 
on both banks of the Eidselv or Songa , which descends from the 
great Telemarken lakes and here enters the Nordsjtf. About 13 rnin. 
from the pier this river forms the fine waterfall which gives its 
name to the place. To the S.E. rises the Nipefjeld (1285 ft. ; 
3-4 hrs.), a fine point of view. 

Travellers for the Hitteedal and the Rjukanpos do not disembark at 
TJlefos, but go on with the steamer, passing Romnes (with its old church), to 
Aktrshaugen , at the N. end of the lake. [From this point we may drive to 
(5 Kil.) Seboden, (7 Kil.) Kleppen, (14 Kil.) J0vrebemoen , at the E. end of 
the Siljordsvand, and then along the bank of that lake to (20 Kil.) Utbeen 
i Siljord (p. 31), 47 Kil. in all.] At the N. end of the Nordsj0, where the 
scenery is finer than at the S. end, the steamer enters the Sauerelv, con- 
necting the Nordsj/J with the Hitterdalsvand (62 ft.) , another picturesque 
lake, 16 Kil. in length. The steamer touches at Farodden (Farvolden) , at 
the foot of the lake, and about 4 3 /4 hrs. after leaving Skien reaches Not- 
odden (p. 25; 6 Kil. from the church of Hitterdal , p. 26). Some of the 
steamers go on to Tangen, a little further up the lake , but it is pre- 
ferable to land at Notodden, where horses are more easily procured. 

An important canal, completed in 1892, connects the Nordsj«r 
with the Flaavand, theHvidesj0, and theBandaksvand. The scenery 
is uninteresting, but the canal works are worth seeing, particularly 
near the Vrangfos, on the right. About half way, also on the right, 
is the church of Lunde. At — 

Strcsngen the steamer enters the E. end of the Flaavand. The 
elk is still found in the forests on the banks. At the W. end of 
the lake (15 Kil. from Straengen) the steamer enters the narrow 
Fjaagesund and soon Teaches the Hvidesje (185 ft.). The scenery 
becomes finer: to the right rises the Brokefjeld (3540ft.), to the 
left, in the distance, the bare Roboltfjeld (3345 ft.), and to the 
W., near the Bandaksvand, the pointed Rauberg. At the upper 
end of the lake lies the wooded island of Buke. 

The steamer next enters, water permitting, by a shallow strait, 
the small lake of Sundkilen, and calls at — 

Kirkebe (Hotel Hvideseid , at the pier; * Hotel Wriedt, a few 
min. distant, R. 1, D. 1 kr. 50, S. 80 e.), a fast station. To the 
N., passing Brunkebergs Kirke, about 3 Kil. distant, we may drive 
hence to (17 Kil.) Utbeen i Siljord (p. 31); or to the S., by 
Hvideseid, to (14 Kil.) Strand in the Vraadal. — The steamer 



to Odde. BANDAKSVAND. 5. Route. 37 

returns to the Hvidesj», rounds Spjosodden, and stops at Hvides- 
eid, at the W. end of the lake. 

Fbom Hvideseid to Akendal (145 Kil.). The road ascends rapidly , 
and then descends to (7 Kil.) Strand i Vraadal (tolerable), a little to the 
W. of which lies the Vraavand (see helow ; steamer, see Com. 342). Our 
route turns to the S. and skirts the B. bank of the Nisservand (795 ft.), 
a fine sheet of water, 34 Kil. long (steamer, see Com. 342), affording 
trout-fishing. The next stages are : 17 Kil. Vik i Nissedal; 26 Kil. Homme i 
Ti-eungen; then past the Hegfos, formed by the Nisser-Elv; 19 Kil. 0i i 
Aamli; 16 Kil. \Nergaarden i Aamli (good quarters); 13 Kil. Simonslad 
(p. 7). Thence to Arendal, see p. 6. 

Beyond Hvideseid the steamer passes through the artificial 
channel of Skarpstremmen (6 Kil. long), connecting the Hvidesjtf 
with the *Bandaksvand (205 ft.), a picturesque lake, 27 Kil. long, 
enclosed by imposing mountains, and well stocked with fish. The 
sharp crests on the N. bank assume fantastic forms towards the 
head of the lake. The first view of the lake, beyond the station 
of Apalste (right) and the island of Bandakse (left), is very strik- 
ing ; above us, on the left, is the rock called St. Olafs Ship. The 
scenery afterwards becomes a little monotonous , but the W. end 
of the lake is enclosed by a fine group of mountains. 

About IY2 hr. from Hvideseid, the steamer touches .at Triset, 
by the church of Laurdal (*Bakke's Hotel , at the pier , R. 1 kr. 
50, D. 1 kr. 60, S. 80 0.; Skyds-station at the gaard of Skjelbred), 
situated on the N. bank of the lake , amidst rich vegetation. A 
good road leads hence to Mogen i Heidalsmo (11 Kil., p. 31). — 
On the S. bank of the lake, opposite Laurdal, lies Bandakslid (ferry 
in 20 min., 20 0.) , also a steamboat-station. 

From Bandakslid ('slow' station) the hill is crossed by a picturesque 
zigzag road to (5 Kil.) Midtgaarden (fast station), where two routes diverge. 
One road, to the W., leads by Bergland and Skafse-Kirke to Dalen (16 Kil.; 
see below). The other leads to the S., past the W. end of the Vraavand 
(850 ft; steamer, see Com. 342), and ascends the course of the river which 
falls into it. This stream forms the picturesque "Lille Rjukanfos near 
the road (an interesting and easy day's excursion from Trisset i Laurdal), 
and emerges from the Skredvand (1085 ft.), a little higher up. We follow 
the E. bank of this lake to (8 Kil.) Rindebakken (slow station), beyond 
which we pass Veum and reach (15 Kil.) Moland, on the Fyrisvand (25 Kil. 
in length), on which a steamer plies without fixed time-table. Between 
Veum and Moland the Bispevei diverges to the W. to Viken in the 
Ssetersdal (p. 5). * 

About IY2 ur - after leaving Triset the steamer reaches its ter- 
minus — 

Dalen {Hotel Folksvang, R. 1-1 1/ 2 , B. 1, D. 2, S. 1 kr. 20 0.; 
Hotel Bandak, adjacent; both about 5 min. from the pier; Toke- 
dalen's, by the pier, R. 1 kr., B. or S. 80 0.; Daleris Hotel, in 
Dalen, 1 M. from the lake; both well spoken of), at the W. end of 
the Bandaksvand, into which the Toke-Elv falls here. On the arrival 
of the steamer horses are in readiness for the use of travellers. 

From Dalen we may drive by the new road ascending the valley 
of the Toke-Elv, passing the gaard of Aasland, then ascending the 
Botnedal, and afterwards descending to (12 Kil., pay for 17) 



38 Route 6. RAVNEDJUVET. 

Eykkelid i Mo (fjeld-path to the Saetersdal , see p. 6). The road 
then passes the foot of the Rante field (4725 ft. J and the "W. bank 
of the Bertevand , passes Flaaten (p. 6) , ascends and descends 
the Bertehei, with the gaard Haukaas , and at (20 Kil.) Heggestel 
joins the road described at p. 31. 

An alternative and preferable route from Dalen ascends to the 
N. in long zigzags, on a rocky slope 1300-1600 ft. high. Fine 
view of the lake and of the Botnedal to the "W. After about 1 V 2 hr. 
we reach the top (extensive view), and proceed by the now level 
road to the village of (V2 nT Eidsborg (2300 ft.), where a man- 
ganese quarry and a timber-built church (exterior ancient ; interior 
modern, except the wooden crucifix and hanging bronze lamp) are 
objects of interest. The carriage-road goes on to (18 Kil. from 
Dalen) Mogen i Heddalsmo (p. 31); but it is preferable to diverge 
here to visit the Ravnedjuv. In this case we walk or ride up the 
steep Eidsborgaasen. On the other side we descend , amid rocks 
and wood , to the Molands-Sceter (milk). A tablet about '/4 hr. 
farther on , to the left , indicates the way to the *Kavnedjuv or 
Ravnedjup , a perpendicular rock, 1090 ft. above the turbulent 
Toke-Elv, and commanding a splendid view of the Libygfjeld and 
the district of Nsesland. A pavilion commemorates the visit of 
King Oscar II. in 1879. From Dalen to the Ravnedjuv 3^2 hrs. 
(horse 5 kr.; to Sandok, 7 kr. , see below). 

Travellers with heavy luggage must return toEidsborg, and 
continue their journey thence by the carriage-road just mentioned 
to Mogen. Riders and walkers may continue their journey to the 
N. from Ravnedjuvet. The path at first leads through forest , and 
afterwards descends rapidly and crosses the Toke-Elv. In l-l^hr. 
we reach the hamlet of Naesland, where the gaard of Sandok 
affords good quarters. A Stolkjrerre may also be procured here for 
Heggestel (6 kr.) or Thveiten (4 kr.). "We must first, however, 
walk up a steep hill for 4 / 4 hr. , past the gaard of Ojelhus , with an 
old 'Stabbur' said to date from 1115 (date forged). 

The hilly road now leads through lonely forests. From the 
higher points we obtain a view of the Vehuskjarring (4508 ft.) to 
the N.E., at the foot of which is the Hyllandsfos (p. 31). Beyond 
the Qroven gaard we cross the Vinje-Elv and reach the great Tele- 
marken high-road (iy 2 nr - from Sandok). For Tveiten we turn to 
the left (W.), for Heggestel to the right; see p. 31. 

6. From Christiania through the Hallingdal to 
Lserdalsaren on the Sognefjord (Bergen). 

4 Days. As the grandeur of the scenery between Christiania and the 
Sognefjord increases as we go westwards, either this route or the Valders 
route (R. 7) should be selected in going to Bergen , while the return- 
journey may be made either by the Romsdal (p. 186 and R. 8), or by 
Trondhjem and the railway (R. 11), or by sea round the S. coast. 



KK0DERKN. 6. Route. 39 

351 Kil. Railway to Krederen, 122 Kil. (Com. L); express in 4 s /« hrs. 
(fares 6 kr. 55, 4 kr. 15 /».), ordinary train in 5>/ 2 hrs. (fares 6 kr., 
3 kr. 75 0.). Steamee from Kr0deren to Gulsvik, 45 Kil. (Com. 326) dailv 
in 2'/2-3 hrs. (fare 2 kr. 50, 1 kr. 400.). — Road from Gulsvik to Lcerdals- 
eren , 184 Kil., a drive of 3 days. The charge for horse and carriole at 
all the stations on this route is 17 0. per Kilometre (tariff III), to which 
add a fee of 20 0. per 10 Kil.; so that the total cost from Gulsvik to 
Lserdal is 35 kr. for one person. For a carriage and pair ('Calesch- 
vogn"), for two persons, the usual fare'is 100 kr. (sometimes less when 
the demand is slack), to which add a fee of 5-6 kr. (Comp. also p. xix.) 

The journey is best divided as follows: (1st Day) From Christiania to 
Gulsvik. (2nd) From Gulsvik to Rolfshus. (3rd) From Rolfshus to Breistelen 
or ffceg. (4th) Thence to Lwrdalseren. Or spend the first night at Nces, the 
second at Bjetberg, and the third at Lwrdalseren. It is even possible, by 
travelling 14-18 hrs. a day, to reach Lserdals0ren in 2 days, spending the 
night at Rolfshus. As almost all the stations on this route are either 
good or tolerable, the traveller may divide his journey as best suits his 
convenience. The only stations to be avoided are Bertnws and Viko. 

This is the direct route from Christiania to the Sognefjord, but is 
inferior in scenery to the Valders route. The name of Hallingdal is 
applied not only to the valley itself, but to all the lateral valleys from 
which streams descend into it, that is, to the whole district bounded on 
the N. and B. by Valders, on the S. by the Numedal, and on the W. by 
the Hardanger region. 

Owing to the long isolation of this district, and especially of its side- 
valleys, from the rest of the world, many of its old Norwegian charac- 
teristics have survived ; and the traveller will still meet with curious old 
buildings, carved wooden tankards and furniture, and picturesque costumes. 
The inhabitants used to be noted for their passionate disposition, which 
sometimes found vent in the terrible 'girdle duel', in which the com- 
batants C Bceltespcender' ) were bound together with their belts and fought 
with their knives. The natives still have a wild dance, called the Halling- 
dans or Springdans, accompanied by a weird kind of music (' Fanitullen 1 ') 
once ascribed to satanic influence. The following works may be referred 
to: 'Norsk Lyrik', Christiania, 1874, containing 'Asgaardsrejen', a poem 
by Welhaven , and 'Fanitullen 1 , another by Moe; 'S0gnir fra HallingdaV 
by E. Nielsen; and 'Norske Bygdesagn' by L. Daae. 

From Christiania to Vikersund, 96 Kil., see It. 3. A branch- 
line (carriages changed) runs thence to Snarum and — 

26 Kil. Kr«deren (Restaurant; *Inn, opposite the station), 
prettily situated at the S. end of Lake Rrerderen (445 ft.), near 
the efflux of the Snarums - Elv . The steamboat - pier is V2 M. 
from the station. The lower part of the lake is narrow and shallow 
and its banks are smiling and well cultivated ; but it afterwards 
expands, and the scenery becomes wilder, especially beyond Nces, 
where the Norefjeld (4980 ft.) rises boldly above the lake on the left. 

The interesting Ascent of the Norefjeld (10 hrs.) is best made from 
Nore, where the road crosses the narrowest part of the Kr0deren. From 
Nore we follow the bank of the lake to the N. to (4 Kil.) Skadset, and 
ascend to the left, by a steep bridle-track, to the Sandum-Scnter, which 
affords a fine view of Lake Kr0deren. (A night may be spent here or at 
the Skasceistxter , 20 min. distant.) Our route runs N.W. through wood, 
crossing a lofty plateau (leaving the Ramsaas on the right), with a view 
of the mountains of Telemarken and of the Eggedal. It then ascends to 
the Augunshaug (4012 ft.; extensive "View). The summit of the Nore- 
fjeld , called the Hegevarde (4980 ft.), rises 5-6 Kil. to the N.W., but 
nothing is gained by ascending it. From the Augunshaug we may descend 
direct to the E. to Tungen and Ringna's, a 'fast' station, 11 Kil. from 
Olherg and 17 Kil. (pay for 2o) from Gulsvik. From the H0gevarde we 



40 Route 6. HEMSEDAL. From Christiania 

may descend to the N.E. through the valley of the Grulsvik-Elv to (7 hrs. 
Gulsvik (see below). 

In 2 1 /2-3 1 /2 hrs. the steamer reaches — 

Gulsvik (510 ft.; Oulsvik's Hotel, new), at the entrance to the 
Hallingdal. The skyds-station (good quarters) is about 3 / 4 M. from 
the lake. Near it are the Mensaastue, a fine timber-built house, 
and other buildings of the 16th and 17th centuries. Travellers 
arriving at Gulsvik in the afternoon may drive the same day (in 
about 5 hrs.) to Nces (see below). The road follows the W. bank of 
the HallingdaU-Elv , and is nearly level all the way. 

14Kil. Aavetsrud (new station). The road passes several lake- 
like expansions of the Hallingdals-Elv, on the largest of which, 
the Brummavand (575 ft.), upwards of 18 Kil. long, lies — 

17 Kil. Bartnas. At the upper end of the lake we reach — 

11 Kil. Nees (good quarters at the station and at Svenkerud's 
Hotel) , a large village , with a church , the district-jail , and a 
number of shops. The pretty grounds of Buvondslrenna, the pro- 
perty of General Wergeland, are open to travellers. [In the reverse 
direction travellers may descend the river from Naes to Gulsvik 
by boat (about 3 hrs. ; 8-10 kr.). The numerous rapids make the 
trip rather sensational, but there is no danger when the river is 
moderately full.] 

From T$ms to Lake Spikillen, 10-11 hrs. (guide unnecessary). A well- 
defined seeter-path ascends E. to Lake Streen (good fishing *, quarters at 
one of the seeters), in 3-4 hrs., and by Djupedal in 3-4 hrs. more to Ildjavn- 
stad (p. 45), whence Ness in the Aadal, at the head of Lake Spirillen, is 
22 Kil. distant (comp. p. 45). 

Another saeter-path crosfes the mountains to the W. of Naes to the 
Tunhevd-Fjord in 6 hrs. (p. 28). 

Scenery pleasing. About halfway between Naes and Viko the 
road crosses the river. Farther on is Rolfshus (*Berg's Hotel), a 
favourite resort and pleasant stopping-place. Near — 

20 Kil. Viko (700 ft.; mediocre quarters), beautifully situated 
on the Hallingdals-Elv, the valley turns to the W. 

From Viko to the Valdeks (10-12 hrs.)- The path ascends very 
steeply for 3 /« hr., and then leads for 3 hrs. across the Fjeldvidde ('table- 
land'), passing several sreters. We row across the Tisleivand (2800 ft.), 
a large lake well stocked with trout, which forms the boundary between the 
Hallingdal and Valders districts, then descend in about 6 hrs. to Stende, 
a farm-house on the Strandefjord, and cross the lake by a long bridge 
to Ulnces-Kirke (p. 48). 

About 2 Kil. above Rolfshus the Hallingdals-Elv, which 
descends from the Upper Hallingdal (W.; p. 42), is joined by the 
Hemsil, descending from the N.W. The latter forms a fine water- 
fall. The road crosses the Hemsil by the Heslabro and ascends its 
right bank in the Hemsedal, mounting the Golsbakker in long 
windings, and passing halfway up within sight of the new church 
of Gol, to the left (comp. p. 17). Beyond (10 Kil.) Lestegaard 
(1440 ft.) we again cross the Hemsil and follow the E. side of 
the valley, passing several farms, while theW. side and the bottom 
of the valley are uncultivated. About 5 Kil. farther on we reach — 



to LctrdaUeren. TUF. 6. Route. 41 

16 Kil. Kleven i Ool (fair quarters). The scenery becomes un- 
•interesting. 4 Kil. farther is Ekre (2600 ft.). 

Fkom Ekre to the Valders (10-12 hrs.). A rough sseter-path ascends 
from Ekre to the 'JIeier\ passes the Vannenvand and the Storsjd at the 
base of the huge Skogshom (5660 ft.) , and leads through the district of 
Lykkja, with its scattered houses, to the (5 hrs.) Fosheim-Sseter (belonging 
toFosheim'sHotel,p.48; fitted up as a pension, and generally full of anglers) 
at the S. end of the long Svenskenvand (2860 ft.). We cross the lake by 
boat, pass several sseters, and descend to the station of Fosheim (p. 48). 

Another route to Valders diverges from our road at Ulsakei\ between 
Ekre and Tuf, ascends past the base of the Skogshom (see above) to the HeU 
singvand, skirts the E. bank of the Hundsendvand, and leads to the Grunken- 
Gaard, where it crosses the Smaadela, falling into the Svenskenvand. It 
then leads along the Smaadpla to the N. end of the Helevand and tbe 
Vasends- Scaler, past the base of the Qrindefjeld (5600 ft.), and descends 
to Grindaheim (p. 49), about 13-14 hrs. from Ekre. 

On the opposite bank of the Hemsil rises the Veslehom, from 
which descend four small waterfalls, uniting into a single cascade 
during the melting of the snow. The road passes Kirkebe, a poor 
village, with the dilapidated Hemsedals-Kirke, the last in the dis- 
trict before that of Borgund (83 Kil.), and 7 Kil. farther reaches ■ — 

20 Kil. Tuf (*Station; Oaard Fauske, 3 min. from the road, 
a fair country-inn), at the union of the Grendela and the Hemsil. 

From Tuf to Nystuen (15-16 hrs.). A tolerable road ascends the 
Grendcd, the valley of the Gr0ndjzrla opening on the N. , from which a 
bridle-path, passing several sseters, leads through the Merkvanddal and. 
across the mountains (reindeer) to Nystuen on the Valders route (p. 50), 

Near Tuf the Hemsil forms the Rjukande Fos ('smoking fall'), 
to which a path leads. Cultivation now ceases, and a few scattered 
saeters only are passed. The road ascends rapidly and traverses the 
bleak and desolate Merkedal, where it passes through a grand 
ravine. This stage takes fully 3 hours. 

20 Kil. (pay in the opposite direction for 30) Bjeberg (3320 ft.; 
*Station, frequented by reindeer-stalkers ; pair of antlers 8-10 kr.; 
guide to Valders and Hoi 2V2-3 kr. per day), the last station in 
the Hallingdal, lies in a bleak solitude at the foot of the Hemse- 
dalsfjeld. Farther on (7 Kil.) we pass a column marking the boun- 
dary between the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen. The 
road skirts the precipitous Kjelberg on the left and the Eldrevand 
on the right. To the N.E. rises the Jekulegg (6280 ft.). The road, 
the highest in Norway (3800 ft.), then descends rapidly to — 

15 Kil. (pay for 22 in either direction) Breistalen (Station, 
rustic, but good). Then a continuous and latterly steep descent, 
passing several waterfalls, to the bridge of Berlaug on the Valders 
route (p. 51 ; 7-8 hrs. from Tuf). A little below the bridge is — 

12 Kil. (pay for 15 ; in the opposite direction for 19) Hseg i Bor- 
gund (Hotel, well spoken of). — From Hseg to Lardalseren (39 Kil.) 
see pp. 51-53. 

The Upper Hallingdal. 

The Hallingdal in the narrower sense, or main valley (Hoveddal- 
feret), ascends to the W. from Viko (p. 40) to the wild and desolate re- 



42 Route 6. UPPER HALLINGDAL. From Christiania 

giona of the Hallingskarv , the S. prolongation of the Fillefjeld and the 
Hemsedalsfjeld, across which paths lead N.W. to the Sognefjord and S.W. 
to the Hardanger Fjord. With this district are associated some of the 
most famous of Norwegian sagas, such as that of the Villand family, and 
the inhabitants retain more of their ancient characteristics than those of 
almost any other part of Norway. With the exception of the higher moun- 
tains, however, the scenery is neither picturesque nor imposing. 

Viko, see p. 40. Beyond the Heslabro (p. 40) the Hallingdal 
.road diverges to the left from the Hemsedal road , and follows the 
course of the Hallingdals-Elv to Ellefsmeen and — 

15 Kil. Nybgaarden i Torpe (1015 ft.). Near it is the old tim- 
ber-built Church of Torpe, with finely carved porch and doors. The 
tower of the adjoining new church also contains several old carvings. 

11 Kil. Sundre i Aal (*Station). Near it are the handsome 
church of Aal, containing some relics of the older church, and two 
curious houses of the middle of last century, the Thingstue (with 
paintings in the interior) and the Oretastue. — The road then skirts 
the Strandefjord (1480 ft.), to the S. of which rises theSangerfjeld 
(3865 ft.), and crosses a steep hill to the (15 Kil.) Holsfjord 
(1945 ft.), where it divides. The road to the left leads to the Uste- 
dal and the Hardanger, that to the right to Neraal and the Sognefjord. 

1. Route to the Hardanger (45-50 Kil. from Sundre). About 
3 Kil. from the bifurcation (18 Kil. from Sundre) lies Hammersbeen, 
near which is the Raaen-Gaard(good accommodation), the property 
Of Sander Raaen, who is said to have collected 6000 of the old Norse 
words in Ivar Aasen's dictionary. From Hammersbe'en a rough 
road ascends the Ustadal to (10 Kil.) Jeilo (rustic quarters; guide 
to the Hallingskarv 3, to Kraekjahytten 7, to Hardanger 12-14 kr.). 
About 2 Kil. farther on is Tufte (2755 ft.), the highest gaard in 
the valley (quarters). 

The huge Hallingskarv may be ascended from this point: the E. peak 
(6330 ft.) by following the course of the Bimeheia to the Presteholtsel ; the 
W. peak (6435 ft.), better, from the W. end of the Ustavand. View of the 
Hardanger Vidda (p. 103) not picturesque, but very extensive. 

The route from Tufte to Maursaet (two days) passes the Smet- 
bak Sater, crosses the Ustadals-Elv by the 'Nybro' (the key of which 
must be brought by the guide), ascends the Vsteberg to the Ber- 
helletjem, passes the deserted Monsbuheia, crosses the tongue of 
land between the Legreidsvand and the 0rterenvand , skirts the S. 
bank of the latter, and ascends the Svaanut to the Store Krakjavund. 
On the N. bank of this lake lies the tourist-hut of Kraekjahytten 
(3900 ft. ; about 9 hrs. from Jeilo , a favourite resort of anglers), 
where the night is spent. — The following route (6-7 hrs.) is 
shorter. From Tufte we follow the Ustadals-Elv to the Ustavand 
(3340 ft.), cross the lake by boat to 0rterdalen, walk to the 0r- 
terenvand, cross this lake also, and walk (!/ 2 hr.) to the hut. Both 
routes have the Hallingskarv constantly in view. 

On the second day (10 hrs.) we skirt the Kraekjavand, and cross 
the river of Krakjnstubben, near an old pitfall for catching reindeer. 
We then descend the Halnebottner to the Olafbuvand , cross the 



to Latrdalserm. UPPER HALLTNGDAL. 6. Route. 43 

Kjelda to the Fhketj em- Salter , and reach the Smytte-Scpter, the 
first in Hardanger. "We next cross the Leira, which descends from 
theN., to the Indste- Safer, whence the route to Maursat (2445 ft.) 
and the gaard of Hel (p. 102) is unmistakable. The imposing Har- 
danger Jeliul is conspicuous the whole way. The best quarters are 
to be had at the adjacent Oaren , where travellers in the opposite 
direction engage their guide. The hill above the Veringsfos (p. 102) 
may be visited from this point in less than an hour. 

2. To Aueland on the Sognefjokd (about 85Kil.; 3 days ; a 
guide should be engaged at Neraal or at the Gudbrandsgaard : Lars 
Lein, 272-3 kr. per day), a splendid, but fatiguing mountain ex- 
pedition. Our starting-point is Neraal or Nedreaal (good quarters at 
the Landhandler's), 4 Kil. from the bifurcation above mentioned, 
and 19 Kil. from Sundre, at the N. end of the Holsfjord and near the 
Hevelfjord. The old timber-built Church of Hoi, near Neraal, is 
attended on Sundays by the peasantry in their picturesque old- 
fashioned costumes. To the W. towers the Hallingskarv (p. 42). 

At the W. end of the Hevelfjord lies Oaard Villand , once the 
seat of the turbulent family of that name, who lived here about 
the year 1700. Above Villand (5 Kil.) the road turns to theN. and 
leads past the Sunddalsfjord (2550 ft.) to the Gudbrandsgaard 
(2625 ft.; about 19 Kil. from Neraal; good quarters), to which 
driving is practicable. A saeter-track leads hence to the Garlid- 
Sater (2935 ft.), and along the 0vre Strandefjord (3120ft.), 14 Kil. 
long, on which are several saeters, to the fann of Svengaardsbotten, 
the highest permanently occupied dwelling in Norway. 

The actual mountain -pass to the Sogn district, about 17 Kil. 
long, begins here. The original inhabitants of the Upper Halling- 
dal, who belonged to the ancient Gulathing (p. 121), probably 
crossed the mountains here from the coast, just as Valders was ori- 
ginally peopled from Laerdal. The path passes TJlevasbotten, Vier- 
botten, and a third sseter with a herd of reindeer tended by Lapps 
from Reros. [From this point a s<eter-path ascends the valley of 
the Vesterd»la to the W.S.W., passing Gjeteryggen , and descends 
the Moldaadal to the cattle - sheds of Hailing skeie (a long day's 
walk), whence we may go on to Ose and Ulvik.] Out path then 
ascends rapidly to the Skard ('gap') between the Ulevasnut on the 
E. and the Sundhellerfjeld on the "W., crosses the Bolhevde, 
where the direction is indicated by heaps of stones ('Varder'), 
and leads to the Steinbergdal. The first night had better be spent 
at the 0je-Sseter here (2935 ft. ; good quarters). — Passing the 
Neset-Sctter and 0strebe, we next descend the formidable pass of 
the *Na>sbegalder , partly by a long ladder , and partly by a path 
of wicker-work borne by iron rods driven into the rock, to Gaard 
Nasbe. We follow the Nasbedal (or take a short-cut by the dizzy 
Bjellstig) to Gaard S«nnerheim (second night). — On the third 
day the path leads in about 5hrs. down the Sennerheimsgalder and 



14 Route 7. LAKE SPIRILLEN. From Christiania 

along a rapid stream to the Vasbygdvand , the boat for crossing 
■which is to he found at 0je or Stene , 1 Kil. before the lake is 
reached. From Vasenden, at the W. end of the lake, to Aurland on 
the Sognefjord, 6 Kil. more. See p. 128. 

7. From Christiania through the Valders to Lser- 
dalseren on the Sognefjord. 

To the N.W. of Christiania, besides the Tyrifjord andKrflderen 
(pp. 22, 39), lie two long lakes , the Randsfjord (p. 47), and the 
Spirillen (p. 45), the S. ends of which are connected with Chris- 
tiania by railway, while the great Valders Route passes near their 
N. ends. Of all the routes between Christiania and Bergen (comp., 
however, p. 38), the Valders route, either via the Spirillen or the 
Randsfjord, is the finest in point of scenery and the best provided 
with inns. The Spirillen road is the more picturesque, but between 
the lake and Frydenlund horses are apt to be scarce. The more 
frequented route is by the Randsfjord. By either route it is pos- 
sible to reach Lcerdalseren in three days, but it is better to allow 
four or five. 

In the height of summer the traveller should always start early in 
order that he may "reach his night-quarters as early as possible, and either 
secure rooms, or, if necessary, go on to the next station. AmoDg the 
walkers a good many Norwegian ladies will be observed. 

a. By Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund. 

238 Kil. (to Lserdalstfren 406 Kil.). Railway from Christiania to Been, 
131 Kil. (Com. I), express in 4'/2 hrs. (fares 7 kr. 40, 4 kr. 60 0.), ordinary 
train in 6 hrs. (fares 6 kr. 85, 4 kr. 20 0.). — Steamboat from Heen to 
Serum, 56 Kil. (Com. 324), daily, except Sun., in 5-5>/2 hrs. (fares 3 or 
2kr.); or, when the river is low, to Jfcet (Granum) only, in 4'/2 hrs.; 
returning from Stfrum or Nses on the following morning. Through-tickets 
to S0rum are to be had at Christiania. — Road from S0rum to Fryden- 
lund, 51 Kil. (from Granum 62 Kil.). Fast stations, with tariff III (but 
horses sometimes scarce). Hr. Gravlimoen of Heen lets carriages from 
Sprum or from Granum to Lserdal for 100, 120, or 135 kr. for 2, 3, or 4 per- 
s ms. The order should be sent two days beforehand. Fares usually re- 
duced in the slack season. 

From Christiania to Heen, see R. 3. The time between the 
arrival of the train and the departure of the steamer is usually 
ample for early dinner at Dahl's Inn or at the house of the captain 
of the steamer (railway-guard takes orders). Also a restaurant on 
board. 

The steamer ascends the B&gna or Aadals-Elv, with its lake- 
like expansions. The navigable channel is indicated by buoys. 
On the right Hallingby, a skyds-station, with a new church (520 ft.). 
Higher up, the stream becomes very rapid, and the engines are 
worked at full speed. We next pass the pretty farm of Bergsund 
on the left. The course of the vessel is often obstructed by floating 
timber ('Temmei'). "We slowly ascend the rapid Kongstram, 
which intersects an old moraine, and enter (18 Kil. from Heen) — 



to Lcerdaheren. GRANUM. 7. Route. 45 

*Lake Spirillen (490ft.; probably from spira, 'to flow rapidly'), 
24Kil. long, a beautiful sheet of water, surpassing theRandsfjord. 
The banks are well cultivated at places, and at others mountainous 
and severe. To the left rises the Hegfjtld (3240 ft.). The chief 
place on the W. bank is Viker or Aadalen , with a church , 8 Kil. 
to the W. of which rises the Oyranfisen (3540ft.). On the E. bank 
lies the gaard of Engerodden (skyds-station). Passing the Bam- 
berg (1680ft.; left), the steamer comes in sight of the church of — 

Nses, ovNcesmoen, at the head of the lake, with its wild moun- 
tain-background. 

To the W. of Nses opens the Hedal or valley of the Urulen-Elv, through 
which a rough road ascends to (22 Kil.) Ildjarnstad , with an interesting 
timber -built church. According to tradition the whole population of 
this valley died of the plague in 1349-50. When the church was after- 
wards discovered by a hunter, he found a bear installed by the altar, in 
proof of which a bear's skin is still shown. Similar traditions exist else- 
where in Norway and Denmark. — From Ildjarnstad a path crosses the 
fjeld to Tolleifsrud (14 Kil.), near Dokken (see below). 

When the water is low, the steamer stops at Nses. In this case 
we cross the Baegna to (10 min.) — 

Granum (skyds-station ; good quarters), where we spend the 
night. Or we drive the same evening to Serum or further. 

Going on from Naes by road, we first drive through monotonous 
wood. On the left the precipitous Bjembratbjerg, on the right the 
Baegna. Beyond the wood are the farms of Haraldshaugen, with 
a fine view of the valley. On the right towers the imposing Valder»- 
horn, on the left the Serumfjeld. We cross the boundary between 
the Buskerudsamt and the Christiansamt. The mutilated birches 
here have been stripped of their foliage to provide fodder for the 
cattle. The road passes Stremmen, prettily situated above the Baegna. 

11 Kil. (from Naes) S«rnm (skyds-station; good quarters), 
56 Kil. from Heen , is the terminus of the steamboat, water per- 
mitting. To the right lies the gaard of Hougsrud , one of the 
largest in Valders. Farther on, to the left, is the Tolleifsrudkirke, 
where the road to Ildjarnstad diverges (see above). We now reach 
Dokken i Sendre Aurdal. To the left diverges the old road, now a 
sseter-track only, to the Hedal (see above); and on the same side we 
pass the huge rocky Morkollen. From the left, farther on, descends 
the Muggedals-ELv. Scenery picturesque, particularly at — 

18 Kil. Oarthus (middling quarters). To the left rises the Tron- 
husfjeld, on the right the Fonhusfjeld. Beyond the (5 Kil.) gaard 
pf Storsveen we crpss the Heleraa, and then skirt the Svartvik fjeld, 
with its 'giant cauldrons'. We now enter the basin of Bang i Sendre 
Aurdal, with its numerous farms, its church, and parsonage, all on 
the left bank of the river. A good road, passing Krammermoen 
(good quarters at Christensen's), leads thence to Oravdal and Sveen 
(11 Kil.; see p. 47). 

17 Kil. Fjeldheim (fair quarters), close to the beautiful Store- 
brufos, formed by the Bsegna. 



46 Route 7. RANDSFJORD. From Christiania 

On the left, farther on, rises the pointed Hullekolle, at the 
base of which is the old timber-built church of Reinlid , the road 
to which (1 hr.) diverges to the left before the Bsegna is crossed. 
Our road crosses the bridge and ascends to the left, while a road 
to the right leads to Kraemmermoen, Bang, and Sveen. The new 
road, completed in 1891, avoids the steep hills of the Jukamsklev. 
At the top of the hill we obtain a striking view of the broad valley 
of Valders, with the rapid B;egna far below, and in the background 
the snow-mountains of Jotunheim (p. 139). High up on the right 
we observe the road which crosses the wooded Tonsaas from 
Gravdal (p. 47), with which our road unites further on, about 
2 M. before we descend to — 

16Kil. Frydenlund ( ^Station), on the Randsfjord route (p. 48). 

b. By the Randsfjord to Odnaes and thence by carriage to 
liaerdals0ren. 

446 Kil. Railway from Christiania to Randsfjord, 142 Kil. (Com. I): 
express in i s U hrs. (fares 7 kr. 40, 4 kr. 60 0.) ; ordinary train in 6-6V2 hrs. 
(fares 6 kr. 85, 4 kr. 20 0.). — Steamboat (Com. 320) from Randsfjord to 
Odnces, 72 Kil., once or twice daily in 5 hrs. (fares 4kr., 2kr. 80 0.). — 
Road from Odnaes to Lmrdalseren, 216 Kil. (pay for 232), with fast stations ; 
charges according to tarilf III. For the whole distance a carriole costs 
about 45, a stolkjserre for 2 pers. about 65 kr. — A carriage and pair for 
2-4 persons costs 100-135 kr. , with an additional fee of 4-6 kr. (Return 
carriages are sometimes to be met with at two-thirds of these charges.) 
A distinct bargain should be made, both as to the fares and the hours of 
starting, halts for dining, etc. 

Diligence three or four times a week between Odnses and Lserdals- 
0ren (Com. Ill, B). Fare 34 kr., including 44 lbs. of luggage; overweight, 
which must be paid for, strictly limited to 44 lbs. more. When seats are 
engaged by 2, 3, or 4 persons of the same party the fares are 65, 80, or 
100 kr. only. Extra-diligence (carriage with one or two horses) may be 
ordered for at least two persons at Odnses or at Lserdal four days be- 
forehand. In the height of the season the diligences are often full, and 
the inns where they stop are crowded. To secure seats it is advisable to 
write to Captain Larsen at Randsfjord or to Hdtelier Lindstrem at Lser- 
dalserren, enclosing the fare; but tickets are usually obtainable on board 
the Randsfjord steamer or at Odnses. Enquiry may also be made at the 
Tourist Offices at Christiania. The diligence travels fast, the fares are 
moderate, and meals and beds are kept in readiness for the passengers; 
but these advantages are more than counterbalanced by the loss of inde- 
pendence and diminution of comfort. 

As almost all the stations are good, the traveller may divide his journey 
in any way he pleases, but he should carefully avoid those stations where 
diligence -passengers spend the night (consult Com.: at present, going, 
1st night at Tomlevolden, 2nd at Ljzrken, 3rd at Nystuen; returning, 1st at 
Nystuen, 2nd at Fagernses). After arriving at Odnses in the evening it is 
possible to drive on to Tomlevolden or even to Sveen in the long twilight. 
— Beautiful scenery almost all the way, particularly between Frydenlund 
and Blaaflaten (143 Kil. or 89'/2 M.), which will even reward the pedes- 
trian. As the distances, however, are great, the traveller had better re- 
serve his walking powers for the ascent of the Stuguntfs at Nystuen (p. 5l) 
and for the part of the road between Hseg and Blaaflaten (p*p. 51, 52). 

Railway from Christiania to Randsfjord, see R. 3. 

Randsfjord Station (*Inn, R. 1 kr. 20, D. 1 kr., B. 80 0.) lies 
on the left bank of the Rands-Elv, at its efflux from the Randsfjord. 



to Lcerdalseren. GRAVDAL. 7. Route. 47 

A bridge crosses the broad river to Kokkerstuen or Hadelnnds 
Qlasocerk. The pier is close to the station. 

The Eandsfjord (440 ft.), 70 Kil. long and 1-4 broad, is 
bounded on the E. by the fertile and populous Hadeland, and on 
the W. and N. by Valders and Land. The banks, rising gradually 
to a height of 2000 ft., -well cultivated at places, and wooded at 
the top, are somewhat monotonous. Being narrow the lake resem- 
bles a broad river. The steamer (good restaurant) reaches Odnces 
in 5-5Y2 hrs., stopping at ten stations on the way. 

Odnees (*Hotel Odnces; Hotel Waamce3, small) lies at the N. end 
of the Eandsfjord, and 1/2 ^- from the pier. To the N. of Odnaes, 
on the high-road from Lake Mj»sen (diligence daily to Gj»vik; see 
p. 55), lies (3 Kil.) Framnas (*Inn ; carriages at the pier). Travel- 
lers sleeping here or at Odnaes should leave very early next morning 
in order to get the start of the stream of tourists, and should avoid 
spending the night at the same places as the diligence. 

The road follows the N. bank of the Etna-Elv, which feeds the 
Eandsfjord , and crosses the Dokka , an affluent on the right. 
Thriving farms and beautiful birches, but scenery rather tame. 

17 Kil. Tomlevolden (*Station, good and reasonable ; landlord 
speaks English), in the district of Nordre Land, is a good specimen 
of a Norwegian farm-house , with its 'Stabbur' (storehouse) and 
other roomy outbuildings. — About 7 Kil. from Tomlevolden the 
road crosses the Etna-Elv by a bridge , which affords a fine view 
of the Etnadal, and begins to ascend the wooded Tonsaas (2300 ft.), 
with a level plateau on the summit, which separates the valleys of 
the Etna and the Baegna (p. 44). A little beyond the bridge we 
cross the boundary between Hadeland (p. 46) and Valders. About 
halfway between Tomlevolden and Sveen is a new inn , Plads 
Trondhjem. 

17 Kil. (pay for 18) Sveen (poor station) is beautifully situated 
on the N.E. side of the Tonsaas. The road ascends through fine 
forest-scenery, affording picturesque views of wooded ravines , to 
Grravdal (1970 ft; *Tonsaaseris Sanatorium, a hydropathic and 
hotel; pension 115-170kr. permonth; for shorter time 41/2-6 '/2k 1 '- 
per day ; post and telegraph station, with telephone to Frydenlund 
and Fagernaes), 3 Kil. above Sveen, a favourite summer resort, 
with beautiful walks. A little to the W. lies the Hotel $ Pension 
Breidablik. [A road to the left leads to Bang i Sendre Aurdal, p. 45.] 

We soon reach the wooded summit of the Tonsaas and pass two 
swampy lakes. To the N. a fine view of Bruflat in the Etnadal. 
Then a gradual descent. On emerging from the forest we obtain a 
*View of the beautiful and partially wooded valley of Valders, with 
the Strandefjord running through it, and the snow-capped Jotun- 
heim Mts., Galdebergstind, and Turflnstinder in the background 
(p. 138). The road soon reaches the Bmgnadal and joins the Spi- 
rillen road (p. 46), about 2 M. above — 



48 Route 7. FAGERN^ES. From Christiania 

18 Kil. (pay for 23) Frydenlund i Nordre Aurdal {* Station; 
Hotel Sofielund ; telephone), beautifully situated on the old road, 
to the left, 20 yds. below the new. TheFoged, or chief administra- 
tive official, the Sorenskriver, or local judge, and theLensmand, or 
chief constable, reside here. Close by is the church of Aurdal. 

The road, now nearly level, runs high above the Baegna, partly 
through wood, and partly through cultivated land, and soon reaches 
the Aurdalsfjord, with its numerous islands, from which the Baegna 
issues. On its S. (right) bank, 6 Kil. from Frydenlund, lies Pen- 
sion Hove (70 kr. per month). Another fine view at Onstad. The 
road passes the District Prison. On the otheT side of the broad 
valley is the Aabergsbygd, watered by the Aabergs-Elv, which forms 
the Kvannefos. To the right, farther on, is a fine waterfall, called 
Fosbraaten, and to the left is heard the roar of the Vaslefos, a fall 
of the Baegna. We now reach the beautiful Strandefjord(1170 ft.), 
a narrow lake 12 M. long, through which the Baegna also flows. 

13 Kil. Fagernses i Nordre Aurdal(*H6tel Fagernas, with baths ; 
landlord speaks English j R. 1 kr. 20»., B. or S. 1 kr. ; telephone) 
lies on the N.bank of the lake, at the influx of the Nas-Elv. A few 
paces farther on is the *Hntel Fagerlund (1245 ft. ; R. 1 kr. 50, D. 
1 kr.). This is a charming spot for some stay, and the names ('fair 
promontory' and 'fair grove' respectively) are appropriate. Shooting 
and fishing are obtainable, but the hotels are often full. Skyds to 
be had at both hotels. — To Jotunheim, see p. 136. 

The road crosses the Na>s-Elv, with its pretty cascades, and 
follows the bank of the Strandefjord, passing the churches of Strand 
or Svennas and (about 10 Kil. from Fagernaes) Ulnas. Near Ulnaes 
a long bridge crosses to the opposite bank of the Strandefjord, 
from which, by the farm of Stende, a path leads to Viko in the 
Hallingdal (p. 40). To the W. rise the snow-mountains on the 
Vangsmjesen and several of the Jotunheim peaks. 

The upper part of the Strandefjord, above the bridge of Ulnaes, 
is called the Graneimfjord. The road gradually ascends to — 

15 Kil. Fosheim. (* Hotel, with baths). The lake narrows to a 
river, the Baegna, which is crossed by the route to the Fosheim 
Sceter (p. 41 ; 11/2-2 hrs.). 

The Aalfjeld (3362 ft.), which is ascended from" Fosheim in 4-5 hrs. 
there and back (guide unnecessary; horse 4 kr.), commands a fine view 
of Valders, Hallingdal, and Jotunheim. We cross the bridge and climb 
to the right through wood. 

Beyond the church of Ben the river expands into the Slidre- 
fjord (1200 ft.), whose N.E. bank the road skirts. About 9 Kil. 
from Fosheim we reach the beautifully situated church of Vestre 
Slidre (1255 ft.), which commands a fine view of the lake. A road 
diverging here to the right crosses the Slidreaas to Rogne in 0stre 
Slidre (p. 136). A few hundred paces beyond the church a gate 
and private road to the right lead in 5 min. to 01ken (1400 ft. ; 
*Hotel and Pension, 3y 2 kr. per day), a farm-house converted into 



to Lmrdalseren. GRINDAHEIM. 7. Route. 49 

an inn, beautifully situated on the hill. As this is a favouiite 
summer and health resort, it is generally crowded in summer. The 
'Distriktslaage', or physician of the district, lives on the high-road 
near. Horses and carriages to be had. Einang's Hotel, at Volden, 
and the Pension Husaker are also favourite resorts. 

14 Kil. Ltfken (Bdegaard' 's Hotel, landlord speaks English) is 
finely situated near the W. end of the Slidrefjord. 

Interesting excursion of about 3 brs. to the top of the '■ Hvidhefd ('white 
head' ; 3360 ft.; horse 2 kr.), a peak of the Slideraas (see above). The view- 
embraces the valleys of Vestre and 0stre Slidre, the Bitihorn, and the 
snow-mountains to the N. of Lake Bygdin and the Vinstervand. A few 
hundred paces farther rises the * Kvalehegda , where an admirable survey 
of the whole of the Bygdin range, the Vangsmjgrsen, and the Hallingdal 
mountains to the S. is enjoyed. 

Farther on we pass the church of Lomen. The road runs mostly 
through wood, on the left bank of the Baegna, which about 6 Kil. 
beyond L»ken forms a fine fall called the Lofos. We then cross the 
Baegna and pass Vangsnas Hotel. — Comp. the Map, p. 134. 

15 Kil. 0ilo (1475 ft. ; *Station, civil landlady) is a resort of 
artists, lying close to the *Vangsmj«sen (1535 ft.), a splendid Al- 
pine lake, 19 Kil. long. The road follows the S. bank of the lake to 
the Oaard Kvam, and passes through the Kvamsklev ('ravine cliff'), 
a gallery hewn in the Hugakolle. In spring and autumn the road 
is sometimes endangered by falling rocks. At the worst point it 
is protected by a roof. Grand survey of the lake. On the right 
rises the Vednisfjeld, on the left the Qrindefjeld (see below), and 
opposite us the Skjoldfjeld. To the N. is the Dresjafos. A little 
farther on, to the left of the road, is Tune i Vang. 

10 Kil. Grindaheim (*Vang Hotel, kept by Ole For ; * Hotel Fa- 
gerlid ; English spoken at both) is beautifully situated on the Vangs- 
mjesen, just beyond the Church of Vang, which replaces the old 
Stavekirke ('timber church'), purchased by Frederick William IV. 
of Prussia in 1844 for 320 kr. and removed to the Giant Mts. in 
Silesia. A stone in front of the church bears the Runic inscrip- 
tion: 'Oosasunir ristu stin thissi aftir Gunar' ('the sons of Gosa 
erected this stone to the memory of Gunar'). To the S. rises the 
huge Grindefjeld (5620 ft. ; ascent in about 4 hrs.). — The road 
continues to skirt the lake, passing the church of 0ie, near which 
is the beautiful Eltonfos. Opposite rises the imposing N. bank 
of the lake, on which tower the conspicuous Skudshom (5310 ft.), 
of which a phenomenon similar to that seen on the Lysefjord, p. 89, 
is recorded, and the Skjerefjeld (5115 ft.). 

From J0ie a mountain-path, passing to the S. of the Kvamenes (3900 ft.) 
and the Borrenes (4870 ft. ; may be ascended from the path), and skirting 
the S. bank of the Utrovand, leads to JVpsluen (p. 50) in half-a-day. 

The road now ascends from the Vangsmjasen to the small 
Strandefjord (1675 ft.), which it skirts (not to be confounded with 
the Strandefjord lower down, p. 48). At the end of the lake is Kasa. 

From Kasa a path leads to the Jonsgaard-Swtre (4385 ft.), and thence 
to the N.W. by the Svindal, passing the Fagerscetneis (4775 ft.) on the right, 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 4 



50 Route 7. 



NYSTUEN. 



From Christiania 




to the 0iangensj0 and Steinhusje, and 
through the Qjeismusdal to Lake Tyin 
(Tvindehaugen, p. 139) : a good day's walk 
(guide 4 kr.). 

Beyond the Strandefjord the 
scenery becomes wilder. A few 
farms are now seen on the sunny 
(N.) side of the valley only. 

17 Kil. Skogstad (1885 ft.; 
*Station), a few min. to the right 
of the road, beyond the stream, is 
a good starting-point for Jotunheim 
(R. 22). 

By making a digression from the 
high-road at Skogstad (about 3 hrs. ; 
guide necessary) we obtain a magnifi- 
cent *View of Lake Tyin and the ice- 
clad mountains of the Koldedal and 
Melkedal. The path leads on the hill 
rising towards the K., passes the farms 
of Opdal, Elbjarg, and Platen, and 
crosses the Horntind (5185 ft.; pano- 
rama in the 'year-book' of the Nor- 
wegian Tourist Club for 1884), and de- 
scends to the S. to the Opdalstele or 
to the Hageswt-Smter in the valley of 
the BJerdela. We cross this stream and 
proceed to the high-road to Nystuen. 

".The new road, completed in 
1891, ascends in large windings. 
The landscape bears the melancholy 
stamp of the Norse fjelds. About 
halfway to Nystuen , on this side 
of the Besater, a bridle-path div- 
erges to Lake Tyin (p. 138), cross- 
ing the Bjerdala. To the S., as we 
near Nystuen, rises the Borreneise 
(4240 ft.) ; to the right the Stugu- 
n»se. The road then leads high 
above the Vtrovand to — 

11 Kil. (pay for 17) Nystuen 
(3250 ft. ; Hotel, a large, new tim- 
ber-built house, R. 1 kr. 50 m., B. 
1, S. 1 kr.), originally a Fjeldstue, 
or hospice , built by government, 
J situated on the barren Fillefjeld, 
f above the N. bank of theUtrovand, 
c and one of the best starting-points 
t for a visit to Jotunheim (R. 22). 
"> Travellers who do not intend to 
visit Jotunheim should not omit to 



to Lcerdalseren. MARISTUEN. 7. Route. 51 

ascend the *Stngtm«se (4826 ft. ; P/4 hr. from Nystuen, 4 hrs. 
there and back). We may either follow the brook to the W. of the 
station and then go towards the E., or ascend from Nystuen direct 
(somewhat steep). In either case a guide is unnecessary. The sum- 
mit commands a splendid survey of the Jotunheim range, of which 
the annexed sketch, after E. Mohn's Panorama published by Beyer 
of Bergen (2^2 kr.), w ^ convey an idea. Farther to the left, above 
the lower hills , several peaks of the Horunger are also visible, 
particularly the Austabot-Tind with its glacier. Farther to the right, 
beyond the Skinegg, are seen the snow-mountains to the N. of 
Lakes Gjende and Bygdin , the latter finely grouped, from the 
Sletmarkpig to the Turfinstinder and the Kalvaahegda. 

Feom Nystuen to Aasdal (12-13 hrs. ; guide desirable). The bridle- 
path, very bad at places, ascends, gradually at first, leading between two 
small lakes, to the watershed of the Fillefjeld (4'/2-5hrs. ; extensive view). 
In descending towards the N. we pass the Sletterust, a fisherman's hut to 
the W. of the Torholmenvand, through which the Aardela flows. (From 
Sletterust to Breikvam and Eidsbugarden, see p. 152.) We then descend 
the sseter-track along the Aardtfla to Moen, and row in l'/2-2 hrs. to Aar- 
dal (see pp. 152, 130). 

Beyond Nystuen the road reaches its highest point (3294 ft.). 
By the Kirkestelsceter the old road diverges to the left , passing 
the imposing Suletind (5805 ft.) , and rejoins the new road near 
Maristuen. Lapps with several hundred reindeer are often seen 
on the slopes of the Suletind. The new road descends from Kirke- 
sted through the monotonous Srneddal. Beyond the Grenlidsater 
we pass a column which marks the boundary between 0stenfjeldske 
and Vestenfjeldske Norge , and enter the Stift of Bergen. The 
road then skirts the Fillefjeldvand or Upper Smeddalsvand and the 
Smeddalsvand (3085 ft.), with the Sadel-Fjeld rising opposite, 
ascends to the Brusesceter (3240 ft.) , and descend thence, partly 
through birch-plantations, above the foaming Lara, to — 

17Kil. (pay for 22 in the reverse direction) Maristuen (2635 ft.; 
*Knut Maristueris Hotel, R. IV2, B. l l /t, S. J.1/4 kr.), the second 
'Fjeldstue' on the Fillefjeld , originally founded as an ecclesi- 
astical hospice in 1300. Notwithstanding its height, the more 
genial climate of the "W. coast begins to be perceptible here. The 
scenery is still wild. Between this point and Haeg the road descends 
1150 ft., and traverses a grand ravine. At Berlaug, about 4 Kil. 
above Haeg, the Hallingdal route, crossing the river by a bridge, 
joins our route on the left (p. 41). 

13 Kil. (pay for 17) Haeg (1480 ft.; Hotel, well spoken of). 

The *Laerdal, one of the most superb valleys in Norway, begins 
here. We now descend this valley to Laerdalserren. The finest 
parts are between the church of Borgund and Gaard Saeltun. 
Between Haeg and Borgund the road is nearly level , traversing 
the former bed of a lake. At the S. end of this basin rises the 
Vindhelle, a huge rocky barrier, through which the Laera has 

4* 



52 Route 7. HUSUM. 

forced a passage The new road, completed in 1872, leads through 
this ravine. At various periods no fewer than four different old 
roads , still traceable , once crossed the Vindhelle itself. After 
having seen the entrance to the gorge, with the beautiful Svart- 
egelfos , the grandest point , walkers should follow the old road 
over the Vindhelle, which is only half as long as the road through 
the gorge. 

Just before the road descends into the ravine , it passes the 
*H6tel Kirkevold (D. 1 kr. 80 «.) and the curious 'Church of Bor- 
gund (key at the inn; 1-2 pers. 40, each pers. more 20 #.), which 
is now only kept up as a relic of antiquity. This fantastic-looking 
i Stavekirke\ dating from the 12th cent., shows the original char- 
acter of this kind of church better than any other in existence, 
particularly in respect of its want of windows. When the doors 
are shut the interior is in total darkness. Every part of it is in- 
teresting: the external passages, the numerous gables, the shingle- 
covered roofs and walls, surmounted with dragons' heads, and the 
lofty portals with elaborate ornamentation (entwined snakes, etc.). 
On the "W. portal are the Runic inscriptions : — Thorir raist runar 
thissar than Olau misso (Thorer wrote these lines on St. Olafs fair), 
and Thittai kirkia a kirkiuvelli (This church in the church-ground). 

The belfry is old, but was partly restored in the 17th cent. 

13Kil. Husum (1070 ft.; *Hotel). The Lardalselv here forms 
the small cascade of Holgruten. The road soon enters another 
grand ravine , which the old road avoided by traversing the 
dangerous Qalder ('cliffs', 'steep slopes') to the right. Our road 
crosses the boisterous river by the Nedre Kvammebro and skirts 
the overhanging rocks close to its bank. The water-worn rocks 
show distinctly how much higher the bed of the river must once 
have been. At one point, not far below Husum, the old bed of 
the stream has been utilised for the passage of the road, for which 
part of a 'giant cauldron' has been hewn away , while the torrent 
is now 100 ft. below. On the N. side of the ravine are Oaard 
Galderne and the Store Soknefos. 

As soon as the ravine expands we come in sight of Gaard 
Sceltun , situated on a huge mass of avalanche debris ( l Skre$ ' ). 
The road crosses the Laerdals-Elv by the Saltunbro and follows 
its right bank. It then intersects the deposits of the Jutul-Elv 
and traverses a broader part of the valley, from which the Opdal, 
closed by the snow-clad Aaken or Okken (5685 ft.; grand view; 
guide in Husum), diverges to the S.E. Several old moraines are 
passed. 

15 Kil. Blaaflaten (Hotel) lies a little to the left of the road, 
which is tolerably level for the rest of the way. The valley is 
still enclosed by lofty mountains, but the scenery is less interest- 
ing. Beyond the Befos, a waterfall on the left, the road crosses 
the river and passes the church of Tenjum , with its old carved 



EIDSVOLD. 8. Route. 53 

woodwork. By the farms of JEri the valley suddenly trends towards 
the N.; looking back, we obtain another view of the Aaken, with 
its peculiar crest. Traces of many landslips and avalanches ('Shred') 
are observable here. Lastly the valley turns towards theW. On the 
right, near 0ie, is the fine Stenjumsfos, which descends in two 
falls from the Veta-Aas and Hegan-Aas. 
11 Kil. Lserdalstfren, see p. 129. 



8. From Christiania by the Gudbrandsdal to the 
Moldefjord. 

482 Kil. Railway from Christiania to Eidsvold (Com. A), 68 Kil.; ex- 
press in l 3 /4 hr. (fares 6 kr. 10, 5 kr. 10, 2 kr. 90 0.), ordinary train in 
2>A-3V4 hrs. (fares 4 kr. 80, 3 kr. 20, 1 kr. 60 0.). The traveller may go 
on to Hamar by railway, but this is not recommended. — Steamboat 
daily from Eidsvold to LilUhammer (Com. 310) , 105 Kil., in 6V2-7 hrs. 
(fares 5 kr. 60, 3 kr. 70 0.). Good restaurant on board. — Road from 
Lillehammer to Jfws, 274 Kil., with fast stations regulated by tariff III. 
(comp . also p. 46). A carriole for the whole drive from Lillehammer 
to the Moldefjord costs about 51 ? a stolkjjerre about 71 kr. For a carriage 
and pair, for 2-4 persons, 150-200 kr., and a fee of 5-6 kr., are usually 
charged. (Return carriages before or after the height of the season , at 
two-thirds of these charges.) A distinct bargain as to fare, stopping-places, 
etc., should be made beforehand. 

Diligence twice weekly from Lillehammer to Nses (Com. Ill, A ; see 
also remarks at p. 46), in 3 days ; fare 40 kr., including 44 lbs. of luggage 
(overweight strictly limited to 44 lbs. more); for 2, 3, 4 persons of one 
party 76, 100, 130 kr. It is advisable to write and pay for seats at least 
three days beforehand; but tickets may generally be obtained from the 
captain of the Mj0sen steamer, at the Victoria Hotel at Lillehammer, 
and the Bellevue Hotel at Aandalsnaes (p. 185). Enquiry may also be 
made at the tourist offices at Christiania. 

Those who do not travel by diligence should carefully avoid the 
places at which it puts up for the night (at present Breden and Lsesje 
Verk going, and Holaaker and Moen returning). Best quarters at Fosse- 
gaarden, Skjceggestad, Listad, Laurgaard, Toftemoen, Domaas, Holscet, Stue- 
floten, Ormeim, and Nas. — The scenery becomes grander as we travel 
westwards. Finest parts for walking between Stuefloten and Ormeim and 
between Flalmark and N<es. 

Christiania, see p. 1. As the train leaves the station, we 
obtain a fine view of Christiania and the fjord to the left, and of 
the Egeberg and the suburb of Oslo to the right. 4 Kil. Bryn 
(260ft.); 11 Kil. Ororud (420 ft.); 18 Kil. Stremmen (485 ft.). 

21 Kil. Lillestremmen (355 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), junction for Kongs- 
vinger and Stockholm (see p. 74). The railway from this point to 
Eidsvold, constructed in 1851, is the oldest in Norway. Scenery 
unattractive ; but at Frogner (405 ft.) and Kleften (545 ft.) we get 
a glimpse of blue mountains to the W. Beyond Trygstad (666 ft.) 
a gravelly region, scantily wooded. At Dal, with its pretty villas, 
the scenery improves. Two tunnels. 

68 Kil. Eidsvold (410 ft. ; Rail. Rest.; *Jernbane Hotel, at the 
station). Passengers by the morning train from Christiania go at 
once on board the steamboat, which starts i /^- 1 /2 nr - later. If time 



54 Route 8. HAMAR. From Christiania 

permit, they may visit the Eidsvoldbad and the Bautasten (monu- 
ment, by the church) of Henrik Wergeland (d. 1845), the poet, 
and the discoverer of the spring. Both lie on the right (W.) hank 
of the Vormen. 

Pleasant walk to Eidsvoldsverk , about 6 Kil., where the Norwegian 
constitution ('Norges Riges Grundlov') was adopted in 1814. The building, 
originally a farm-house, has been purchased by government and embellished 
with portraits of members of the first diet. 

Kailway to Hamar and Trondhjem, see p. 70. 
The Stbamboat at first ascends the broad and clear Vormen, 
which issues from Lake Mjesen and falls into the Glorumen. Large 
tracts of glacier debris are passed on both sides. At (8 Kil.) Minne 
(rail, stat., p. 70), where a bridge crosses the Vormen, the steamer 
reaches the lake. 

Lake Mjeseu (406 ft.) , the largest lake in Norway , which 
has been called 'Norway's inland sea', is 100 Kil. (62 M.) long 
and at its broadest part 15 Kil. (9*/2 M.) in width, and forms a 
convenient highway between the districts of Gudbrandsdalen and 
Hedemarken to the N. and E., and those of Toten and 0vre Rome- 
rike to the W. and 8. Like many of the Swiss lakes, Lake Mjcsen 
is very deep at places (1575 ft. near the S. end), and it is a 
curious fact that the lowest part of its bed is 1170 ft. below the 
sea-level. The scenery is of a soft and pleasing character. The 
banks present an almost unbroken succession of fields , woods, 
and pastures, studded with farm-houses and hamlets, but will 
perhaps seem monotonous if the traveller goes all the way from 
Eidsvold to Lillehammer in one day. The Hunner-0rret is an 
esteemed kind of trout peculiar to Lake Mjtfsen. 

The first stations at which the steamer calls are Bjemstad and 
Stigersand on the W. bank, at the foot of the Skreifjeld (2300 ft.). 
As a rule the hills enclosing the lake are of moderate height. 
Opposite Stigersand is the deep bay of Tangen (p. 70). On the 
W. bank also lies Trogstad-Panengen. The vessel now steers to 
the N. across the lake , which here attains its greatest breadth, 
past the fertile Helgee ('holy island'), into a broad bay on the E. 
bank. About 2 hrs. after leaving Eidsvold we reach — 

Hamar (* Victoria, Jerribane Hotel , both on the lake, near the 
pier and the railway- station), a town with 5100 inhab., seat of 
the Amtmand or governor of the district, and of a bishop, charm- 
ingly situated between two bays, the Furncesfjord to the N. 
and Akersviken to the E. The latter is crossed by a long bridge. 
Hamar ('hill', 'headland') dates from 1152, when a bishopric was 
founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare, an English- 
man, afterwards Pope Adrian IV. From that period probably date 
the ruins of the Cathedral (1 M. to the N.W.), once a hand- 
some edifice , of which four round arches of the nave alone are 
left. The old town was destroyed by the Swedes in 1567. The 
modern town, which dates as a municipality from 1848 only, has 



to Molde. LILLEHAMMER. 8. Route. 55 

thriven greatly since the opening of the railway to Trondhiem 
(p. 70). 

The steamer now steers towards the W., to the N. of the Helgee, 
and touches at the church of Nces , opposite the island ; then, on 
the W. bank, at Smervik, and (l 3 /4 hr. from Hamar), at — 

Gj«vik (*6j0viks Hotel, near the pier; * Victoria, 100 yds. 
up the main street) , the capital of Toten Fogderi, with 1400 in- 
hab., situated at the mouth of the Hunselv , about 60 Kil. from 
Eidsvold and 40 Kil. from Lillehammer. Pleasing views of the 
lake and the Helge» from the church of Hun (altarpiece by Frok. 
Asta Nerregaard) and other heights near the village. 

From Gj0vik to Odnjes , 38 Kil., carriage-road with fast stations. 
Diligence daily (Com. Ill, C; fare 4'/2 kr.), in connection with the early 
steamer from Eidsvold, stopping for the night at Granum, and reaching 
Odnaes next morning in time for the Randsfjord steamer; in the reverse 
direction it leaves Odnaes on the arrival of the Randsfjord steamer, passes 
the night at Mustad, and reaches Gj#vik in time for the early steamer 
on Lake Mjtfsen to Eidsvold. — Carr. and pair 16 kr. — The road at 
first ascends rapidly, through extensive woods, to — 

14 Kil. Mustad (1510 ft. ; good station). The road traverses a nearly 
level plateau to — 

14 Kil. Granum (1342 ft. ; good quarters), situated a little to the right 
of the road. We then descend to the basin lof the Randsfjord (p. 47). 
About halfway between Granum and Odnses a direct road to (140 Kil.) 
Christiania diverges to the S. (left). 

10 Kil. Odnees, see p. 47. 

Farther N. the lake gradually contracts. The steamer calls at 
Heggenhaugen, Ringsaker (with an old church containing a Flemish 
altarpiece of the 16th cent.), Birid (with a glass-foundry), and 
Frengstuen, and about 2 1 / i hrs. from Gjevik reaches — 

Lillehammer. — "Victoria Hotel, the skyds and diligence station, 
well situated, near the bridge over the Mesna (orders should be addressed 
to the landlord, Br. O. P. Erogsti); "Madame Ormsrcd, in the main street, 
on the left; charges at both, R. l-l 3 /4, B. or S. 1, D. 2kr.; Johansen. — 
The pier is fully 1 M. from the hotels; omnibus there and back. 

Shops. F. Frisenberg, E. side of main street, sells silver trinkets, etc. 
at moderate prices ; carved meerschaum-pipes at G. Larsen's, opposite side. 

Lillehammer (585 ft.), with 1800 inhab., is finely situated on 
the Mesna, about 180 ft. above the E. bank of Lake Mjflsen, and 
l fe M. below the influx of the Laagen. The town is old, but has 
enjoyed municipal privileges since 1827 only. It is called Lille- 
hammer ('little hill') to distinguish it from Hamar (p. 54). 

The brawling Mesna , which flows through the town , forms 
several pretty falls 1-1 V2 M. to the N.E., the finest being in the 
*Helvedeshel , or 'hell cauldron', near which is the Niagara Bath 
House (ascend side-street on S. side of the Mesna bridge , with 
the notice-board 'Til Mesna Bad', about 1 hr.). Pleasant walk of 
Y2 nr - to the S., passing the handsome Latinskole, to a bench on 
the road-side, commanding a fine view of the lake. To the E. 
stretches a vast tract of wild forest. The Mesna and the lonely 
Mesna Lakes, 7 M. to the E. (rough, and at places swampy path), 
afford good trout-fishing. 



56 Route 8. GUDBRANDSDAL. From Christiania 

On the W. bank of Lake Mj0sen, opposite Lillehammer (ferry ad- 
joining the pier), lies Gaard Vingnces, a skyds-station, from which a road 
with fast stations leads to Gj0vik (p. 55). 

The High-Road to the Moldefjord leads from Lillehammer to 
the N., at some height above the lake, and ascends the left (E.) 
bank of the Laagen or Lougen (p. xxvi). The valley of this river, 
with all its ramifications , is called the Gudbrandsdal. The in- 
habitants (Gudbrandsdeler ; about 50,000) are a well-to-do and 
high-spirited race, among whom curious old customs still survive. 
According to Norwegian ideas the valley is well cultivated , but 
the arable land has been laboriously reclaimed by the removal of 
great quantities of stones, which are often seen in heaps on the 
road-side. The syllables rud, rod, or ryd, with which Norwegian 
names so often end , refer to the 'uprooting' of trees and removal 
of stones. The chief occupation of the natives is cattle-breeding. 
In summer most of them migrate with their herds to the saeters. 
The scenery is pleasing at places , but on the whole the valley is 
somewhat sombre. 

About 472 M. from Lillehammer a road diverging to the left descends 
into the deep valley of the Lougen, crosses the stream , and ascends the 
Gausdal. It leads by (12 Kil.) Diserud, near which is the gaard Olestad, 
the property of the novelist Bitfrnson, where we diverge to the left, and 
by (14 Kil.) Smstevold , to (16 Kil.) Gausdal Sanatorium (about 2500 ft.; 
42 Kil. from Lillehammer ; reached either by skyds , or by an omnibus 
starting every morning from the Victoria Hotel, in 5 hrs., fare 8 kr.; 
pension from 5'/2 kr. per day, 125 kr. per month; open 15th June to 
1st Sept.). Pleasant walks. The Skeidkamp (3775 ft. ; 1 hr.) and Prwsle- 
kamp (4200 ft.; 2 hrs.) are very fine points of view. 

The main road ascends the valley from Diserud to the fast stations 
of (15 Kil.) Veisten, (11 Kil.) Mo (well spoken of), and — 

17 Kil. Kvisberg (good quarters), whence a somewhat fatiguing route 
of about two days leads to Gjendesheim (guide from Kvisberg or Vasenden, 
3-4 kr. per day). 

Good bridle-path from Kvisberg in l'/^hr. to Vasenden on the Espedals- 
vand (2450 ft.; fair quarters). Boat across the lake in 3'/4 hrs.; walk across 
the narrow isthmus ('Eid') , where there is an old nickel-mine , to the 
Bredsje. Row past Rytviken (20 min. from which quarters may be had 
at the Dalsoeter) to Vestvolden in 1 hr. Follow the course of the Espa 
across an isthmus to ('/z hr.) the lake of Olstappen. Row in >/2 nr - ,0 
the inn on the Saakaae. Cross another isthmus to the (1 hr.) Slangsjo. 
Cross it by boat and ascend through wood to the (1 hr.) Hinegleli Smler. 
Walk in l l fa hr. to the picturesque Flysceter , and along the Sikilsdalselv 
in 2 hrs. more to the Sikilsdalsswter (about 3450 ft.; quarters). Row across 
the two Sikilsdal Lakes; cross a height, commanding a view of the Jotun- 
heim snow -mountains, to the Sjodal, cross the SJoa, and thus reach 
(5 hrs.) Gjendesheim (p. 142). 

14 Kil. Fossegaarden(620ft; good quarters) is prettily situated 
above the Laagen, which here forms a fall called the Hunnerfos, 
where Hunnererreter, or lake-trout (p. 54), are caught. The Nce- 
verfjeld (3575 ft.), a fine point of view, to the E., may be ascended 
hence in 2 hrs. 

The road threads a narrow ravine through which the Laagen 
has forced its passage. On the left rises the Dreshula, a pictur- 
esque rock. The vegetation is very rich. — The peasants here wear 



to Molde. SKJJSGGESTAD. 5. Route. 57 

red caps ('Topluer') and carry a peculiar kind of pannier on their 
backs ('Bagmeis'). 

17 Kil. Holmen i Tretten (640 ft.; good quarters). From F ormo, 
a little farther on, we obtain, to the E., a view of the snow-capped 
peaks of the Rondane (p. 71). Between Formo and Kirkestuen lies 
Lake Losna, abounding in fish. Scenery still attractive. 

16 Kil. Kirkestuen (*Station), near the church of Fodvang. 
On the left rises the picturesque Kiliknappen (3485 ft.), to the right 
Djupdalsknappen (3735 ft.). Near Kirkestuen the height of an 
inundation ('Flom') in June, 1860, is marked on the rocks. The road 
passes between the abrupt and fissured Elstadklev and the Rott- 
aasbjerg, a similar rock opposite. Numerous snow-ploughs ('Sne- 
plouge') on the road-side. 

12 Kil. Skjaeggestad (*Station), finely situated. On a hill to 
the right stands the old church of Ringebo. The Klinkenberg 
(3080 ft.) is a fine point of view (6-8 hrs. there and back ; horses 
at the station). 

From Skjaeggestad a lonely path leads to (i day) Solliden and the 
"■'Atnevand (a day's journey); thence either by Foldal to Jerkin on the 
Uovrefjeld (p. 67); or down the valley of the Atne-Elv to Atna (p. 71). 

The valley becomes marshy. On the right we pass the Vaal- 
houg and a bridge over the Vaala-Elv (fine view). At Steig , on 
the left , once resided the 'Foged' Lars Gram , the leader of the 
peasants who annihilated the Scottish invaders under Col. Ramsay 
(p. 58). Farther on, to the left, is the gaard Huntorpe, once the 
seat of Dale Oudbrand, the powerful heathen opponent of St. Olaf. 
Beyond it is the gaard Hove, once a heathen place of sacrifice. 
Near it, are several barrows ('Keernpehouge'). 

14 Kil. Listad (* Station ; *6aard Lillehove, a little farther 
on), near the church of Sendre Fron, prettily situated. The road 
descends gradually to the Laagen , which soon becomes a moun- 
tain - torrent , and about 8 Kil. beyond Listad, near the gaard 
Solbraa, forms the fall of Harpefos (not visible from the road). 

10 Kil. Moen (*Station). About 3 Kil. farther on is the private 
station of Byre, with an inn. A road crosses the Laagen here and 
leads to Kvikne. 

The scenery becomes wilder and grander. The valley turns to 
the N., and, beyond the gaard Vik (good quarters), to the W. To 
the left, about V2M. on this side of Storklevstad, is a monument to 
Capt. Sinclair (p. 58). 

11 Kil. Klefstad, or Storklevstad (well spoken of), near the church 
of Kvam (870 it.~). A poor district, with stunted pines and birches; 
fields irrigated by cuttings ; cottages ('Stuer') roofed with turf. The 
large slabs of slate often seen in this district are chiefly used for 
the drying of malt. The road ascends to a height of 450 ft. above 
the Laagen. Opposite, the Sjoa falls into the Laagen. 

The Road to the Sjodal ascends to the church of Hedalen and 
(25 Kil. from Klefstad) Bjalstad, an interesting old gaard, the owner of 



58 Route 8. LAURGAARD. From Christiania 

which claims to be of royal descent. The next stations are Snerle and 
(24 Kil.) Serum (p. 61). 

The road now passes the large district-prison. 

16 Kil. Bredevangen (^Station), beautifully situated. The back- 
ground of the Alpine picture is formed by the Formokampen 

(4835 ft.)- 

On the left is the mouth of the green and copious Ottaelv, the 
valley of which is ascended by the road described in R. 9. On the 
right, about halfway between Bredevangen and Moen, is the steep 
hill of Kringlen, which was formerly crossed by the old road. On 
26th August, 1612, when Col. Ramsay and Capt. Sinclair with 
900 Scottish auxiliaries, who had landed a few days before at the 
Klungenaes on the Romsdalsfjord, were trying to force their way 
through Norway to join the Swedes, then at war with the Norwe- 
gians, they were intercepted by an ambush of 300 Norwegian peas- 
ants at this spot. The natives had collected huge piles of stones 
and wood on the hill above the road, which they hurled down on 
the invaders. Most of the ill-fated Scots were thus destroyed, and 
almost all the survivors were put to the sword. [See p.lxviii; also 
Thomas Michell's 'History of the Scottish Expedition to Norway in 
1612' (London, T.Nelson & Sons), andLaing's 'Norway'.] A tablet 
in the Took to the left, with the inscription, 'Erindring om Ben- 
dernes Tapperhed', commemorates the 'peasants' bravery'. 
j 8 Kil. Moen i Sel (tolerable) lies at the confluence of the 
Laagen with the Via, which descends from Lake. Via at the foot of 
the Rdndane (p. 71), and forms the Daanofos ('thunder-fall') close 
to the road. Half-an-hour's walk up the Uladal is recommended. 
The curious wall of the churchyard of Sel is built of slate, and most 
of the old tombstones are of 'KlaVbersten' or soapstone. 

We pass several deposits of debris ('Skred'), the largest of 
which is near Laurgaard. We cross the river to Laurgaard, and 
recrosi it on our onward journey. 

10 Kil. Laurgaard (1040 ft.; ^Station, good cuisine). A moun- 
tain path diverges here to the left to Serum (p. 61). 

A bridle-path, which diverges from the road to the right, a little 
before it crosses the bridge in the Rusten Kavine, leads to (11 Kil.) the 
Hevringen Salter, fitted up as an inn, and owned by the station-master at 
Laurgaard. The Formokampen (see above) is ascended hence. 

The road leads through a *Ravine of the Laagen, which has 
forced its passage through the rocky barrier of Rusten, and descends 
in a series of rapids and cataracts. The grandest point is at the 
*Bridye which carries the road to the right bank of the river, about 
2 M. from Laurgaard. The traveller should walk to the bridge, 
and order his vehicle to meet him there. Beyond the ravine we 
enter an Alpine valley, in which cultivation almost ceases. The 
grass is irrigated by means of runlets. On the right rises the Rusten- 
fjeld, on the left the Kjelen, a huge mountain-range between the 
Lesse Valley and Vaage. As late as July large patches of snow are 



to Molde. DOMAAS. 8. Route. 59 

seen by the road-side. The broad floor of the valley is covered 
with debris, partly overgrown with stunted pines. 

12 Kil. Brsendhougen (1555 ft.; * Station) belongs to the parish 
of Dovre. The Jetta (5425 ft.), rising to the W., affords a fine view 
of the Dovrefjeld, the Rondane, and Jotunheim. 

We cross the Laagen by a new bridge, and soon pass the 
church of Dovre (1550 ft.), which Prof. Forbes calls a singular and 
ugly structure ('Norway', p. 11), situated on an ancient moraine. 
The faTms are nearly all on the sunny side of the valley ('Solside'). 
A little beyond the church, high up on the right, lies the once royal 
gaard of Tofte. 

12 Kil. Toftemoen (^Station , moderate) , an 'inhabited site' 
(Tuft) on a 'sandy plain' (Mo). Oomp. provincial English 'toft'. 

The road ascends over huge deposits of detritus to the gaard 
Lid. Fine view of the deep ravine of the Laagen, with the Ejerlen 
rising above it. The peak in the distance is the Horung 

11 Kil. Domaas, or Dombaas (2160 ft. ; *Station, R., B., S. 1 kr. 
each ; station-keeper and telegraph official speak English), where 
the climate becomes Alpine, lies at the divergence of the Trond- 
hjem route (R. 10) from ours. 

An excursion of 4-5 hrs. may be taken to the Hardeg-Swter on the S. 
bank of the Laagen, where a fine view of the Snehcetta (p. 67) is enjoyed. 

The Moldefjord road leads as far as Stuefloten through an un- 
interesting mountain-valley, with a scanty growth of pines, birches, 
and heather. The ascent is very gradual. Below, to the left, is the 
bed of the Lesjevand (1720 ft.), now drained. 

12 Kil. Holaker (* Station). "We pass Lesje-Kirke. 
15 Kil. Holsaet (*Station; English spoken). 

A bridle-path ascends from Holsset by the Lora-Elv to the Stonasler 
and the Nyswter (about 5 hrs.), and crosses the mountains to the S. to 
Aanstad (or S/ceaker, p. 62), a long day's journey, which may be broken 
liy spending a night at the pleasant Hysseter (p. 60). 

10 Kil. Lesjeverk (^Station, a timber -built house of the 
middle of last cent.), so called from a deserted iron-mine, lies at 
the S.E. end of the Lesjeskogen-Vand (2050 ft.), which forms the 
watershed between the Skagerrack and the Atlantic. To the former 
descends the Laagen, and to the latter the Rauma, which flows 
out of the V. end of the lake, near the church of Lesjeskogen, a 
place whence the whole district derives its name. Near the church 
is — 

12 Kil. M*lmen (well spoken of). The Storhei (6690 ft.), a 
fine point of view, to the N., may be ascended hence in 6-8 hrs. 
(there and back; with guide). The excursion to the Digervarde, to 
the S. (p. 60), takes a whole day. 

From Molmen to Aanstad (R/jjshjem; comp. p. 187), in two days of 
8 hrs. each. Walking difficult, as numerous brooks have to be forded; 
horse 12, guide 12 kr. Good weather indispensable. Provisions necessary. 
The route traverses a vast and wild mountain-solitude, but is well defined 
by heaps of stones (Varder). Apart form the solemnity of the scene, the 



60 Route 8. NYS^TER. 

only attraction consists in a few distant views and in an occasional glimpse 
at herds of reindeer. 

1st Day. The path ascends slowly through a birch-wood in the Oren- 
dal to the (1 hr.) Qrensaetre (sseters of Enstad and Melmen), where the 
Romsdal Mts. come into view. We descend to the stream and cross 
several brooks and deposits of detritus. The Alpine or Lapland character 
of the flora becomes very marked, and reindeer-moss, here eaten by the 
cows, is also abundant. After 2 hrs. more the path ascends to the left. 
The birch disappears, and patches of snow begin. Looking back, we see 
the Svarth0i, and, more to the right, the Storh0i. The scenery becomes 
exceedingly bleak and wild. In l ] /2 hr. more we reach the top of the 
first hill ('Toppen'). The Komsdal Mts. are conspicuous to the N.W. ; to 
the N.E. are the Svarthjzfi and Storh0i, and farther distant the Snehsetta 
snow-range; to the S.W. the Ljafthjji with its great glacier. A ride of 
1 hr. to the S. over stony ground brings us to the second 'Top', called 
the Digervarde, about 5250 ft. in height, which commands a view of the 
whole Jotunheim chain, from the Glittertind and Galdbjzipig to the Fana- 
raak and beyond it. 

We descend in about 2 hrs., partly over loose stones, to the Nysaeter 
(one double bed; coffee, milk, bread, and 'R0mmegr0d', a very rich com- 
pound of wheat-meal boiled in cream, form the only fare; everything 
clean). The girls call ('lokken') the cattle by singing the 'Fjeldviser' im- 
mortalised by Jenny Lind. 

2nd Day. By starting very early, we may reach Aanstad in time for 
early dinner. Beyond the (1 hr.) Lorafjeld we pass several tarns and the 
W. side of the larger Filling sv and. The broad snow-clad mountain to the 
left is the Lomshorung (5660 ft.), the W. end of which we reach in 3-4 hrs. 
more. To the W. lies the Aursje (3395 ft.), with a grand mountain back- 
ground. The path next skirts theW. slope of the Horung for 1 hr., com- 
manding the mountain-range on the S. side of the Ottadal, including the 
Lomsegg, the Hestbreepigge, and the Tundradalskirke, with the valley far 
below. 

The descent takes a full hour (ascent 2 hrs.); and to reach Aanstad, 
which we see on the opposite bank of the Otta, to the E. of the church 
of Skeaker, we take •/* nr - more. The vegetation rapidly becomes richer 
(Linnaea borealis abundant), and the temperature rises. The path descends 
to the Aura, the discharge of the Aursj0, which forms a fine waterfall. 
Pines and then birches appear. The first gaard on the slope of the valley 
is Bakke. Among the next is one on the left with a tastefully carved 
portal. Eye and barley-fields begin. The path crosses the greenish Otta 
by a long bridge (splendid view), and leads to the right to the O/2 hr.) 
Aanstad station (p. 62). 

Remakes on Sjeter Life. In connection with the above route a few 
remarks on sseters may not be out of place. The sseter, or chalet, con- 
sists of two or more rooms, one for the use of the inmates, with the 
Skorsten or fire-place (also called Arne or Orue); the other (Melkebod) for 
dairy purposes. Over the fire hangs an iron pot or kettle by a chain, and 
there is usually a boiler built into the wall for the preparation of cheese. 
The whey (Myse, Brim) is made into cheese (Myseost), and is often 
carried down to the valleys in drum-shaped tubs (Flasker, Krukker). The 
sseters formerly had no chimneys, the smoke being allowed to escape 
through an opening (Ljore), in the pyramidal roof, which also admitted 
light. The cows (Keer) , often accompanied by sheep (Sauer) and pigs 
(Svin), are usually sent up to the mountains (til Sceters) on St. John's 
Day (24th June), and remain there till 10th September. Women and girls, 
as a rule, are their sole attendants. In singing their melodious cattle- 
call, the saeter girls usually address each cow by name (as Maieros, Hel- 
geros, Lekros, Palmeros, Tcernros, the syllable ros being a term of endear- 
ment applied to cows; also Maanfrue, moon-lady; Krone, crown; Qulgave, 
gold-gift, etc.). The word Kuss is also used to call cows and calves; Oisa 
is addressed to pigs, Vulling to sheep, Sku to dogs, and Faale to horses. 
Among the dogs at the Nysaeter a few years ago were Faust, Passop, 
Vwgter, Barfod, Spring, Freya, and Bataer. Among the dairy utensils are 



S0RUM. 9. Route. 61 

the Melkering or Melkekolle (milk-vessel), the Melkkar (skimmer), tlle D a i 
or Ember (pail), the Krakk (milking-stool), the Sil (milk-strainer, 'sile'), 
and the Vcmdsele (water-pitcher). 

Beyond Melmen, on the right, lies the gaard Einabu, with an 
old 'Bautasten'. King Olaf, 'the Saint', is said to have halted at 
this gaaid during his flight in 1029 (p. xliii). Scenery bleak. 

13 Kil. Stuefloten, see p. 187. The Romsdal, the mountains of 
which are now seen stretching into the distance, begins here. The 
remaining stations are (10 Kil.) Ormeim, (11 Kil.) Flatmark, 
(12 Kil.) Horgheim, and (14 Kil.) Nces.' Details, see pp. 186-184. 
This part of the route, especially beyond Flatmark, will amply repay 
the pedestrian. 

9. From Bredevangen in the Gudbrandsdal to Marok 
on the Geiranger Fjord. 

169 Kil. Road, with fast stations as far as Lindsheim (p. 62), but con- 
veyances may be had there also. Tariff III applies at Bredevangen (car- 
riole 17 0. per Kil.), tariff II at all the other stations (15 0. per Kil.). 

The journey takes 2'/2-3 days. As the only striking part of it is the 
descent to the fjord, it should be taken from E. to W. The road slowly 
ascends the Otta to the top of the fjeld, runs level for some way, and 
suddenly plunges down to the fjord, over 3000 ft. below. The transition 
from the Alpine climate of the fjelds to the genial temperature of the 
fjords is nowhere so rapid. This last part of the road (made by Capt. 
H. Rosenquist in 1882-89) is magnificently engineered. — Good quarters 
at Serum, Gardmo, Aanstad, Lindsheim, and Grjollid. 

Bredevangen, see p. 58. — The road diverges to the left from 
the Gudbrandsdal route at Kringlen (p. 58), crosses the Laagen, 
and ascends the wooded and monotonous Ottadal. 

1 1 Kil. Aasoren. About two-thirds of the way to Snerle the 
road from Bjedstad i Hedal (p. 57) joins ours, coming across a 
bridge on the left. We then pass the old farms of Tolfstad and 
Bjemstad. 

16 Kil. Snerle. The valley expands , and the snow-capped 
Lomsegg (p. 147) becomes visible in the distance. 

7 Kil. S^rum (^Station), about 1 M. from the old church of 
Vaage. A road to Nordre Snerle and Laurgaard diverges just before 
we reach Serum (21 Kil. ; p. 58). 

The road now follows the S. bank of a lake 36 Kil. long, called 
the Vaagevand (1135 ft.) in its E. and the Ottavand in its W. half. 
Beyond the gaard of Volden , about 12 Kil. from Serum , a road 
diverges to the right to Lake Gjende. 

From Sjzrrum we may drive by carriole in about 6 hrs. by the (18 Kil.) 
Slorviksceter, past the iemundsje, and by the large group of sseters called 
(11 Kil.) Randsvcsrk (2300 ft. ; quarters) to the (18 Kil.) Hindsseter (3150 ft. ; 
quarters). Then walk, chiefly following the Sjoa, in 1 hr. to the Busslien 
Bastre (p. 143), and thence to Gjendesheim in 4 hrs. more. 

A little farther on we pass the mouth of the Tesse-Elv, which 
descends from the Tessevand (3020 ft.), and forms several fine 
cascades. (The lowest fall may be visited in i/ 2 nr - i * he highest, 



62 RouteO. LINDSHEIM. From Bredevangen 

the Oxefos, in i l l%-1 hrs.) Just beyond this stream is the gaard 
Storvik (tolerable quarters). Opposite, on the N. hank of the lake, 
rises the Skardhe (5340 ft.). 

20 Kil. Oardmo (good quarters). Farther on, the Lomsklev 
conceals part of the lake, which now takes the name of Ottavand. 

Facing us rises the huge Lomsegg, at the foot of which the 
Bcevra , descending from the snow-mountains of Jotunheim , falls 
into the lake. The road crosses the stream, which forms a fall by 
the bridge and carries its deposits far into the lake. Just beyond 
the bridge, on an old moraine at the foot of the Lomsegg (p. 147), 
which separates the valleys of the Baevra and the Otta, is the 
*Church of Lom (1290 ft.), an old 'Stavekirke' (p. 26), partly dis- 
figured by a ceiling added in the 17th cent, and other additions. 
Observe in particular the pulpit and a silk flag with a hand hold- 
ing a sickle. The latter is said to commemorate the introduction 
of irrigation into this district where rain is scarce. By the Prseste- 
gaard is an old 'Stabbur'. — Beyond the church the road forks. 
The branch to the left ascends the Bseverdal to Rejshjem (15 Kil. ; 
p. 146). On this road, about 1 Kil. from the fork, lies the station of — 

15 Kil. Andvord (middling quarters). — Our road continues to 
follow the S. bank of the Ottavand. On the right, beyond the lake, 
we observe the Loms-Horung (5660 ft.). The country here is toler- 
ably well peopled. The rye and barley-fields are frequently irri- 
gated by means of large shovels ('Skyldrek'). 

14 Kil. Aanstad (*Station), a little to the E. of the church of 
Skeaker. The road soon crosses by an old bridge to the left bank. 
Farther on it traverses thick deposits of sand, the remains of old 
moraines. On the right we pass the confluence of the Aur-Elv, 
descending from the Aursje, with the bluish-green Otta-Elv. On 
the left soon opens the Lunderdal, with its immense moraines, 
bounded on the S. by the glacier-clad Hestbrcspigge (p. 147), by 
the Holatinder in the background , and on the N. by the Orotaa- 
fjeld (6380 ft.), the Tvcerfjeld (6365 ft.), and theSvaahe (6135ft.). 
From the last descend several waterfalls from a height of nearly 
3000 ft. About */2 nr - before reaching Lindsheim we recross the 
Otta-Elv by a bridge in the old Norwegian style. Up the valley 
the view extends as far as the Glittertind (p. 145). 

11 Kil. Lindsheim (^Station; Lars, the landlord, is well-in- 
formed, and also acts as a guide). 

r - 85|FROM Lindsheim to the Jostedal, a grand expedition, 15-18 hrs. in 
all. We drive from Lindsheim along the Ottaelv , and up the Brotedal 
to the left, to (16Kil.)Mork(2190ft.), where the ruthless felling of timber 
has almost ruined the land for agriculture. A path leads us thence by the 
Dyrings-Sceter and past the picturesque Liavand (2475 ft.) to the Sota-Smter 
(2625 ft.), and on to the Eeikjeskaalvand (3070 ft.) , where the night may 
"he spent at the (22-25 Kil. fromMork) Musubytt'Swter. Next day the Svartbyt- 
dal is ascended to the Hanspikje (4520 ft.), whence the route descends 
steeply through the Sprangdal to the Faaberg-Stel (p. 134), 20-25 Kil. 
from the Musubytt-Saeter. 



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to Marok. GRJOTLID. 9. Route. 63 

To the Strynsvand, from Mork, a trying, but well-defined and grand 
route leading through a wild district, 14-15 hours. We cross the hill to 
the N.W. to the Framrust-Soetert (2775 ft.) in the Raudal, ascend this valley, 
skirting the long RaudaUvand , and then mount by the side of the Rau- 
daUbrw to the Kamphammer, the 'Varde' at the top of which is named 
Store Rasmus (4200 ft.). We then descend rapidly by a zigzag path in 
grooves between huge polished 'roehea moutounees', amid grand scenery, 
into theSundal to the finely situated Stmdal-Sceters and through the Hjelledal 
to Hjelle on the Strynsvand (see p. 172). 

The road from Lindsheim to Grjotlid (5 hrs. drive, excluding 
stoppages) passes the Nordbjergskirke. On the right the Ojedings- 
bak descends from the Sletflykamp (6160 ft.). The Dennfos Bridge, 
hy -which we cross the Otta-Elv, commands a view of three valleys, 
the Tundradal to the S. , the Brotedal to the W. (see above), and 
the Billingsdal to the N. , at the junction of which lies Aamot 
('meeting of rivers'). The road now ascends rapidly through huge 
rocky debris ('Ur'). On the left flows the Otta-Elv, which descends 
from the H>gerbottenvand and forms the 0ibergsfos. Looking back, 
we obtain a view of the ice-clad mountains already mentioned. 

The Hegerbottenvand with its wooded islands occupies a 
higher region of the valley. In the background is the Skridulaupbrce, 
with the Framrusthovd and afterwards the Olitterhe; to the right, 
on the hill, lie the Hegerbotten-Scetre (3020 ft.). On the lake lies 
the hamlet of Hegerbotten (11 Kil. from Lindsheim). Passing a 
saw-mill ('Sagbrug'), we nex^ reach the Fredriksvand and Polvand 
(1930 ft.). The road ascends through wild forest, where thousands 
of fallen trees ('Vindfald') are left to decay. Several modern colonies 
of woodcutters are passed. For about ^hr. the road skirts an un- 
broken series of cataracts formed by the Otta, and soon reaches — 

19 Kil. Folfos (Station, well spoken of). To the right a little 
farther on, we pass a waterfall of the Kvcemaa. A wooden bridge 
carries the road across the Thordals-Elv, fed by numerous glaciers 
and snow-fields. On hills formed by debris, to the right, lie the 
saeters of Billingen, to the S. of which, on the opposite side of the 
Otta, are the Aasen-Scetre. The country looks parched, as rain is 
very scarce here in summer, the result of cutting down the forests 
(p. 62). We pass the Vuluvand, a pretty mountain-lake on the left, 
into which the Vuludals-Elv falls ; to the right are the Ny-Satre 
(2685 ft.). The scenery becomes grander. The road is comparatively 
level. On both sides and in the distance rise snow-striped mount- 
ains. On the left is the Skridulaupbra, with its ice-basin ('Botn'). 
We then pass the Heimdalsvand and Orjotlidsvand." 

18 Kil. (pay for 23) Grjotlid, Orjotli or Orjotlien ('stony slope' ; 
2865 ft.), a Fjeldstue or small mountain-inn belonging to govern- 
ment, resembling those on the Dovrefjeld (p. 67), affords good fare 
(bed 50 »., for 2 pers. 80 e\, B. or S. 50 »., D. 3/ 4 -l kr.). Moun- 
tain routes to the Tafjord and the Strynsvand, see below. Guide 
to Marok or Skaare 5, to the Kalhus-Saster (on the way to the Ta- 
fjord) 4kr.; horse to Marok 9, to Skaare 11, to the Kalhus-Saeter 7, 



64 Route 9. DJUPVAND. From Bredevangen 

to Lindsheim 5 kr. (2 pers. 7 kr. 40 ».). Reindeer and a few bears 
are to be met with in the environs. 

From Gejotlid to the Tafjokd, about 11 hrs. (guide to Kaldhus-Sse- 
ter necessary, 4-5 kr. ; horse 7 kr.). The path leaves the Marok road by 
the bridge over the Hamsa (see below) , and ascends the course of that 
stream to its source in the Viavande, a series of lakes to the W. of the 
Heilstugegg and the Langegg. Later on it passes the Fagerboften and 
descends to the Kaldhus or Ealur Soeter, on the lake of that name (1970 ft.; 
quarters). Descent to Tafjord (p. 177) about 2 hrs. more. 

About 2 Kil. further the Marok road reaches the Breidalsvand 
(2885ft. ; 8Kil. long), bounded on the N. by the BreidaUegg and on 
the S. by the Vatsvendegg, and skirts its N. bank, crossing several 
of its tributaries. Among these is the Hamsa, about 5 Kil. from 
Grjotlid, where the Tafjord route diverges (see above). On a height 
at the end of the lake is the small tavern of Breidablik (no beds). 
We pass between the small Lcegervand and Langvand , with the 
Stavbrakker rising on the left and the Djupvasegg (5400 ft.) on the 
right. About 9 Kil. from Breidablik a stone marks the boundary 
between the Christians Amt and the Romsdals Amt , and beyond 
it a 'Bautasten' marks the highest point of the road (3405 ft.). 

We now obtain a view of the Djupvand (3300 ft.) , often ice- 
clad as late as August, the water of which descends to the E. to 
the Otta and the Lougen. On the right opens the Kolbeinsdal 
(through which a path leads to the Viavande and the Tafjord). On 
the S. side of the Djupvand, whose N.E. bank the road follows, we 
perceive the huge rocks of the Orasdalsegg (5170 ft.) and the snowy 
expanse of the Skjceringsdalsbrce. At the W. end of the lake is the 
new mountain-inn Djupvashytten (about 5 Kil. from the frontier- 
stone ; good quarters). 

From this inn a fjeld-path ascends to the Grasdalsskar, between the 
Grasdalsegg and the Skjseringsdalsbrse, descends rapidly past the Grasdals- 
vand to the Skj wring sdalssteile, and leads to Skaare (p. 66). 

The road skirts the Rundhom (4900 ft.) and reaches the water- 
shed between the Skagenak (towards which the Otta flows) and the 
Atlantic. Near this, a little off the road, is a 'Jaettegryde' or cauldron 
hollowed by the action of ice, discovered during the making of the 
road. The grandest **Scenery begins here. The traveller should 
walk. The road descends rapidly, in sharp zigzags and over bold 
bridges spanning the wild torrent, to the Geiranger Fjord. Be- 
tween the brink of the descent and Marok the distance is about 
16 Kil., but in a straight line scarcely 6 Kil. , and the difference 
in height is over 3000 ft. The road is unique of its kind , the 
sudden and tremendous plunge it takes being unrivalled even 
among the Alps. 

A superb mountain-picture now presents itself. On the left rises 
the Flydalshorn, on the right the Vindaashom; beyond the latter the 
Saathorn (5830 ft.), and then the Orindalsnibba (5030 ft.). In the 
distance are the heights enclosing the Geiranger Fjord. Far below 
lies the smiling Opliendskedal. The Kvandals-Sceter is the first we 



to Maroh. VATSVENDHYTTE. 9. Route. 65 

pass. Near it is the fine Kvandalsfos, close to which the road 
crosses the stream. Four bold zigzags carry us down to the highest 
part of the Geiranger basin, called the Oplcendskedal, in which lie 
a gaard of that name and the 0rjesccter. 

The road again descends rapidly to the next region of the valley, 
called the Flydal. To the N. opens the Vesteraasdal (see below), 
between the Grindalsnibba and the Z-amTwro (4925 ft.). To the left, 
above us, between the Flydalshorn and the Blaahorn, which towers 
above the gaard of Flydal, appears a huge glacier. Above the gaard 
are two fine waterfalls , the Tverabefos and the Klevhelfos. The 
road here forms a 'Knude' or knot , as it passes exactly under a 
higher part of it. A finger-post indicates the way to the Flydals- 
djuv, an abyss of several hundred feet. 

Still more striking, as we descend, is the increasing number of 
waterfalls on every side. The largest tributaries descend on the 
right from the Saathorn and the Vesteraasdal , and fall into the 
main stream at the gaard Hole. The fine fall of the Vesteraaselv, 
called the Kleiuafos , is reached by a path just above the second- 
last bridge ('Gjerde-Bro'). We next cross the 'Vinje-Bro', pass 
the Storfos, the most copious of all the falls, near the gaard Gjer- 
vad, and, rounding the hill on which the church stands, reach — 

41 Kil. Marok (p. 175). 



From Grjotlid to the Strynsvand. 

A grand, but rough and fatiguing route (which the new road, to be 
completed in 1894, will render easy): 7-8 hrs. on foot; also a drive of 
25 Kil. and 11 Kil. by rowing-boat or steam-launch on the Strynsvand. — 
Goide necessary to about 6 Kil. within the Via-Sseter, where the road 
completed in 1891 begins, 5 kr.; horse 10 kr., desirable for crossing many 
bogs and brooks. Only good qnarters at the Via-Sseter, fitted up in 1891 
as a 'Fjeldstue' like the Haukeli-Sseter (p. 32). To do the whole journey 
in one day requires a very early start. It should not be attempted in the 
reverse direction. For pedestrians, theKamphammer (p. 63) is preferable. 

We leave the Marok road a little before it reaches the Breidals- 
vand(p. 64), cross, by a bridge to the left, the Otta here descending 
from the lake, and ascend the Vatsvenddal to the S.W. on the left 
bank of the Maaraa-Elv. In front, a little to the left, rises the 
Storelefta. In 40 min. we reach the Heilstuguvand (to the left) 
which we skirt for 3 /4hr. To the left is the Skridulaupbra; before 
us, to the left, is the Maaraadal with the Sandgrovbrce, from which 
the Maaraa-Elv descends. "We next ascend to the W., along the 
Vatsvend-Elv. In 50 min. we reach the first of the Vatsvande, a 
chain of small lakes on the top of the pass, probably finding outlets 
on both sides. To the right the Baudegg, to the left the Vatsvend- 
egg. In 35 min. more we reach the — . 

Vatsvendhytte, a tourists' hut (without provisions), with a view 
of glaciers and fields of snow. We next reach (i/ 2 hr.) what seems 
to be the highest point of the route (3700 ft.). Straight before us 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 6 



66 Route 9. SKAARE. 

appears the finely shaped Skaala (p. 169) , with the Skaalabra, 
which henceforth forms the background of the view. We pass 
(1^2 nr a 'Varde' or cairn, marking the boundary between Chris- 
tians Amt and Nordre Bergenhus Amt. To the left lies the Lange- 
vand, covered with snow and ice. At the lower end of it we cross 
extensive snow-fields, still bearing to the W.S.W. In 25 min. 
we come to the Videdals-Elv (difficult to cross until the bridge is 
finished), which descends to the Strynsvand. We follow the left 
bank of this stream, partly on the new road, passing several water- 
falls, and soon obtain a *View of the Strynsvand and the mountains 
beyond it (Skaala, Tindfjeld). After 1/2 hr. more we cross to the 
right bank by a stone bridge, and pass (1/4 hr.) a lofty waterfall on 
the right. To the left, above, is the Tystigsbrce. The Videdal de- 
scends to the Strynsvand in steps, consisting of three nearly level 
terraces separated by two steeper slopes , over which the stream 
descends in several falls. Before us we have a grand Alpine picture. 
In 25 min. we recross to the left bank by a stone bridge, and in 
V2 nr - reach the — 

Via or Vide Sater, a 'Fjeldstue' fitted up by government, com- 
manding a splendid *View, with fine waterfalls to the right. Here 
we reach the new *Road, which (1/4 hr.) crosses the foaming Elv. 
Above us to the left are several waterfalls and glaciers, descending 
from the Nuken (5890 ft.). We descend in sweeping curves round 
the foot of the Aaspelifjeld to (Y2 hr.) a bridge over the deep *Ra- 
vine of the Skjarringsdals-Elv, which descends from the right. [A 
grand but fatiguing walk may be taken up this ravine to the Djup- 
vashytte, p. 64.] Skirting this stream, we observe (*/4 hr.) the first 
signs of cultivation, and in 5 min. more (6 Kil. from the Via- 
Sieter) we are at — 

Skaare (two beds, tolerable). Looking back, we obtain a fine 
survey of the waterfall, the Via-Sseter, and the Aaspelifjeld. A 
carriole may be hired at Skaare, though it is not a skyds-station 
(to Hjelle, 7 Kil., l»/ 4 kr.). — We now drive through a beautiful 
and well-wooded valley, with cultivated fields and farms. Before us 
rises the conspicuous Skaala. Later appear the Tindefjeld, Fosnces- 
brce, and Brcekkefjeld, a grand picture. We pass lofty moraines, 
broken through by the river, and come in sight of the *Stryns- 
vand, at the end of which lies the skyds-station Hjelle (p. 172). 

10. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the 
Dovrefjeld to Storen 

(Trondhjem). 

154 Kil. Road, with fast stations (to Jerkin tariff III, from Kongavold 
onwards tariff II), less \ised since the opening of the railway (E. 11). 
Travellers from Molde who combine this route with a visit to the Bomsdal 
may easily reach Trondhjem in four days (or less, if necessary): 1st, to 
Stuefloten (p. 187); 2nd, to Domaas; 3rd, litAime; 4th, to Steven, and in the 
evening by train to Trondhjem. 



JERKIN. 10. Route. 67 

Domaas, see p. 59. The Trondhjem road diverges to theN. from 
the Gudbrandsdal, and ascends rapidly through moor and hog, with 
stunted pines, to the Dovrefjeld, which separates Southern (Senden- 
fjeldske) from Northern (Nordenfjeldske) Norway. Grand view of the 
mountains, as we look back. In about 1 hr. we reach the plateau. 
The road crosses the Fogsaae, an affluent of the Glommen. To the 
left are extensive mountain-plains, where the Driva, which de- 
scends to Sundal, takes its rise. 

On the Fogstulw (5840 ft. ; ascent 5 hrs. there and back , view 
of Jotunheim, Snehaettan, and Rondane) we observe three saeters 
on the right and others to the left. To the N.W. rise the Hundsje 
and Skreda Fjelds, and beyond them the Snehatta (see below), the 
snow and glacier of whose W. basin ('Botn') are distinctly visible. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11 in this direction) Fogstuen or Fokstuen 
(3120 ft. ; *Ant. Solberg's Inn ; reindeer, wild-duck, and ptarmigan 
shooting to be had) is one of the four 'Fjeldstuer', or mountain-inns, 
founded by government on the Dovrefjeld for the use of travellers 
so far back as 1107-10. The tenants receive an annual subsidy, and 
are bound to keep the roads open in winter and to forward the mails. 
The Fokstue is now private property. The other three 'Fjeldstuer', 
Jerkin, Kongsvold, and Drivstuen, belong to the state'. 

'From my inmost soul I blessed the good king Ey stein , who in 1120 
built these four Fjeldstuer on the Dovrefjeld for the benefit of wayfarers 
crossing the mountain'. (L. v. Buch.) 

From Fogstuen the old road , now disused , crosses the lofty ffard- 
bakke (3750 ft.) direct to Toftemoen (p. 59). — L. v. Buch , who travelled 
by this route at the end of April (i.e. in winter) writes: 'The lofty pyramid 
of the Snehsetta then came in sight amidst the haze, several miles to the 
north. So rises Mont Blanc, seen from the Brevent, from its mantle of ice. 
It is not a mere mountain, but a mountain on a mountain, — a great and 
sublime apparition commanding the whole of this solitude'. 

The monotonous road passes several lakes ( Vardesje, Afsj0, etc.) 
formed by the Fogsaae, which farther on is called the Folda. On 
the right are the Blaaheer. On the Vardesjfl (2985 ft.), and to the 
right farther on, are several sseters. The road leaves the valley of 
the Folda and ascends to — 

21 Kil. Jerkin or Hjerkin (3140 ft. ; *8tation, R., B., S., each 
ikr. ; often crowded in summer), amidst wild scenery. Interesting- 
walk to the Jerkinhei, the highest point on the old road (4105 ft.), 
s/^hr., commanding a view of the Kollen, Rondane, and Jotunheim. 

Snehaettan (7630 ft. ; 'snow-hat'), the sixth-highest among the mountains 
in Norway, is best ascended from Jerkin (12-14 hrs. there and back ; guide 4, 
horse 6'/2 kr. ; provisions necessary; settled weather indispensable). The 
ascent was first made by Esrnarl at the end of last century. For 3-4 hrs. 
we ride across a rocky and mossy tract , crossing several torrents, to the 
Johan Jerkinshylte (12 beds •, key at Jerkin). Lastly 2-3 hrs. over snow and 
ice. In clear weather (rare on the Dovrefjeld) the view is very extensive 
in every direction, but deficient in picturesqueness, and far inferior to that 
from the Galdh/9pig (p. 147). The chief object of interest is the finely shapert 
mountain itself, composed of mica-slate. . 

An unattractive road with fast stations (tariff II) leads from Jerk.i. 
through the Foldal to rail. stat. Lille- Elvedal (p. 72). The stations are. 

5* 



68 Route 10. DRIV8TUEN. From Domaas 

17 Kil. Dalen, 17 KH. Krokhaugen, 18 Kil. Ryhangen , 32 Kil. Steien, near 
Lille-Elvedal. From Krokhaugen a road leads S. to the Atmvand and the 
Rdndane (see p. 71). 

The road ascends a hill to the W., then descends gradually to 
the Svonaae, the course of which it now follows. Striking view 
of the Snehaetta, which looks quite near. The road crosses the 
houndary between the Stifts ofHamar and Trondhjem, and gradu- 
ally descends into the valley of the Driva, formed by the union 
of the Kaldvella and the Svonaae. 

13 Kil. Kongsvold (2950 ft. ; *Station, often crowded in 
summer) is another good starting-point for the ascent of the Sne- 
haetta and for that of the Knutshe (5565 ft.; 3 hrs. ; similar view), 
which is botanically interesting. 

The road now enters a narrow ravine enclosed by huge rocks, 
through which the Driva careers headlong. Fine Alpine flora. The 
old road ('Vaarstien') leads up and down hill on the right bank. 

15 Kil. Drivstuen (2190 ft. ; *Station, R. 1, B. 1, D. li/ 2 kr., 
S. 80 0.). The valley expands; vegetation becomes richer; first the 
pine, then the birch, and later a few fields of barley and potatoes 
appear. Scenery still grand. We pass the mouth of the Aamots- 
Elv on the left , and soon cross the Driva by a new bridge. A little 
further on, about 9 Kil. from Drivstuen, and a few paces from the 
road, is a remarkable gorge of the Driva called *Magalaupet {Laup, 
'gully'; caution necessary). The road descends in windings to a 
fertile zone of the valley. 

12 Kil. (pay for 17) Rise (well spoken of), near the mouth of 
the Vinstra, descending from the right. The Dovrefjeld termin- 

10 Kil. Aune (1770 ft. ; ""Station, R. 1 kr. 60. B. 1 kr. 25, 
D. 1 kr. 60 ».), also called Ny-Aune or Ny-0vne, in the Opdal. 
To the "W. rises the snow-clad Munkevoldsfjeld, and to the E. the 
Allmandbjerg. 

From Aune an interesting road to the left, following the Driva, after- 
wards called the Sundals-Elv , descends to (72 Kil.) Sundals/zrren. Fast 
stations; tariff II. — The somewhat hilly road leads first to (11 Kil.) Aalbu 
(mediocre); then descends a ravine, passing Gravaune, to (15 Kil.; pay in 
this direction for 18, in the opposite for 21) Sliper (1800 ft. ; poor quar- 
ters). It next crosses the Graauren, a hill at the foot of which the 
Driva rushes through a deep gorge. At (10 Kil. ; pay in the reverse 
direction for 14) Gjera (good quarters) begins the 'Sundal, a valley vying 
in grandeur with the Romsdal. The road mostly follows the course of 
the Sundals-Elv. 17 Kil. Storfale (good and moderate quarters). Avalanches 
and stones frequently fall from the dizzy heights of the Romfogkjcerringer, 
Klengfjeld, and ffoaasncebta , and at four of the most dangerous points 
the traveller is warned by his Skydsgat to drive quickly ('Sneeskred ! 

kjtfr til')- 

19 Kil. Sandalseren, at the S. end of the Stmdalsfjord, see p. 193. 
If the traveller misses the steamboat, he may row to (22 Kil.) Mdse/ren 
(p. 193) and drive thence to Eidsvaag (p. 188). 

The road quits the valley of the Driva and becomes uninter- 
esting. It follows the Byna and crosses the low watershed between 
that stream and the 0rkla, which falls into the Trondhjems-Fjord 



to Stercn. BJERKAKER. 10. Route. 69 

at J0rkedals0ren (see below). We get a last glimpse at the Sne- 
hsetta. Beyond — 

14 Kil. Stuen, or Nystuen (good station), the road descends 
to the 0rkla, which is crossed by a handsome bridge. The Oisna, 
which here unites with the J0rkla, forms a fine waterfall. Then an 
ascent to — 

11 Kil. Austbjerg or Vssbjerg (1365 ft. ; well spoken of). Still 
ascending, and traversing beautiful forest, the road skirts the deep 
*Ravine of the 0rkla. Fine views, particularly of the snow-moun- 
tains to the S.W. 

Fkom Austbjerg to T0Ns.*t, 72 Kil., a good road, with fast stations 
(tariff II), through meadows and forests, with fine views, an interesting 
route from the 0rkladal to the Glommendal. It passes the church of Inset, 
runs high above the 0rkla Ravine, crosses the foaming Naven (Naiva) by 
a copper-foundry with large chimneys, and reaches (11 Kil.) Nasverdal (poor 
quarters). The river forms many rapids. — 13 Kil. (pay for IT, but not in 
the reverse direction) Frengstad (indifferent). We then pass the church of 
Kvikne, with its substantial gaards (birthplace of B. Bj0rnson, the novelist), 
and cross the brawling Jen-Blv. The road ascends high on the right bank 
of this stream to (14 Kil., pay for 17) Steim i Kvikne (praised). Soon after 
we cross the low watershed and descend to the Tetmen, which flows through 
the Stubs0 (right) and enters the Glommen at T0nsset. — 14 Kil. (pay for 17) 
Nylroen (good quarters at a pleasant gaard). The road leads across the 
T0nnen to (10 Kil., pay for 12) Fosbakken (tolerable), where we have a fine 
view of the 0sterdal Mts. — 14 Kil. (pay for 17) Bjernsmoen i Tenswt (p. 72). 

12 Kil. Bjerkaker (1325 ft. ; Hotel Bjerkaker) lies on the water- 
shed between the 0rkla and the Gula. 

Fkom Bjerkaker to 0rkedals0ren, 74 Kil., a road with fast stations 
(tariff III). The road passes Gaard Hoel, where a famous drinking-horn 
is still shown, presented by Christian V., out of which Charles XIV. John 
(Bernadotte), Oscar I., and Charles XV. respectively drank when on their 
way to be crowned at Trondhjem. Observe the huge birch-tree, 10 ft. 
in circumference. 14 Kil. Haarstad (720 ft.). Farther on, Gaard UJ, with 
a very old building, the carving on which is said to have been executed 
by the 'Jutuls' (giants). 14 Kil. Grut. 11 Kil. Kalstad i Meldalen , from 
which a road leads by Garberg and Foseide to Surendals0ren (p. 193). Our 
road passes Lekkens Kobberveerk, crosses the0rkla. and next reaches (15 Kil.) 
Aarlivold (good), whence a road to the S.W. also leads to Surendals0ren, 
while another road leads to the E. to (17 Kil.) Kraakslad and the (17 Kil., 
pay in reverse direction for 19) Hovin railway-station (p. 73). — 12 Kil. Bak, 
whence a road leads E. via (13 Kil., pay for 15, but not in reverse direction) 
By and (12 Kil.) Saltneessanden to (11 Kil.) Heimdal, a railway-station 
(p. 73). — 8 Kil. 0rkedals0ren (Man's Inn). Steamboat to Trondhjem (Com. 
274), almost daily, in 3-4 hrs. 

The road traverses the uninteresting Soknedal and follows the 
course of the Igla, and afterwards that of the Stavilla, which after 
its union with the Hauka takes the name of Sokna and falls into 
the Gula at Steren. 

12 Kil. Oarli (1355 ft. ; good station) lies on a height to the left. 
We descend through a picturesque ravine with waterfalls and 
mills ('Kvsernhus'). Beyond the church of Soknedalen we reach — 

10 Kil. (pay in reverse direction for 11) Prcesthus (700 ft. ; praised). 

1 4 Kil. Steven, orEngen iSteren (210ft.), station on the Trond- 
hjem Railway (p. 73). Travellers going on by train should drive 
direct to the station. (To Trondhjem l 3 /4-2V2 hrs.) 



70 

11. From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway. 

562 Kil. (350 M.). Railway (Com. A). In summer one through-train 
daily, in 17^4 hrs., stopping at 14 only out of 68 stations (fares 47 kr. 80, 
33 kr. 70, 22 kr. 50 n. ; a first-class ticket entitles to a sleeping - berth ; 
56 lbs. of luggage free). Another train stops for the night at (14 hrs.) 
Tensest, arriving in (11 hrs.) Trondhjem next clay (fares 36 kr. 50, 28 kr. 
10 0., 16 kr. ; but better book on first day to Tansast only; at present no 
first class from T0nsset to Trondhjem). Tickets for the slow train avail- 
able for the express on payment of difference. In order to secure good 
rooms at T0nsset it is advisable to write or telegraph beforehand. Hot 
meals are provided for express passengers at Hamar only (l'/2 kr. ; diners 
help themselves), for travellers by ordinary train at Hamar and at Singsaas 
(same charge). Sandwiches only to be had at the other refreshment-rooms. 

The best views between Hamar and Rena are to the right; thence to 
Trondhjem, to the left. The last part of the journey, especially beyond 
R/zfros, is the finest. The traveller may go to Eidsvold by early train, 
take the steamer to Hamar, and there join the express in the afternoon. 

From Christiania to (68 Kil.) Eidsvold (410 ft; Rail. Rest.; halt 
of 10 min.), see p. 53. The train follows the right (W.) bank of 
the pretty Vormen to its efflux from the Mjesen (p. 54) at — 

75 Kil. Minne (465 ft.). At the Minnesund it crosses the river 
by an iron bridge, 65 ft. high and 1180 ft. long, and then skirts the 
E. bank of the Mj0sen , on the opposite bank of which rises the 
Skreidfjeld (p. 54). 

84 Kil. Ulvin (420 ft.). Fine view of the Bay of Feiring , op- 
posite. The train enters Hedemarkens Amt. 97 Kil. Espcn (425 ft.), 
on the picturesque bay of Korsedegaard. 102 Kil. Tangen (540 ft.), 
with the church of that name. The train ascends through a solitary 
wooded region, past the small station of Stensrud, to (114 Kil.) 
Stange (730 ft.), and then descends through a fertile district. 
119 Kil. Ottestad (620 ft.), on the pretty Akersvik, which the train 
crosses by an embankment, while the road, to the W. of it, crosses 
by a wooden bridge. 

126 Kil. Hamar (415 ft. ; *Rail. Rest.; toilet -room; halt of 
25 min.), see p. 54. We change carriages, and go on by the narrow- 
gauge Reros Railway (secure sleeping place!). 

The train gradually ascends through the lonely wooded regions 
of Hedemarken. Scenery uninteresting at first. Aker, a small stop- 
ping-place, is passed. 131 Kil. Hjellum ; 135 Kil. Ilseng ; 139 Kil. 
Hersand (570 ft.). Fine view of the Skreifjeld (p. 54), to the 
S.W. of Lake Mjasen. 141 Kil. Aadalsbrug. Beyond (144 Kil.) 
Leiten (760 ft.) we pass the drilling-ground of Terningmoen. 

158 Kil. Elverum(610ft.; Rail. Rest.; St. Olafs Hotel, well 
spoken of) is the first station in the valley of the Olommen , the 
longest river in Norway (falling into the sea at Fredrikstad), the 
valley of which the train ascends to Reros. The important Orundset- 
Market, a great horse and timber fair, takes place here every March. 
The peasantry of the 0sterdal, the district traversed by the Glommen 
and its affluents, are among the richest in Norway, some of their 
forest-estates extending to many square miles. The value of their 



KOPPANG. 11. Route. 71 

timber has risen greatly since the completion of the railway. Some 
of their gaards are comfortably and even luxuriously fitted up, but 
they still adhere with pride to their original name of peasants 
('Gaardbruger'). The timber is felled in autumn and winter, the 
hardy wood -cutters often spending weeks in the forest, in spite 
of the intense cold, and passing the night in wretched huts. The 
characteristic form of the old houses of the district, with their open 
roofs and tall chimneys , has been retained in many of the railway 
buildings. 

164 Kil. Grundset QUO it.); 171 Kil. 0xna (666 ft.). Before 
(184 Kil.) Aasta (740 ft.) the train crosses the river of that name. 

190 Kil. Rena (735 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), prettily situated on the 
right bank of the Glommen, not far from the church of Aamot, near 
which are several inns. Near (204 Kil.) Stenviken (785 ft.) the 
train crosses the Glommen by a long bridge , and now follows the 
E. bank (views to the left). 214 Kil. Ophus (805 ft.). Here and 
farther on, the Glommen forms lake-like expansions. 224 Kil. Rasten 
(840 ft.) ; 237 Kil. Stai (860ft.). The scenery assumes a more moun- 
tainous character. Fine view of the floor of the valley, intersected 
by the river in many branches. 

247 Kil. Koppang (915 ft.; Rail. Rest.; *Hansen, 2 min. to 
the left of the station exit; Jernbane Hotel, opposite the station, 
E. I 1 /}, S. 1 !/ 2 kr. ; Koppang Hotel; Skyds-Station, in the village, 
10 min. distant) lies on a height above the river. To the W., rising 
above the forests, are high mountains , carpeted with yellow moss. 

The train now runs through wood, high above the Glommen, and 
crosses two bridges. Fine views towards the S. The mountains 
•increase in height, and the valley contracts. Bjeiraanasset, a small 
stopping-place. 

272 Kil. Atna (1170 ft.), near the mouth of the Atne-Elv, station 
for several gaards on the opposite bank of the Glommen. 

An excursion may be taken hence (comp. p. 57) to the W. to Sol- 
liden and Atnebro (good quarters at the gaards Ncesset, Bramden, Uti, and 
Troeri), near the Atne-Sje. Imposing view of the chief peaks of the Eon- 
dane: the Hegvond (6700 ft.), the Stygfjeld (6730 ft.), and the Rundvashegda 
(6900 ft.) . These peaks and the still higher Rondeslot (7100 ft.) may be 
ascended from Stramboden, in the upper Atnedal, and through the Lang- 
glupdal (with guide). — From Strcrmboden a path leads across the hills 
to the Bj0rnhull-Sceter (good quarters) and Myssu-Sceter , and through the 
Uladal, to the S.W., to Moen in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 57). — A road leads 
from Atnebro to Strombu, Blwsterdalen (to the E. of which rises the Store 
Selen or Dale Selen, 5800 ft.), and (33 Kil.) Krokhaug-Foldalen (p. 68). 

285 Kil. Hanestad (1250 ft.). On the opposite bank rises the 
imposing Grettingbratten (3820ft.). The train skirts the river, with 
a view of high hills to the N., and again enters monotonous wood. 
At (304 Kil.) Barkald (1485 ft.) the Glommen forms the Barkaldfos. 
About l /4 hr. to the E. is the curious gorge of Jutulhugget , open 
towards the E. only, having been formed, according to tradition, by 
the attempt of a giant to divert the Glommen into the Rendal. 



72 Route 11. T0NSvET. From Christiania 

324 Kil. Lille-Elvedal (1660 ft. ; Rail. Rest.; *Steien's Hotel, 
close by, R. 1 kr., D. 1 kr., B. 60 #.), at the entrance to the Foldal 
(p. 68). A bridge crosses the Glommen here. — The train skirts 
the base of the Tronfjeld (5610 ft.), a mountain composed of gabbro 
and serpentine, which may be ascended from Lille-Elvedal (car- 
riage-road nearly the whole way). Fine view of it, as we look back. 
— 337 Kil. Auma (1600 ft.). Large tracts of dead pines, killed by 
the extreme cold of winter, when the thermometer sometimes falls 
60°Fahr. below zero. Dreary scenery. 

347 Kil. Tensset (1620 ft. ; Rail. Rest. ; Schulrud's Hotel) lies 
near the confluence of the Tenna and the Glommen, chiefly on the 
right bank of the latter. A road with fast stations leads hence by 
Kvikne to Austbjerg (p. 69). — The line traverses the extensive 
Qodtlandsmyr. To the S.W., on the right side of the Tronfjeld, rise 
the Rdndane (p. 71). 

358 Kil. Telnces (1630 ft.). The train ascends more rapidly. 
Pasturage now takes the place of tilled fields. — 368 Kil. Tolgen 
(1685 ft.), in an exposed situation. To the right the Hummelfjeld 
(5050 ft.). The vegetation assumes a thoroughly Alpine character. 

385 Kil. Os (1975 ft.); the village lies on a slope (Lid) on the 
opposite bank. The train crosses the Nera, traverses an extensive 
moor, and reaches — 

399 Kil. (247 M.) R«ros or Reruns (2060 ft. ; Reros Hotel, well 
spoken of; Mad. Larsen's Hotel ; *Rail. Rest. ; halt of 6-10 min.), 
with 1700 inhab., situated on a dreary and inclement plateau. The 
town was founded in 1646, after the discovery of the copper-mines. 
It lies on the Hitter-Elv, while the Glommen, descending from the 
Aursund-Sje (2285 ft.), flows round the W. side of the town. 
Observe the curious timber houses, roofed with turf, and the large 
church of 1780. Vast expanses of turf, bordered with extensive 
terraces of glacial detritus and sandhills , where the dwarf-birch 
alone thrives, have been converted into pastures by dint of careful 
manuring. Corn does not ripen, and the forest is gone. Cattle- 
breeding is the only resource of the inhabitants , apart from the 
copper-mines. 

The mines yield about 280 tons of pure copper annually. Between 
1644 and 1844 the total value of the yield is said to have amounted to 
72 million kr. (4,000,000!.). Far and near, the woods have been cut down 
for fuel, hut the railway now brings coal. The chief mines are Storvarts 
Grube, 2716 ft. above the sea-level, 9 Kil. to the N.E., the ore of which 
yields 8 per cent of copper; near it, Ny Solskins Grube; to the K.W., 
14 Kil., Kongens Grube, yielding 4 per cent of copper; Mug Grube, 22 Kil. 
distant. The smelting-works are the Reros Eytte, the Dragaas Hytte at 
Aalen, and the Lovisa Hytte at Lille-Elvedal. 

From Bfjros we may drive by akyds, via, (17 Kil.) Jensvold and (18 Kil.) 
Skolgaarden on Lake Aursund, to visit (not without privations) a settlement 
of Nomadic Lapps. — Another skyds-road leads S.E., by (16 Kil.) Satern 
i Reros and (17 Kil.) Langen, to (5 Kil.) Semderviken on Lake Faemund 
(about 2300 ft. ; steamer, see Com. 328 ; thence to Sweden, see p. 274). 

From Rtfros the train returns on the same rails to the main line 



to Trondhjem. ST0REN. 11. Route. 73 

(views to the left), passes the Storskarven on the right, and traverses 
a bleak plateau. 406 Kil. Nypladsen (2055 ft.). Heaps of copper- 
ore (Kobbermalm) generally lie at the station. A little farther on is 
the copper-coloured site of an old furnace. We now cross the tur- 
bulent Glommen. Beyond (412 Kil.) Jensnold (2090 ft.), the train 
crosses large expanses of debris. A stone to the left marks the 
highest point of the railway (2200 ft.), on the watershed between 
the Glommen and the Gula, which descends tho the Trondhjems 
Fjord. The train follows the valley of the latter to Melhus. 

From (420 Kil.) Tyvold (2180 ft.), a narrow-gauge railway runs 
S. to the Kongens Grube (p. 72). The train descends circuitously 
on the slope of the broad and wooded basin of the Gula. 432 Kil. 
Reitan (1780ft.). On the left several interesting old gaards. Below 
lies the church of Hov. 

442 Kil. Eidet (1380 ft. ; Rail. Rest.). Below it lies a copper- 
foundry. A very picturesque part of the line begins here. The 
train skirts the rocks of Dreilierne (seven short tunnels) and enters 
the ravine of the Dreia, which it crosses by a lofty bridge. In the 
cuttings we distinguish first the clay - slate , and afterwards the 
granite and gneiss formations. 454 Kil. Holtaalen (985 ft.), with 
a handsome new church, prettily situated in the valley. The cos- 
tume of the peasantry here usually consists of a red jacket, leath- 
ern breeches , and a 'Toplue' or peaked woollen cap. We now 
descend the valley of the Gula to (463 Kil.) Langlete (770 ft.) and 
(472 Kil.) Reitsteen (670 ft.). 

480 Kil. Singsaas (575 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), with a bridge over the 
Gula. Large terraces of debris to the left mark the entrance of the 
Forradal. On the left a fine waterfall. — 486 Kil. Bjergen (455 ft.), 
prettily situated. Three short tunnels. Kotseien, a stopping-place. 
499 Kil. Rognas (300 ft.), with a bridge over the Gula. A little 
above Steren, to the left, is the church of Engen, at the confluence 
of the Sokna-Elv and the Gula. We cross the Gula. 

510 Kil. St»ren (290 ft.; Rail. Rest.; * Hotel) is charmingly 
situated at the mouth of the Sokna, through which the Dovrefjeld 
road ascends (R. 10). The beautiful rocky valley is well cultivated at 
places, and partly wooded. On the right, below Steren, a fine waterfall. 

Remaining stations unimportant. 517 Kil. Hovin (170 ft. ; see 
also p. 69). The train crosses the river, which- here forms the 
Gulefos on the left and dashes through its narrow channel. 524 Kil. 
Lundemo (108 ft.); 530 Kil. Ler (80 ft.). The valley expands. 
The train crosses a tributary of the Gula twice and ascends a little. 
535 Kil. Kvaal (160 ft.). The train now descends; view to the left. 
538 Kil. Seberg (100 ft.). 541 Kil. Melhus (75 ft.) , with a finely 
situated church. Numerous river-terraces are passed. We now quit 
the Gula, which turns to the N.W. and flows into the Gulosen, a 
bay of the 0rkedalsfjord(p. 69; an arm of the Trondhjems-Fjord). 
The train turns to the N.E. and crosses the hill between the Gula 



74 Route 12. KONGSVINGER. 

and the Nid , which falls into the fjord at Trondhjem. Before 
(546 Kil.) Nypen (230 ft.) we get a glimpse at the 0rkedalsfjord, 
and of a snowy mountain in the distance. 551 Kil. Heimdal 
(465 ft.). We now descend for the last time, passing numerous 
farms. At the stopping-place Selsbak we reach the Nid-Elv, near 
the Lille Lerfos (to the right ; p. 199), and then follow its left bank. 
Lastly (comp. Map, p. 194) a short tunnel under the suburb of 
Ihlen, beyond which we reach the harbour and the station of — 
562 Kil. (350 M.) Trondhjem (p. 194). 

12. From Christiania by Railway to Charlottenberg 

(and Stockholm) . 

143 Kil. (89 31.). Railway (Com. A, B) in l&U-b hrs. (fares 9 kr. 30, 
7kr. 20, 4 kr. 40#.). Two through-trains daily. One of these has through- 
carriages for Stockholm (H'/stirs. from Christiania; fares 43 kr. 5, 31 kr. 
15, 19 kr. 55 0.). See also B. 46. 

From Christiania to (21 Kil.) Lillestrem, see p. 53. The Eids- 
vold line (p. 53) diverges here to the N. ; the Charlottenburg 
train runs towards the S.E. , through less interesting scenery. 
Lillestr»m lies on the N.W. bay, called Draget, of Lake 0ieren 
(330 ft.), a long basin of the Glommen. 

29 Kil. Fetsund, where the train crosses the broad Glommen, 
just above its influx into Lake 0ieren. Vast quantities of timber 
enter the lake here every spring on their way down to Sarpsborg 
and Fredrikstad. The train now follows the E. (left) bank of the 
river, which forms cataracts at places , all the way to Kongs- 
vinger. 42 Kil. Blakjer or Blaker; 49 Kil. Haga ,• 58 Kil. Aarnces 
(Rail. Rest.). At Na?s, 3^2 M. to the N., the Vormen, descending 
from Lake Mjesen (p. 70), falls into the Glommen. 67 Kil. Sater- 
steien; 73 Kil." Disenaaen , a halting - place ; 79 Kil. Skarnas, 
prettily situated; 87 Kil. Sander; 92 Kil. Galterud. 

100 Kil. Kongsvinger (480 ft. ; *Rail. Rest., with rooms to let; 
Mellerud's Hotel , Jensen's, both far from the station), a small 
town on the right bank of the Glommen, with 1300 inhab., is 
reached from the station by a long bridge. The Fortress (Fmstning ; 
770 ft.), erected in 1683, but now dismantled, played an impor- 
tant part in the wars between Sweden and Norway (fine view). 

The railway turns to the S.E. and quits the Glommen. The 
Vingerse (475 ft.) and the long lakes near Aabogen and elsewhere 
are basins of a now deserted channel of the Glommen, which 
channel is followed by the railway (comp. p. 273). 

112 Kil. Aabogen, 122 Kil. Eidsskog, 127 Kil. Skotterud, 133 Kil. 
Magnor, all with extensive timber-yards. The train quits the 
district of Vinger, in which Kongsvinger lies , a little beyond 
Magnor, and crosses the Swedish frontier. 

143 Kil. (89 M.) Charlottenberg , the first station in Sweden, 
and thence to Stockholm, see R. 46. 



75 
13. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Railway. 

357 Kil. (22i7z 31.). Railway (Com. C, and Kom. v). From Christiania 
to Fredrikshald, in 4-5 hrs. (express fares 11 kr. 60, 8 kr. 20, 5 kr. 50 0. ; 
ordinary 8 kr., 6 kr., 3 kr. 90 0.); thence to Gothenburg in 7-8V2 hrs. 
more, with change of carriages at Mellerud. From Christiania to Gothen- 
hurg one through-train daily (going on to Malmo) in 11 hrs. (fares 30 kr. 
45, 23 kr. 35, 16 kr. 15 0.). 

The railway-journey itself is uninteresting, but the traveller should 
stop at Sarpsborg, Fredrikshald, and TrollhdUan, going on in each case 
by the next train , and spending one night on the way if necessary. 
Steamers run daily from Moss, Fredrikstad , and Fredrikshald to Gothen- 
burg. Travellers in the reverse direction should leave the railway at Mn,ss 
and take one of the local steamers up the beautiful fjord to Christiania. 

Christiania, see p. 8. (As far as Moss, comp. Map, p. 18.) 
The train rounds the suburb of Oslo and skirts the base of the 
Ekeberg (p. 17), affording a fine retrospect of the town. From 
(4 Kil.) Bakkelaget we survey the islands and villas of the Orm- 
sund. The train skirts the Bunde fjord, passing many country- 
houses. 8 Kil. Lian. The train ascends to (18 Kil.) Oppegaard 
(320 ft.). To the right is Nmsodden, a large peninsula separating 
the Christiania Fjord from the Bundefjord. — 24 Kil. Ski (420 ft. ; 
Rail. Best.'). 

From Ski to Sarpsborg, 81 Kil., by the '0stre Lime' (Com. E), 
uninteresting. — 6 Kil. Kraakstad; 13 Kil. Tomter; 21 Kil. Spydeberg. The 
line then crosses the broad Glommen. 29 Kil. Askim, with nickel-mines; 
35 Kil. Sliiu; 40 Kil. Mijsen; 45 Kil. Eidsberg; 55 Kil. RaJekestad; 61 Kil. 
Gautistad; 73 Kil. Ise. The train then runs along the Nipen, and crossing 
the Glommen by the bridge mentioned at p. 76, reaches (81 Kil.) Sarps- 
borg (see p. 76). 

Near (32 Kil.) Aas is an agricultural school. 39 Kil. Vestby. 
48 Kil. Sorter, station for Soon, a sea-bathing place. The train now 
descends to the fjord and skirts the picturesque Mossesund, the 
strait between Moss and the Hjellei. 

60 Kil. Moss (Rail. Rest.; Reinsch's Hotel; Moss Hotel; Brit, 
vice-consul, Mr. W. Erichseri), a thriving town of 8000 inhab., lies 
on a bay of the Christiania Fjord. The convention of 14th Aug. 
1814, which concluded the war between Sweden and Norway, was 
signed here. The station is on the S. side of the town, 5 min. from 
the steamboat-pier on the Hjellei, to which a bridge crosses. Opposite 
the church and Moss Hotel is an old churchyard, with tombstones 
of the 18th cent., now a promenade. 

Steamers ply between Christiania and Moss several times daily , in 
23/4-4 hrs. (Com. 125, 128, 129, 130, 155, etc.). A great part of their course 
lies between the Hjellei and the mainland. 

Next stations Billing, Rygge, Raade, Onsei. The train crosses 
the Kjelbergs-Elv, and passes through a tunnel. 

94 Kil. Fredrikstad (Rail. Rest.; *Olsen's Hotel, more than 
1 M. from the station ; Skandinavie , near the pier ; Victoria ; Brit, 
vice-consul, Mr. C. Thiis), a town with 12,400 inhab., lies on the 
Christiania Fjord, at the mouth of the Olommen , Norway's largest 
river (3o0 M. long), on which the timber of 0sterdalen, the most 



76 Route 13. SARPSBORG. From Christiania 

richly wooded district in Norway, is floated down to the sea. The 
town owes its importance to its timber-trade with Germany, Holland, 
France, etc. The busiest quarter is the Forstad, on the "W. bank 
of the river , with the railway - station , a large new church , a 
theatre , and the 'Forlystelsehus Valhalla' , a popular place of 
amusement. The old town on the left bank was founded by King 
Frederick II. in 1570, and was once strongly fortified. A steam- 
ferry plies between these two parts of the town. 

On the TorseHle (Kile, 'bay'), 7 Kil. E. nf Fredrikstad, and 6 Kil. S. 

of Sannesund, lies Torsekile or Hundebunden, a pleasant sea-bathing place. 

About 10 Kil. to the W.' of Fredrikstad is the HanTce Kystsanatorium (three 

. hotels and numerous villas ; pension 120 kr. per month), which has daily 

steamboat-communication with Christiania (6 hrs.) and Fredrikstad (1 hr.). 

Beyond Fredrikstad we pass on the left some curiously worn 
rocks. Pleasant views of the broad river. The train crosses an arm 
of the Glommen, The banks are covered with saw-mills, timber- 
yards, and brick-fields. 103 Kil. Greaker. The train quits the 
Glommen. 106 Kil. Sannesund, station for the S. port of Sarps- 
borg, with the quay of the Fredrikshald steamers. 

109 Kil. Sarpsborg [Rail. Rest.; *Aarsland J s Hotel; Christian- 
sen's Hotel, R. 2 kr.), a small town with 2900 inhab., on the left 
bank of the Glommen, was founded in 1840 on the site of an an- 
cient town destroyed in 1567. To the N. of the town the river 
forms the lake of Glengshelen, and to the S.E. the huge *Sarpsfos. 
A few hours suffice to visit the fall. From the station we either 
follow the road through the town, or turn immediately to the left, 
and then to the right, by a path which rejoins the road. The road 
then leads under the railway and with it crosses the fall by a 
Suspension-Bridge (see below). The finest point of view is a rocky 
projection to which we descend in a few minutes to the right on 
this side of the bridge. The huge volume of water, 116 ft. in width, 
falls from a height of 74 ft. The scene is most impressive in May 
and June. Numerous saw-mills and factories (of cellulose or wood- 
fibre, etc.) utilize the writer-power. On the left bank there is a 
channel ('Tammerrende') for the descent of the sawn wood. The 
rather shaky gallery adjoining it (reached by turning to the right 
beyond the bridge) affords another superb view of the fall. In the 
winter of 1702 a portion of the right bank, 2000 ft. long and 1300 ft. 
broad, on which lay a large farm-house, having been gradually un- 
dermined by the water, fell into the river with all its inmates and 
cattle. — From Sarpsborg to Ski, see p. 75. 

The train now crosses the Glommen by a lofty bridge , borne 
by the four pillars of the suspension-bridge above mentioned, and 
overlooking the Sarpsfos to the right. 119 Kil. Skjeberg (128 ft.), 
in a marshy hollow; 131 Kil. Berg (230 ft.). Woods and patches 
of arable land ('Smaa-Lene') alternate with marshes and meadows. 
Farther on the train reaches the Idefjord, and affords a view of 
the Brate. Several tunnels. The train passes between the fjord 



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to Gothenburg. FREDRIKSHALD. 13. Route. 77 

on the right and a rocky height on the left. It then skirts the 
grounds of the Villa Red (PL A, 2; visitors admitted), and crosses 
the Tistedals-Elv. 

137 Kil. Fredrikshald. — Hotels. "Schultz's Hotel (PI. b; D, 3), 
Kirkestrade, R. 2 kr. 40 6., B. 1 kr. ; Jernbane Hotel (PI. a; D, 3), at 
the station, well spoken of; Svea Hotel, less convenient. — Bail. Rest. 

Steamers to Stromstad and Gothenburg (Com. 1, 4) about twice weekly; 
to Stromstad (Com. 61) daily; to Christiania (Com. 127, 128) daily; to Stien 
(Com. 216) twice weekly. — Brit, vice-consul, Mr. C. W. Gedde. 

The ascent of the Fredrikssten (there and back) takes about l l /z hr., 
including the excursion to Wein 3 hrs. (carr. 7 kr.). 

Fredrikshald, an old town with 11,200 inhab., rebuilt after 
a Are in 1826, is picturesquely situated on both banks of the 
Tistedals-Elv, which here enters the Idefjord. It is one of the 
centres of the timber traffic of E. Norway and the adjoining parts 
of Sweden. On the S.E. it is commanded by the once important 
fortress of Fredrikssten. The -villas of the wealthy merchants line 
the bank of the fjord. 

Fredrikshald owes its name to the bravery with which the in- 
habitants repelled the attacks of the Swedes in 1658-60, in con- 
sequence of which Frederick II. exchanged its old name of Halden 
for Fredrikshald, and in 1661-66 founded the fortress of Fredriks- 
sten. The Swedes under Charles XII. again attacked the town in 
1716, and were again unsuccessful, chiefly owing to the gallantry 
of the brothers Peder and Hans Kolbjernsen. In 1718 Charles XII. 
besieged Fredrikshald a second time, but was shot in the trenches 
at the back of the fortress on 11th Dec, whereupon his army raised 
tie siege. 

A walk on the harbour (PI. C, 4) affords a fine view of the 
Fredrikssten and of the wooded islet of Saug» (p. 78). Adjoining 
the harbour is the market-place (Torvet; PI. C, D, 3), where a 
simple monument commemorates the gallantry of the brothers 
Kolbjernsen. 

We follow P. Kolbjernsen"s Gade to the E., cross the outer wall 
of the fortress, and ascend a broad road in 8-10 min. to the gate 
('V. Port' in the annexed Plan) of the *Fredrikssten (PI. E, 3, 
4; 365 ft.; admission free). This fortress crowns a rock rising 
precipitously on three sides, and dates in its present form chiefly 
from the reigns of Frederick V. (d. 1766) and Christian VII. (d. 
1808). The garrison consists of a few companies of infantry. The 
best point of view is the Brandbatteri (PI. 11 ; E, 4), with a flag- 
staff and some guns, immediately to the left beyond the Vest-Port. 
A good view is also obtained from the Klokketaarnet, the way to 
which should be asked. Passing through the fortress to the E. gate 
('6. Port'), where to the S. and S.E. we observe the once important 
forts of Overbjerg, Stortaarnet, and Gyldenleve. we turn to the 
left. Where the road divides we again turn to the left (the road 
to the right leading to the town and to the Tistedal), and soon 
reach a wooden gate leading into the Commandant Park and to 



78 Route 13. DALSLANDS CANAL. From Christiania 

the Monument of Charles XII., erected in 1860 on the spot where 
that monarch fell in 1718. It consists of a cast-iron pyramid with 
an inscription by Tegne"r, to the effect that the hero, 'alike in 
fortune and misfortune, was the master of his fate, and, unable to 
flinch could but fall at his post'. If time is limited we return by 
the same route. 

Leaving the park by the S.W. exit (comp. PI. F, 4), we reach 
the Tistedal road a little below the bifurcation mentioned above, 
and descend in 6-8 min. to a broader road leading from Fredriks- 
hald to Id. "We turn to the left and after 5 min. diverge to the 
right. (A finger-post on the left shows the way to the Skonnings- 
fo$.~) After 9 min. (not to the left over the Skonningsfos bridge, 
which affords a view up the valley to the villa of Wein, but) straight 
on, ascending gradually by the road on the left bank for 1 /2 nr -) an d- 
crossing the bridge to the left to Tistedalen. We then accend to 
(10 min.) the high-lying yellow country-house of Wein (pron. 
'Vane'), which commands a view of the Femsj» (p. 79) and of the 
Tistedal, extending to Fredrikshald. We retrace our steps nearly 
to (8 min.) the church of Tistedalen, and keeping to the right, de- 
scend on the left bank of the river to (35-40 min.) the Skonnings- 
fos bridge, from which 20 min. more bring us to Peder Kolbjern- 
sen's Park (PI. D E, 2). 

Time permitting, the traveller may take the ferry (10 0.) to the 
Na.ug0 and walk through a narrow valley to the other side of the 
island. Fine view of the fjord with the Brat» and the Swedish bank 
opposite. 

To the W. of Fredrikshald lie the beautiful park and villa of 
Red (PI. A, 2), the former open to the public (view). 

The Steamboat to Venersbobg by the Dalslands Canal (about 160 Kil. 
or 100 M. ; thrice weekly, in 2 days; Kom. 211), is seldom used now that 
the railway is available; but travellers who desire to see a little of the 
Swedish canal system may choose this route from Ed to Sunnana. 

The Dalslands Canal was constructed in 1863-68 by Mis Ericsson (d. 
1870; brother of the 'caloric' engineer John Ericsson), at a cost of l'/2 mil- 
lion kr. Its locks and sluices are among the most remarkable in Sweden. 
Scenery pleasing, though not grand. 

We take the train from Fredrikshald to (52 Kil.) Ed (see below), 
whence a branch-line conveys us to (3 Kil.) the 'Lastplats' Lee, or Strand, 
on the W. bank of the Stora Lee (330 ft.), a narrow lake 56 Kil. long. 
We now embark in the canal-steamer, which first steers to the N. into 
the Foxen, as the N. end of the Stora Lee is called, and then turns to 
the S.E. to Trankils-Eyrka and the Lennartsfors , a waterfall which it 
passes by means of three locks. It then enters LeelSngen (305 ft.), a lake 
50 Kil. long. Near Qustafsfors, a place on the E. bank halfway down the 
lake, another canal diverges to the Vettra and Oslra Silen lakes, to which 
a steamboat usually plies weekly. At the S.E. end of Leelangen we pass 
through the two locks of Bengtiors^Odstgi/varegarden), where the steamers 
in the opposite direction spend the night. Beyond the Bengtsbrohblja 
('holja', a smooth reach) the steamer descends a series of five locks (while 
the traveller may walk) to — 

Billingsfors ( Gastgifvareg&rden), where the steamer spends the night 
(7'/4 hra. from Strand), prettily situated. Near it is the Kasberg, a fine 
point of view. 



to Gothenburg. MON. 13. Route. 79 

We now enter the Laxen-Sjb (245 ft.), on the E. bank of which liea 
Baldersnas, a country-house with charming grounds. Seven more locks, 
the last of which is at Katrineholm, descend to Mlangen (185 ft.), a narrow 
lake with wooded banks, at the S.E. end of which we reach — 

*Hafverud (Inn), the most striking point on the canal. As the loose 
soil on one bank and the rocks on the other rendered it almost impossible 
to construct a canal adjoining the river here, Ericsson conceived and exe- 
cuted the bold plan of throwing an aqueduct (105 ft. long and 13 ft. wide) 
over the waterfall itself. The scenery at this point is also pleasing. 
While the vessel descends the locks, the passenger may ascend to a small 
belvedere on the left (E.) bank. 

Below Hafverud are the two 'holjar' of Ofre and Nedre Holn. Two 
locks descend thence to the Upperudholja, beyond which the steamer tra- 
verses the Hjerteruds-Sund and the Svanfjord. Lastly it descends through 
the largest of all the locks to KBpmannabro on Lake Wenern (155 ft.), and 
steers along the W. bank of that lake (about 372 hrs. more) to — 

Wenersborg (9'/2hrs. from Billingsfors). Thence to Gothenburg, see B. 41. 



On leaving Fredrikshald we have a view of the pretty Tistedal, 
with its waterfalls, mills, factories, and country-houses. The train 
quits the valley by a short tunnel at (141 Kil.) Tistedalen, and 
runs along an ancient moraine resembling an embankment. 

At (140 Kil.) Femsjeen we obtain a beautiful view of the lake 
of that name (275 ft.), 6Y2 Kil- long, which is connected with the 
large Aspern (340 ft.), the Aremarks-Sje, the 0demarks-Sj0, and 
the 0rje-Sje by canals constructed for the timber traffic. A small 
steamboat plies thrice weekly from Tistedalen to Skullerud (a 
pleasant trip, though seldom made). 

The fortress of Fredrikssten is visible to the W. for a short 
time. Several tunnels. Glimpse, to the right, of part of the fjord 
of Fredrikshald. Beyond (150 Kil.) Aspedammen , to the left, we 
get a glimpse of the 0rsj0. Large timber-yards are passed near 
(159 Kil.) Prcestebakke, beyond which we enter a thickly wooded 
district. 167 Kil. Komse (475 ft.) is the last Norwegian station. 

The line crosses the Swedish frontier. The district, almost 
uninhabited, is marked by the traces of forest conflagrations. At 
(178 Kil.) Mon (Rail. Rest.), the first station in Sweden, the 
custom-house examination takes place (comp. p. 273). Beyond 
Mon the train traverses a bleak heath, surrounded by barren hills. 
185 Kil. Hbkedalen. 

189 Kil. Ed (*Rail. Rest., D. l l / 2 kr.) , prettily situated above 
the Stora Lee. By the station is a small monument to Nils Ericsson, 
the engineer (p. 78). A few paces farther on we obtain aline view 
of the lake. Branch -line to (3 Kil.) Lee, the terminus of the 
steamers on the Dalslands Canal (p. 78). 

The district beyond Ed abounds in marshes. Scenery monoto- 
nous. 207 Kil. Backefors. Beyond a tunnel we pass the Tiakersjo 
on the right. 217 Kil. Dalskog. Farther on, to the left, we come 
in view of Lake Wenern and the small chalybeate baths of Rastok. 

233 Kil. Mellerud, junction of the Gothenburg and Falun Rail- 



80 Route 14. STROMSTAD. 

■way (R. 53) and of a line to (3 Kil.) Sunnana on Lake Wenern. — 
From Mellerud to (124 Kil.) — 

357 Kil. Gothenburg, see RR. 41, 53. 

14. From Christiania to Gothenburg by Sea. 

325 Kil. (201 M.). Steamboats, (a) Direct (see Com. 5, 8; also Kom. 
204) several times a week, in 13-15 hrs., steering outside the island-belt, 
where the sea is apt to "be rough. — (b) Indirect (Com. 1, 3,4; also Kom. 
109) several times a week, in 13-30 hrs., steering within the island-belt 
('indenskjsers', Swed. 'inomskars'). Chief intermediate stations: StvBm- 
stad (whence local boats ply daily to Fredrikshald), Grebbestad, Fjellbaeka, 
Lysekil, and Marstrand. The quick steamer ^joteborg' (Com. 3) performs 
the voyage by day. 

The larger steamers, after passing Horten and Tensberg on the 
right and Fredrikstad on the left , leave the beautiful Fjord of 
Christiania and stand out to sea ; and little or nothing is seen of 
the coast until they reach Gothenburg. The smaller coasting 
steamers , after leaving the Fjord , thread their way through the 
Swedish island-belt ('skargard'). The climate here is said to be 
unusually healthy , the sea-bathing places are much frequented, 
and the water is much Salter and purer than in the recesses of 
the long Norwegian fjords. The inhabitants are chiefly fishermen, 
sometimes wealthy , and are descendants of the ancient vikings, 
who have left representations of their exploits in the ' Heller fstnin- 
gar' still to be seen in the parish of Tanum near Grebbestad, at 
Brastad near Lysekil, and elsewhere. At many points on the 
coast there are remains of ancient castles, tombs, stone chambers 
('valar'), and monuments ('bautastenar'), so that this region (Bo- 
huslcin) is justly regarded as a cradle of northern sagas. The cod, 
herring, lobster, and oyster fisheries are the most important. 
Windmills crown almost every height. The thousands of islands 
through which the steamer passes are little more than bare rocks. 

The *Christiania Fjord down to Moss is described in R. 1. 
Below Moss the fjord widens, and the scenery becomes less in- 
teresting. At the mouth of the fjord we steer to the E. into the 
picturesque fjord of Fredrikstad (see p. 75). AYe then pass the 
Hvaleer on the right and the Singeleer on the left , and enter the 
narrow Svinesund, the boundary between Norway and Sweden, on 
a bay of which (the Idefjord) lies Fredrikshald, commanded by 
the fortress of Fredrikssten (see p. 77). The Gothenburg steamers, 
however, do not call at Fredrikstad or at Fredrikshald, but steer 
direct to — 

Stromstad [Gastgifuaregard, Stadshotel; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. 
W. T. Lundgreii), the first Swedish station , a favourite watering- 
place (pop. 2400 ; mud and sea baths), at the efflux of the Stromsa 
from the Stromsvatn. The badgyttja ('bath-mud') is obtained near 
the town. In the environs are numerous caverns and giant cauldrons 



LYSEKIL. 14. Route. 81 

(jattegryttor), formed partly by water and partly by glacier action. 
Stromstad is a great depot of oysters and lobsters. 

Beyond Stromstad the vessel steers through the narrow Harsten- 
sund, passes the Nordkosters Dubbelfyr (lighthouse) on the right, 
and steers S.E. through the Kosterfjord. Near Orebbestad is the 
battle-field of Greby , with numerous tombstones. In the neigh- 
bouring parish of Tanum are a great many 'Helleristningar' (p. 80). 

The next station is Fjellbacka , with 800 inhab. , the centre of 
the Swedish anchovy-trade , curiously situated at the foot of a 
rock. In this rock is the Rammelklava or Djefvulsklava, a narrow 
cleft, near the top of which several large stones are wedged in. 
To the W. are the Vaderoar and the Vdderbodsfyr. "We now enter 
the Sotefjord , with its dangerous sunken rocks ('blindskar'), 
swept by the waves of the Skagerrak. On the peninsula of Sotenas 
to the left are the fishing-villages and bathing-places Smogen, 
Orafverna, and Tangen. We next pass the Malmo, whose inhabi- 
tants, a peculiar race and small in stature , are supposed to be 
a remnant of the aboriginal Finns. Steering S.E. through the is- 
lands, we next call at — 

Lysekil (* Hotel Berg falk ; StoraBadhuset), a favourite watering- 
place (1800 inhab.), with pleasant villas , on the long peninsula 
of Stangenas , which with the Bokenas forms the Gullmarsfjord, 
extending far inland. Though Lysekil lacks shade it has become 
even more popular than Marstrand. Good bathing. Sailing-boats 
1 kr. per hour. 

Beyond Lysekil some of the coasting steamers take the inner 
course ('inre vagen') , through the Svanesund and between the 
islands of Orust and Tjorn and the mainland , touching at Udde- 
valla (p. 259), Stenungso (pleasant excursion hence to the lake 
of Hdllungen), Ljungskile, and other small watering-places. 

Most of the steamers, however, take the outer course fytre 
vagen'). They steer to the "W. , past the Fiskebackskil on the left, 
touching at the Ga,3d on the right, where several prosperous 
skippers reside, at Grundsund on the left, and at Gullholmen on 
the Hermano, to the right. We pass the Maseskar and the K'dr- 
ringb with their lighthouses and sight the red houses and the 
church of Mollosund , on the island of Orust. The rocks are cov- 
ered with KUpfisk (p. 218). The larger steamers now pass through 
the Kirkesund, the smaller through the Albrektssund. Among the 
frequent lighthouses and beacons we next observe the Hamnskars 
Fyr, near the dangerous Paternoster Skar, to the N. of Marstrand. 

Marstrand (Stads-Hotel ; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. A. N. Widell), 
a town with 1300 inhab., on the E. side of a small island, is visited 
by about 2000 sea-bathers annually. Handsome church of St. Mary, 
of 1460. The sea here is generally calm, being protected by the 
island-belt, and the water is very salt and bracing. The mild climate 
has gained for Marstrand the name of the 'Swedish Madeira'. Op- 
Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 6 



82 Route Id. MARSTRAND. 

posite the town, to the W., rises the fortress of Karlsten, once 
called the 'Gibraltar of the North'. To the N. is the Koo, with the 
small bathing-place of Arvidsvik. Small steamers ply daily between 
Marstrand and Gothenburg. — In another hour the steamboat reaches 
the mouth of the Oota-Elf, which it ascends in i/ 2 nr - more to — 
Gothenburg, see p. 253. 



WESTERN NORWAY. 

(As FAR AS TRONDHJEM. 



Route Page 

15. From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea 85 

The Stavanger Fjord 88 

a. The Lysefjord 88 

b. The Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Saudefjord ... 89 

c. The Sandeidfjord 91 

16. From the Stavanger Fjord by the Suledalsvand to 
Odde on the Hardanger Fjord 92 

17. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea 94 

18. The Hardanger Fjord 96 

a. Western Hardanger, to the Mauranger Fjord . . 97 
Excursions from Sundal. Ascent of the Folgefond . . 98 

b. Central Hardanger, E. to Utne and Eide ... 99 
Excursions from Jondal, J0 f stens0, and Eide 99, 100 

c. The Eidfjord 101 

Excursions from Vik i 0ifjord 101-103 

Excursions from Ulvik 103, 104 

d. The S»rfjord : . 104 

Excursions from Odde . 106 

19. Bergen 108 

20. From Bergen by Vossevangen to Eide on the Har- 
danger Fjord, or by Stalheim to Gudvangen on the 
Sognefjord 115 

From Trengereid to Aadland and Norheimsund .... 116 
From Vossevangen through the Rundal to Kaardal in the 

Flaamsdal 118 

21. The Sognefjord 120 

a. Western Sognefjord, to Balholm, at the mouth of 

the Fjserlandsfjord 121 

From Balholm to Sande i Holmedal 123 

From Ulvestad to Grjzrning (F0rde, on Fjjrdefjord) . . 123 
From Fjserland over the Jostedalsbrse to Lunde on the 

KjunEesfj ord or to Aamot 124 

b. From Balholm to Gudvangen. Aurlandsfjord and 
Narofjord 124 

From Sogndal to Fjserland 125 

From Aurland to Tjzmjum in the Lserdal 128 

c. From Balholm or from Gudvangen to Laerdalseren 128 
From Amble to Sogndal 129 

d. Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord. Jostedal .... 130 

From Marifjseren to Sogndal 131 

From Skj olden to the Mjzrrkerejdsdal 132 

From Marifjseren to the Jostedal 132 

From the Kronrtal over the Jostedalsbrse to Loen or Olden 

on the Nordfjord, and from Faaberg over the Joste- 
dalsbrae to Gredung i Stryn 133, 134 



6' 



84 



Route Page 

22. Jotunheim 134 

a. From Fagernaes to the Raufjordheim , and up 
Lake Bygdin to EidBbugaiden 136 

From the Nybod to Lake Gjende 138 

b. From Skogstad or Nystuen to Tvindehaugen and 
Eidsbugarden 138 

c. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod. Lake 
Gjende .....' 140 

d. From the Gjendebod to Rejsbjem 144 

e. Rtfjshjem and Environs. Galdhapig 146 

f. From Rfljshjem over the Dedefjeld to Fortun . . 147 

g. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to 
Skogadalsbeen , and over the Keiser to Fortun . 149 

h. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Vettisfos 152 

i. From Vetti to Tvindehaugen and Eidsbugarden 153 
k. From Vetti through the Utladal , Gravdal , and 

Leirdal to Regshjem 154 

1. From Skjolden to Fortun and the Horunger . . . 157 

23. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea . . . 159 

From Aahjem to Volden 160 

24. From Vadheim on the Sognefjord overland to Aalesund 

and Molde 161 

a. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord 161 

Dalsfjord. Viksvand. Ftfrdefjord 162, 163 

From Mo to Grtfning 164 

From Klagegg to Aamot, and over the Jostedalsbrse to 

Olden or to Fjserland 166 

b. The Nordfjord 167 

From Nordfjordeid to Volden 168 

Oldendal. Loendal. Strynsdal ......... 170-172 

c. From Falejde on the Nordfjord to Aalesund and 
Molde. Semdmere. Geiranger Fjord. Storfjord . 173 

From Grodaas to the Jtfrundfjord 174 

From Hellesylt to the Strynsvand 175 

From Sylte over the Stegafjeld to the Eomsdal ... 176 
From Hellesylt through the Norangsdal and by the 

Jerundfjord to Aalesund 179 

From Aalesund to 0rstenvik and the Jurundfjord . . 181 

25. Molde and the Molde Fjord 182 

a. Excursion to the Romsdal 184 

b. Excursion to the Eikisdal 187 

26. From Molde to Trondhjem : — a. By Sea .... 191 
b. Overland, byBattenfjordserenand Christiansund, 

or by Angvik and 0rkedal direct to Trondhjem 192 

The Sundalsfjord 193 

27. Trondhjem and its Fjord '....'. 194 

From Trondhjem to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm) 199 

Stenkjser, Snaasenvand, Fiskumfos 200 



8f« 

15. From Ghristiansand to Stavanger by Sea. 
Excursions from Stavanger. 

The distance from Christiansand is officially stated at 32 Norwegian 
sea-miles (20H Kil. or 128 Engl. M.), but the course of the steamer is con- 
siderably longer. The distances given below are given in Norwegian sea 
or nautical miles (S.M. ; 1 S.M. = about 4 Engl. M.) from station to sta- 
tion. Steamboats, of different companies (Com. 175, 200 A), ply daily in 
17-20 hrs. (fares 12 kr. 80 0., 8 kr. ; to Bergen, 21 kr. 20, 13 kr. 25 0.). As 
the voyage is often rough, particularly between Ekersund and Stavanger, 
many travellers take their passage to Ekersund only (11 hrs. from Chris- 
tiansand), and go thence to Stavanger by railway. 

The voyage by the Laege Steamers presents few attractions, as the 
coast is imperfectly seen from the steamboat; but the entrance to theFlekke- 
fjord and some other points are striking. The vessel's course is at places 
protected by islands (Skjoer), but is often entirely in the open sea, par- 
ticularly off Cape Lindesnses, on the coast of Listerland, and near Jsederen. 
The small Local Steameks are much slower and call at many unimportant 
Stations, but they afford a good view of the interesting formations of the 
coast. The coast-line is broken by numerous valleys descending from 
the 'OplancT and terminating in long and deep fjords. These valleys are 
usually watered by rivers which frequently expand into lakes, and they 
afford communication between the Kys'folk, or dwellers on the coast, and 
the Oplandsfolk, who differ widely from their seafaring and trading coun- 
trymen in character, dialect, and costume. At the head of these valleys, 
which seldom offer any attraction to the tourist, and barely even the ne- 
cessaries of life, lie huge tracts of barren mountains, spreading out into 
vast and rarely trodden table-lands (Fjeldvidder), and very rarely cul- 
minating in distinct peaks. The bare rock-scenery of the coast is enlivened 
by a few small fishing and trading towns nestling in the fjords, and by 
an occasional furnace for the smelting of ore brought from the interior. 
One of the chief industries is the export of mackerel and lobsters to 
England. The former are packed in ice, while the latter are put alive 
into tanks (Brende) in vessels constructed for the purpose, to which the 
sea-water has free access. If the sea is moderately rough the lobsters rise 
and fall with the motion of the vessel, and arrive in good condition; but 
if it is too smooth they are apt to sink to the bottom of the tank and 
crush each other to death. Another native product consists of the num- 
erous plovers' (Vibe) eggs found on the moors and sandhills of Jcederen, 
near Ekersund. 

The first steamboat-station is (2!/2 hrs.) — 

5 S.M. Manual (Nielsen's Hotel; Natvig's; British, vice-consul, 
Mr. T. F. Andorsen), the southernmost town in Norway, with 3800 
inhab., consisting of Mandal, Malme, and Eleven, and situated 
partly on rocky islands. The harbour is at Kleven. The Mandals- 
elv, which falls into the fjord here, descends through a valley paral- 
lel to the Saetersdal, and through several lakes, from the Aaserdal, 
the upper part of the valley, 70 Kil. distant, inhabited by a primi- 
tive pastoral people (the 'Aaserallinge'). Bears still occur here, but 
civilisation is advancing, and a Sanatorium has lately been erected 
at the village of Aaseral, which is reached by a good road. In sum- 
mer the natives migrate to the neighbouring mountains {tilfjelds or 
tilheis; l heia\ i. e. mountain-pasture), where they spend several 
months in their miserably poor Falceger, and are not unfrequently 
attacked by bears. To the W- of Mandal are the Undid and the 
Lyngdal, two parallel valleys. 



86 Route 15. EKERSUND. From Christiansand 

Beyond Mandal the steamer passes the mouth of the Undals-Elv 
and the conspicuous lighthouse (the oldest in Norway, founded in 
1650) on Cape Lindesnaes (formerly Lindandisnces, Engl. Naze, 
Dutch Ter Neuze), 160 ft. in height. The part of Norway to the E. 
of a line drawn from Cape Lindesnses to the promontory of Stadt 
(p. 160) is called Sendenfjeldske OT0stenfjeldskeNorge, that to the 
"W. Vestenfjeldske Norge. In 2y 2 hrs. more we reach — 

6 S.M. Farsund {Jahnsen's Hotel; Mr. P. I.Sundt, British 
vice-consul), a small seaport with 1600 inhab., near the mouth of 
a fjord running inland in three long ramifications, into the eastern- 
most of which falls the Lyngdals-Elv. — The steamboat now steers 
towards the N., passing the lighthouse of Lister, and then the 
mouth of the Feddefjord on the right. Steaming up the Flekkefjord, 
we next call at P'/^hrs.) — 

6 S.M. Flekkefjord (Wahl's Hotel; Mr. J. P. M. Eyde, British 
vice-consul), a prettily situated seaport, with 1580 inhab. and a 
good harbour. To the S.E. lies (10 Kil.) Fedde (p. 3) on the fjord 
of that name, into which the Kvinesdal descends from the N.E. ; 
and to the N. runs the Siredal, with the Siredalsvand (120 ft.), the 
outlet ofwhich falls into the Lundevand, to theN.W. of the Flekke- 
fjord. Issuing from the Lundevand, the Sira empties itself into 
the sea in a cascade. 

1 S.M. Ragefjord (not always called at) is the station for 
Sogndal (Sluhoug's Hotel), about 5 Kil. inland, near which are 
iron-mines worked by English owners. 

6 S. M. Ekersund. — Salvensen's Hotel, 6-7 min. from the pier 
and 4 min. from the railway-station; Ellingsen's, to the right, 4 min. 
from the pier, plain, R. 1, D. 2 kr. ; JaiDEREN, in the market near the sta- 
tion, English spoken; all three commended. — British vice-consul, Mr. 
O. M. Puntervold. 

Ekersund or Egersund, a town with 2900 inhab. and a porcelain 
factory, lies in a bleak and rocky region, at the S. end oiJaderen, 
the flat coast-district extending to Stavanger, which affords good 
fishing and shooting. A fine survey of the environs is obtained 
from the rocky hill at the back of Ellingsen's Inn, with a pole on 
the top, reached in 25 min. by a narrow street opposite the railway- 
station, and an ascent to the right past the cemetery and a 
farm-house. 

The Railway from Ekeksund to Stavangeb, (76 Kil., in 
31/4 hrs.; fares 4 kr., 2kr. 48 0.), which traverses this coast-plain, 
is unattractive, but in bad weather will be preferred by many trav- 
ellers to the steamboat. Chief stations (38 Kil.) Ncerba (Restaur.), 
(61 Kil.) Sandnces, prettily situated at the S. end of the Stavanger 
Fjord (comp. Map, p. 88) and (76 Kil.) Stavanger. 

The Steamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the Ekere, a large 
island with a lofty iron lighthouse. The coast here is unprotected 
by islands, and the sea is often rough. The steamer affords a distant 
view of the flat and dreary coast, enlivened with a few churches 



to Stavanger. STAVANGER. 15. Route. 87 

and the lighthouses of Obrestad and Feyensten. To the N. of the 
latter, and about 12 Kil. from Stavanger by road, is the church of 
Sole, adjoining which are the ruins of the old church, said to date 
from the 12th cent., and now fitted up as a dwelling by Hr. Ben- 
netter , a Norwegian artist. We steer past the Flatholm Fyr and 
the mouth of the Eafsfjord, where HaraldHaarfager (p. 95) gained 
a decisive naval victory in 872, which gave him the sovereignty of 
the whole country, and released him from a vow , taken ten years 
previously, not to cut his hair until he should be king of all Nor- 
way. A little farther on, the vessel turns to the E., passes the 
Tungenms, a promontory with a lighthouse, and (6 hrs. from Eker- 
sund) reaches — 

15 S.M. Stavanger. — Hotels (all atHolmen, PI. C, 2): "Grand 
Hotel, Valbjerg-Gade, corner of the Nedre Holme Gade, R. 3 kr., good 
cuisine; Jespersen's Hotel, Kirke-Gade; Phoenix, on the Skagen, tolerable, 
R. from 1 kr. 25, B. 1 kr. 25, D. 2 kr., S. 1 kr. 50 0. (English spoken). — 
E. M. Olsen's Enke 1 ! Private Hotel, also on the Skagen. — Sea Baths at the 
StrUmsten (PI. F, 2), to the E. of the town. — Waem Baths In Jorenholmen. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Nedre Holme Gade (PI. C, 2). — Banks: 
Norges Bank , opposite the cathedral ; Stavangers Privatbank , near the 
Grand Hotel. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Lars Berentzen, who will also change English 
money. American Consular Agent, Mr. Chr. F. Falch. — Tourist Offices, 
Bennefs and Beyers. 

Stavanger, capital of the 'Anit' of that name, with 24,000 
inhab., prettily situated on a branch of the Bukkenfjord, or Sta- 
vanger-Fjord, is the commercial centre of the Ryfylke, the district 
enclosing the fjord, and is also one of the oldest towns in Norway. 
It dates from the 8th or 9th century, but as it has suffered fre- 
quently from fires it now presents quite a modern appearance. Fish 
is the chief export, particularly herrings. The quay of the large 
steamers (PI. B, 1) is at the mouth of the harbour of Vaagen, which 
runs far inland, on the N.W. side of the peninsula of Holmen. 
That of the fjord steamers is on the N.E. side of Holmen. The 
main street of the Holmen quarter is the Kirkegade, which, passing 
the Valbjergtaarn (PI. C, 2; lighthouse; fine view from the top), 
leads in 6 min. to the cathedral. Opposite is the town-hall with the 
Brandvagt (PI. C, 3), where the key of the church is procured. 

The * Cathedral (PI. C, 3), the most interesting building in 
Stavanger, and the finest church in Norway after the cathedral of 
Trondhjem, was founded by Bishop Beinald, an English prelate, 
at the end of the 11th cent, and dedicated to St. Swithin [Suetonius, 
Bishop of Winchester, d. 862). In 1272 it was burned down, but 
was soon afterwards rebuilt in the Gothic style. After the Refor- 
mation it was sadly disfigured, but since 1866 it has been restored 
by the architect Von der Lippe of Bergen. The nave is separated 
from the aisles by massive pillars, five on each side, in the peculiar 
northern Romanesque style, which evidently belong to the original 
edifice. The choir, which adjoins the nave without the intervention 
of a transept, terminates in a square form, and has a very effective 



88 Route 15. H0LEFJORD. Excursions 

E. window. Its rich Gothic style points to a date considerably sub- 
sequent to the fire of 1272. The choir is flanked with four towers, 
two at the E. end, and two very small ones at the W. end. The 
aisles and the S. side of the choir are entered by remarkably fine 
portals. Pulpit of 1658 and Gothic font in the interior. 

To the S. is the Kongsgaard (PI. 0, 3), with its old chapel 
(Munkekirke), once the residence of the bishop, who was transferred 
to Christiansand in 1685, now the Latinskole. — To the E. is a 
small park, bounded on the S. by the Bredevand. 

Going further E. and ascending a little to the left, we reach 
the St. Petrikirke (PI. D, 2), built by Von der Lippe in 1863-65. — 
Crossing the Nytorv, we may now follow the Pedersgade, leading 
out of it, nearly i/ 2 M. long, to the docks by the Spilderhaug (¥!.¥, Y). 

The Museum (PI. C, 2, 3) in the Nedre Strandgade, near the 
market, contains antiquities and natural history specimens (adm. 
Sun. 12-1 and 5-6, Wed. 12-1, 10 0.) and a few pictures (Sun. and 
Wed. 12-2, 20 0.). 

Fine Views from the Vaalandspib (330 ft. ; with a tower) and 
the VUenhaug (460 ft.), i/ 2 hr. S. of the town (comp. PI., B, C, 4) ; 
also from the town-park of *Bjergsted, 20 min. N. of the town, 
where a band often plays (adm. 20 0. ; belvedere). The park is 
reached by the Olafsklev (PI. B, 0, 3), the Le-kkevei (PI. B, 3, 2), 
and the Bjergtedsvei (PL A, 1), or by boat from the steamboat- 
quay in 10 min. (20 0. ; steamer in the afternoon 10 0.). 

An excursion may be taken to Sole, a village on the coast of Jsederen, 
12 Kil. to the S.W. (p. 87). We may then return by Malde, to the N. of 
Sole, crossing the Hafsfjord (p. 87) at Guard Melling. 

The Stavanger Fjord. 

The Bukkenfjord or Stavanger Fjord is a broad basin to the N. of 
Stavanger, studded with numerous islands, and has ramifications indenting 
the land in every direction, some of them with smiling shores, others 
enclosed by precipitous cliffs. The lower part of the slopes is generally 
wooded, while snow-fjelds appear in the background. The only inhabited 
places are the islands and the deposits of debris at the foot of the cliffs. 
The scenery is little inferior to the finest on the Hardanger Fjord. 

a. The Lysefjord. 

Steamboat (Com. 235) once weekly (Wed.) to Lysebunden at the head 
of the fjord; there and back in 9-10 hrs. (pleasure-trip sometimes on Sun- 
days, crowded). On four days a week the steamer calls at Fossand (2 hrs.), 
at the entrance to the fjord, and on five days at Hole, opposite the entrance. 
On these days a rowing-boat may be taken from Fossand or from H#le to 
(7-8 hrs.) Lysebunden, returning next day (with two rowers 15-20 kr.), hut 
this is fatiguing. 

Hele or Hegsfjord (tolerable quarters), to which we may also 
drive from rail. stat. Sandnaes (24 Kil., in 3-4 hrs.), lies on tkeHele- 
fjord, nearly opposite the mouth of the Lysefjord, on which lies 
Fossand, near the church of Qjese. A large moraine here led Es- 
mark, the Norwegian savant, about the year 1821, to the conjecture 
that the whole country was once covered with glaciers. 



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from Stavanger. LYSEFJORD. 15. Route. 89 

The *Lysefjord, the grandest fjord on the S.W. coast of Norway, 
is an arm of the sea, 500-2000 yds. broad, 37 Kil. long, and at 
places 1400 ft. deep, and enclosed by precipitous cliffs rising to a 
height of 3300ft. The fjord is almost uninhabited. Opposite Heles- 
lid lies the island of Holmen. About 20 min. later the steamer 
comes in sight of a curious rock high up on the N. bank. At the 
head of the fjord (2!/2 hrs. by steamer from Fossand), among huge 
rocks, lies the station of Lysebunden (two beds of the Stavanger 
tourists' club at the gaard Nerebe). On the Kirag, a mountain 
towering above the head of the fjord on the S. side, a curious phe- 
nomenon is sometimes observed. A crash like thunder is heard, and 
immediately after it what looks like a gleam of light, but is probably 
spray, flashes horizontally over the fjord, disappearing halfway 
across. The noise and gleam are believed to proceed from a kind 
of cavern in the face of the rock at least 2000 ft. above the fjord, 
and inaccessible except perhaps by ropes from the top, 1000 ft. 
higher. 

From Lyse to Helle in the Ssetersdal, very fatiguing, see p. 5. 

The Frafjord, as the S.E. end of the H»lefjord is called (visited 
twice in alternate weeks by the steamer; Com. 235), is also worth 
visiting. 

b. The Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Saudefjord. 

Steamboat (Com. 236 A, also 236 B) to Sand daily except Sun. in 
4-5'/2 hrs. (fare 4 kr.), to Saude four times a week in 5'/2-772 hrs. (fare 
4kr. 800.). Once a week a steamer to Jaelsizr or Jelse touches at a great many 
intermediate stations, arriving at Saude in 13 hrs. from Stavanger. (Or 
changing steamers at Jselsizr, we reach Saude in ll 1 /* hrs. from Stavanger, 
preferable to the direct trips, time permitting.) 

On leaving Stavanger we get a glimpse of the open sea to the 
left, but it is soon shut out by the islands. On the left lies the 
Vadse. On the right are visible the mountains of the mainland, 
with snowy peaks in the distance. In an hour we pass Strand and 
Tou (which last is touched at twice a week). Between these places 
opens Bj0rheimskj<ef ten, a gorge through which the Bjerheims v and 
empties itself into the fjord. 

From Tou a good road leads past the Bjizfrheimsvand to the Tysdalsvand, 
on which we may row to the gaard Nedre Tysdal at the E. end; walk 
thence over the hill to Tvedt i Aardal, near Bergeland, and follow the 
road down the Store Aa to Aardal (see below), about 27 Kil. in all. From 
Bergeland the Hjaa/osser may he visited. 

The steamer steers N., past the Talge on the left and the Fogne 
on the right, to Juteberg or Judeberget on the Finde ,■ then across 
an open part of the Stavanger Fjord, where we get a glimpse of the 
Atlantic to the left, and past the HelgB, to the Stjcernere; thence 
through a narrow strait between that island and the Bjerge, and 
across the Nardrandsfjord to Narstrand, a favourite summer resort; 
next across the mouth of the Sandeidfjord and past the Folde to 
Jaelse (p. 90). 

Once a week, after touching at Tou, the steamer enters the Fin- 
ierfjord, calls at Fitkaaen , and steers up the Aardahfjcrd to 



90 Route 15. SANDSFJORD. Excursions 

Aardalsosen, or Aardal, near the mouth of the Stor'Aa, which de- 
scends from the 0vre Tysdalsvand. (Thence to Tvedt, near Berge- 
land, 8K.il., see above.) Observe the extensive moraines of ancient 
glaciers. — Steaming down the fjord again and up the Fisterfjord 
to the N. , we touch at Fister ; then pass between the mainland and 
the Rande and reach Hjelmeland, a pleasant village amidst orchards, 
which has its name from a 'helmet' shaped hill near the church. 
We next enter the *Hj0senfjord, with its wild and grand rocks, 
somewhat resembling the Lysefjord, and call at Tytlandsvik or Tet- 
landsvik on a bay of its S. bank, and at Valde on its N. bank. 

From the head of the HjOTenfjord a rough and fatiguing path crosses 
the mountains in two days to Valle in the Saetersdal (p. 6). 

Returning to the mouth of the fjord, we next steer N. to Knuts- 
vik and then enter the mountainous Erfjord, where we call at Haa- 
landsosen, and thence steer W. to Jalse. 

Jselstf or Jelse (Inn), which the direct steamers from Stavanger 
reach in 2 1 /2-4 hrs. , and the indirect coasters in 10 hrs., is a con- 
siderable village, with a church and a good harbour. Most of the 
steamers touch here and exchange passengers for different desti- 
nations. 

The vessel next steams up the Sandsfjord, which gradually nar- 
rows and is enclosed by lofty rocks, whence several waterfalls de- 
scend. The fjord afterwards expands a little. In 1^2 hi. from Jaelsa 
we reach — 

Sand (*Kaarhus ; *Rasmussen; Mcervig), at the mouth of the 
Logen, which forms the pretty Sandsfos 5 min. above the village. 
Route to the Suledalsvand, and thence to Horre and Odde, see 
p. 92. 

The Sandsfjord now divides into the Hylsfjord to the N.E. and 
the Saudefjord to the N. 

Once a week the steamer enters the *Hylsfjord, at the grand 
head of which lies the station of Hylen. Fine waterfalls descend 
from the rocks. 

From Hylen to Vaage on the Suledalsvand, l'/2-2 hrs. by a good 
bridle-path ascending the wild Hylsdal, and crossing the "Hylsskar, where 
we enjoy a splendid view of the lake below (comp. p. 92). 

In l 1 /^-^ hrs. from Sande the steamer reaches the head of the 
Saudefjord, at which lies — 

Saude or Sevde and Saudesjeen (*Rabbe's Hotel), pleasantly 
situated, a favourite resort from Stavanger. Walks to the S.W. to 
the pretty Svandal; to the N.E. to (2 hrs.) Birkelandsdalen , with 
its grandly engineered road and zinc-mines; to the E., along the 
fjord, to (35 min.) Indre Saude, with the parish-church and a 
view of the Seindenaa-Fos , and thence to (10 min.) the bridge 
across the stream descending from the Aabedal, which here forms 
the Hellandsfos. 

Fbom Saude through the Slettedal to Seljestad, l'/ 2 day : to Aar- 
thun, where the night is spent, 4'/2hrs.; thence to Seljestad 10 hrs., some- 
what toilsome. Horse desirable owing to the streams and swamps that 



from Stavanger. SANDEIDFJORD. 15. Route. 91 

have to be crossed, but rarely to be had at Saude; more likely at Aar- 
thun. Guide and provisions indispensable. 

As far as the ( 3 /t hr.) bridge at the Hellandtfos, see above. The road 
ends at ffttreim, 35 min. farther on. To the right rises the snow-clad 
Skavle Nut. In 10 min. more we begin the ascent; below, to the right, 
flows the Stor Elv. Several fine views, as we look back on the Saudefjord. 
0/i hr.) Bridge over the Fivellandt-Elv ; 25 min., a saw-mill; 10 min., the 
gaard of Fivelland. After a climb of 50 min. more we get a last view 
looking back on jBfstreim. The path turns N.E.; grand rocky landscape. 
In l /t hr. more we get our first view of Aarthun and the N. end of the 
Store Zid-Vand, with the lower part of the Suldalsfos. — About 50 min. 
later we overlook the whole "Basin of Aarthun , a green oasis, with houses, 
fields, stream, lake, and waterfall, amidst a dreary chaos of rocks. At 
C/4 hr.) Aarthun (clean bed, with 'Fladbr^d', milk, and cheese, at the 
house of Christen Aarthun) we see the fine head of the Suldalsfos. 

From Aarthun we ascend rapidly for 10 min., passing a broad water- 
fall on the right, and then enter the Slettedal to the N., following the right 
bank. To the right (10 min.) is a lofty fall of the Slettedah-Elv, issuing 
from a gorge. We still ascend and in 25 min. obtain an extensive 
view of the valley. We then descend to (10 min.) a broad, level, and 
marshy part of the valley. — (10 min.) To the right, on the left bank of 
the stream, thesaeter of Oiaden. — P/4 hr.) On the right, Reinaskard Nuten. — 
(20 min.) Liai Sceter, opposite which, to theE., the Bergedals-Elv descends 
in a waterfall into the Slettedals-Elv. — (25 min.) Indre Jore Sceter. Nu- 
merous torrents on the left; landscape otherwise monotonous. — (65 min.) 
Skridet Sceter. In 74 br. more the valley becomes narrower and grander. 
To the left is a lateral valley closed by snow-clad mountains. We pass 
the sseter of Ornebu. ( 3 /4 hr.) The route bends to the E., ( 3 /4 hr.) crosses 
the stream, and reaches the sseter of Vier. Before we reach the head of 
the valley, which forms a kind of rocky amphitheatre with the sources 
of the stream, the path (1/2 hr.) turns to the N. (left) and ascends rapidly. 
From the (1 hr.) top we have a fine 'Retrospect of the snow-draped Kirke- 
Nut and the Slettedal. In front of us lies a shallow basin containing the 
ice-bound Steen-Vand. The path is indicated by cairns, but is easily missed 
owing to the snow. We now descend, obtaining (I74 hr.) a fine view in 
front. — (40 min.) We see the Folgefond (p. 93) a little to the left. W e 
cross a wide tract of moorland with numerous ponds, and gradually de 
scend past the Nya Sceter to (l 3 /4 hr.) a bridge crossing to the Ejjldal road- 
(5 min.) Seljeitad, see p. 93. 

c. The Sandeidfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 236B, also 236A) to Sandeid 4 times a week, in 672- 
77s hrs. (fare 4 kr.). 

The steamers go either by Judeberget, Ncerstrand, and Jcelse 
as above described, or take a longer route, touching at Tow, Fister, 
and Hjelmeland. 

From Jaelse or from Narstrand they steer N. into the Sandeid- 
fjord, which presents no special attraction. Two lateral fjords di- 
verging from it, the Yrkefjord to the W. and the Vindefjord to 
the E. , form a complete cross, recalling the form of the Lake of 
Lucerne. Some of the steamers call at stations on these fjords. 
Vikedal, at the mouth of the Vindefjord, has a number of handsome 
gaards. 

At the head of the fjord lies Sandeid (Fru Weidell's Inn), 
whence a road leads N. to 0len (8 Kil. ; p. 95). 



92 

16. From the Stavangejf Fjord by the Suledalsvand 
to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord. 

2-3 Days. This is perhaps the finest of all the approaches to the Har- 
danger Fjord. 1st Day. Steamek (Com. 236 A; see p. 89) in 4-5'/2 hrs. to 
Sand. Road (skyds, Tariff III) to Osen, a drive of 2'/2 hrs. — 2nd Day. 
Steamer (Com. 354; see below) to Sees in 2'/4 hrs. (fares 1 kr. 60, 80 0.). 
Road (skyds, Tariff II) to Horre, or if full, to Gryting i Rgldal. — 3rd Day. 
Road (skyds, Tariff II) to Odde. — If we arrive early enough at Osen 
we may row (in 3>/2-4 hrs. ; 3 rowers, 3 l /2 -4 kr.) the same evening to Nses, 
and go on to Odde on the second day. 

If the steamboat from Stavanger suits , we may join this route from 
Hylen on the Hylsfjord (p. 90), crossing the "Hylsskar to Vaage (bridle- 
path, l l /2-2 hrs.), and taking the Suledal steamer next morning. 

From Stavanger to Sand, see p. 90. — The Logen, whose 
valley the road ascends, forms several waterfalls (Sandsfos, p. 90). 
Both the river and the Suledalsvand, out of which it flows, ab- 
ound with salmon and have been leased for 40 years by English 
anglers, whose handsome residences are seen at Sand, at the Skoti- 
fos, and near the church of Suledalen. About 3 ,4hr. from Sand we 
pass the hill of Juvo. To the left are the Grovfos and the Skotifos. 
The road crosses the river l/ 2 hr. farther on. Fine view in front. 

The church of Suledalen and the gaard of Mehus lie to the left. 
In 50min. more (a drive of about 2*/2 nr s. from Sand) we reach — 

Osen or Suledalsosen (*Underbakke , s Hotel, *Saltvold , s Hotel, 
with the skyds-station) , beautifully situated on the right bank of 
the Logen, at its efflux from the Suledalsvand. Opposite rises the 
curious rocky pyramid of Straabekollen. 

The *Suledalsvand (steamer, see above), the S. part of which 
is enclosed by high mountains , is 28 Kil. long , but at first is no 
broader than a river. To the right lies the gaard of Vik, to the left 
Vegge. To the left is Kolbeinsthveit , where the road ends ; to the 
right is Helgenas. "We then traverse the rocky defile of *Suledals- 
porten, where'the imposing cliff to the left rises to a height of 330 ft. 
The lake now suddenly expands. In a bay to the left are the large 
farms of Kvildal and 0iestad; then Vorvik and — 

Vaage (good quarters ; steamboat and slow skyds-station), with 
the Hylsskar rising above it (p. 90). We here enjoy a view of the 
central reach of the lake , there being five reaches in all. To the 
left, farther on, lies Laleid, on the hill. In front we obtain a good 
view of the curiously rounded and polished promontory of Bos- 
haugen and of the mountains to the N. To the S.E. rise the snow- 
clad Kalle-Fjeld and the long Kvenne-Heia. — The steamer's ter- 
minus is Naes, but three days a week and at other times if required 
it goes on to (4 Kil.) Roaldkvam (pp. 6, 32). 

Nses (*Erik Oautetun's Hotel ; Nils Ljone's Hotel, on the lake, 
R. 1, B. 1, S. 1 kr.), which affords a fine view of the lake and the 
snow-clad mountains in the background , lies at the mouth of the 
Bratlands-Elv, at the beginning of the road to Reddal. The skyds- 
station is Avindxkei (no quarters). 



R0LDAL. 16 Route. 93 

The road ascends the heautiful *Bratlandsdal , passing at first 
through a grand gorge, with overhanging rocks and several water- 
falls. At places it is hewn in the rock, and at one point passes 
through a tunnel. Farther on the valley is less interesting. At the 
gaard of Thomas, about 5 1 /2 Kil. from Naes, we cross to the left 
bank of the Bratlands-Elv, a stream descending from the Rtfldals- 
vand, and next pass the gaard of Bratland. To the left is a high 
waterfall. Farther on we pass the gaards of 0rebakke, Selleland, 
Hagerland , and Lien, on the slope of the Kaalaas , and traverse a 
narrow ravine, with a series of cataracts. We then cross the Hceger- 
lands-Bro to the right bank of the stream. This part of the route 
shows the most fantastic rock-formations, due to the ceaseless energy 
of the river. The road now reaches the narrow Ljonevand, skirts 
the gaard Ljone, and crosses the bridge of that name. Charming 
scenery. Above the small Hundefos, the outlet of the Reddalsvand, 
towers a huge cliff, worn smooth by the river. 

22 Kil. Botten or Botnen (fast station, but no quarters) lies at 
the S. end of the B«ldalsvand (1225 ft,), a lake enclosed by finely- 
shaped mountains. The road crosses the Bratlandselv and leads on 
the "W. bank of the lake to (8 Kil.) — 

Horre or Haare (Breifond Hotel $■ Sanatorium, R. l 1 /^"^ , B. 
i 1 /!, T>. 2, S. i l /% kr.), where it joins the Haukeli road (p. 33). 
Carrioles may be had here, but the skyds-station is 3 Kil. further 
N.E., on the Haukeli road, at — 

11 Kil. Oryting i Bridal (good quarters at the Sky ds- Station; 
*H6tel Reldal, R., B., S., 1 kr. each, D. 2 kr.; Fredheim's, Jac. 
Hagen's, and Th. Hauge's hotels), at the N. end of the Raldalsvand 
(1230 ft.) , with a conspicuous old church. — From Reldal to Hau- 
keli and Telemarken see p. 33. 

The Hardanger road leaves the lake at Horre and ascends the 
Horrebrxkkene in windings, which walkers avoid by short-cuts. 
On the right are the precipices of the Horreheia, on the left the 
Elgersheia. Looking back, we see the Bredfond or Breifond tower- 
ing above the Reldalsvand to the S.E. At the top of the hill 
(3415 ft.) a dreary solitude with several ponds. "We soon obtain a 
**View of the valley of Odde , with the snowy Folgefond in the 
background, one of the grandest mountain-scenes in Norway. 

The road gradually descends the Gorsvingane to the sombre 
Oorsvand (2815 ft.), at the lower end of which, by a kind of rocky 
gateway , is a waterfall. Then in zigzags , past Svaagen and the 
Hedstensnut on the right, down to — 

28 Kil'. (from Raldal; about 25 Kil. from Horre) Seljestad 
(2040 ft. ; fair quarters, R. 50, B. 60 0., D. 1 kr. ; the landlord 
owns a herd of reindeer, pastured near). The road descends the 
Hesteklev in windings, past the Hesteklevfos , a fine waterfall, and 
threads its way through the *Seljestadjuv, a wild gorge. Farther 
on, the road to the Aakrefjord (p. 95) diverges to the left, at the 



94 Route 17, KOPERVIK. From Stavanger 

gaard of Jesendal (tolerable quarters,). After 1 Kil. more the road 
to Odde passes near the gaards of Skard and below the Espelandsfos 
and the Lotefos. From this point to Odde, see p. 107. 
26 Kil. Odde (p. 106). 

17. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea. 

The direct distance by water from Stavanger to Bergen is 25 Norwegian 
sea-miles (100 Engl. JI.), but the course taken by the steamers is consid- 
erably longer, fcln the following route the distances are given in sea-miles 
from station to station. — From Stavanger to Bekgen about twenty 
steamers ply weekly, ten being large vessels from Christiania (Com. 175, 
200 A) and two from Hamburg , while five or six smaller steamers ply 
weekly between Stavanger and Bergen only (Com. 236 D, 238, 240). The 
larger boats touch at Kopervik, Haugesund, and Lervik only, some of them 
at Haugesund only, beyond which they proceed direct to Bergen, either 
passing between the Bemmele and the Storde, or between the latter and the 
Tysnmse. The outer islands are mostly bare and rocky, and of moderate 
height. The voyage by the direct steamers takes about 10 hrs., by the others 
11-15 hrs., some of them taking the interesting course via Tereen (p. 96). 

Nearly the whole voyage by all these steamers is in smooth water, 
protected by islands , except for a short distance between Stavanger and 
Kopervik, and between Haugesund and Langevaag. As the fine scenery 
of the Hardanger Fjord (R. 18) does not begin till the Herjzr and the Terjj 
are approached, the traveller loses little by going thus far at night. 

Stavanger, see p. 87. The vessel steers N.W. ; on the left are 
the Duse-Fyr and Tungenas-Fyr on the Randeberg ; to the right 
the Hundvaage, the Mostere, the Klostere with the ruined Ulsten- 
kloster, and beyond it the Rennese and other islands. Before en- 
tering the open Bukkenfjord, we observe on the left the lofty light- 
house on the Hvitingse, and to the N.W. the lighthouse of Falnas 
(Skudesnces). "We pass on the left the small seaport (1200 inhab.) 
of Skudesnatshavn, with its lighthouse, at the S. end of the Karme. 
The steamer now enters the Karmsund. The first station at which 
the smaller steamers usually stop is Ferresvik, on the Bukkene. 

6 S.M. Kopervik, or Kobbervik (Mad. Petersen's Inn), with 850 
inhab., on the Karme, a large and populous island, is the chief 
centre of the herring-fishery. The island is nearly flat, and partly 
cultivated, but consists chiefly of moor, marsh, and poor pasture- 
land, and is almost destitute of trees. It contains numerous bar- 
rows, or ancient burial-places, especially near the N. end, some of 
which have yielded valuable relics. The climate, cool in summer, 
mild and humid in winter, is exceptionally healthy, the average 
death-rate being only 12 per thousand. — About 16 Kil. W. of the 
Karma lies the small and solitary island of Vtsire, with a chapel 
and a lighthouse, where herrings usually abound. 

On the left, about 7 Kil. beyond Kopervik, is the old church 
of Augvaldsnas, adjoining which, and leaning towards it, is an old 
'Bautasten', 26 ft. in height, known as 'Jomfru Marias SynaaV 
(the Virgin Mary's Needle). Tradition says that when this pillar 
falls against the church the world will come to an end. Farther 



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to Bergen. HAUGESUND. 17. Route. 95 

N., on the opposite side of the 'Sund', are five similar stones, the 
'Five Foolish Virgins . At the end of the Karmsund, on the main- 
land, lies ■ — 

2 S.M. Haugesund (Jonassm's Hotel; Olseris; Grand Hotel), 
or Karmsund, with 5800 inhab., to the N. of which rises the Ha- 
raldshaug, where the supposed tombstone of Harald Haarfager (d. 
933) is pointed out. On this spot rises the Haralds-Stette, an obe- 
lisk of red granite, 55 ft. in height, on a square pedestal, around 
which are placed stones, 8 ft. high, representing the districts into 
which Norway was formerly divided. It was erected in 1872, on 
the thousandth anniversary of Harald's famous victory (p. 87). — 
A road leads from Haugesund B. to (48 Kil.) 0len (see below). 

To the N. of Haugesund is an unprotected part of the coast, 
called Sletten, which the steamers pass in about an hour. Near the 
N. end of this tract is Lyngholmen, where some of the steamers 
call, the first station in Bergens-Stift. To the "W. is the Ryvardens- 
Fyr on a rocky island. We now enter the Bemmelfjord, one of the 
nanow inlets of the Hardanger (see below), passing the Bemmele on 
the left, which contains gold-mines of little value, and on which rises 
Siggen (1540 ft.), a hill known as one of the 'towers' of Bergen. This 
district is called the Send-Horland, the natives Seringer. Grand 
mountains in the background. Some of the steamers next touch 
at Tjernagel, on the mainland, others at Langevaag, on the Bem- 
mele, opposite. 

6 S.M. Mosterhavn, on the Mostere, boasts of a church built 
by Olaf Tryggvason (995-1000), the oldest in Norway. 

2 S.M. Lervik, where passengers to and from 01en-Fj»re (see 
below) change steamers, lies at the S. end of the Storde, one of 
the largest of the islands at the entrance to the Hardanger. The 
wooded Halsene, to the E., contains remains of a Benedictine mon- 
astery, founded probably in 1164, and several barrows. — Comp. 
annexed Map. 

To the S. of Lervik opens the Aalfjord, with the villages of Rekerues 
and Vikevik. To the E. is the Skoneviksfjord (steamer, Com. 244). 

On the 0len/jord, a S. arm of the Skoneviksfjord, lies 01en ("Inn, 
skyds-station), 8 Kil. from Sandeid (p. 91), and visited 6 times weekly by 
steamer (Com. 244). Several steamers call at Etne, at the head of the Etne- 
Pollen, whence a mountain-path leads direct to Seljestad (p. 93), a very 
fatiguing walk of 11-12 hrs. (about 50 Kil.). 

Eastwards from the Skoneviksfjord runs the Aakre fjord , with the 
steamboat-stations Aakre and (at the head of the fjord) Fjaere (bad quar- 
ters). From Fjsere a narrow road, practicable for one-horse vehicles, 
crosses the mountains, amidst imposing scenery, via Rullestad (poor quar- 
ters) and Vintertun, in 6-7 hrs. to (18 Kil.) Qaard Jesendal on the road to 
Odde (p. 94); a little beyond Vintertun a branch of the track descends to 
the right. Comp. the Map, p. 98). 

Beyond Lervik the direct steamer traverses the Bemmelfjord 
and the Klosterfjord, named after the monastery on the Halsene. 

2 S.M. Sunde, on the E. side of the Husnmsfjord, on the pen- 
insula of Husnas. 



96 Route 18. GOD0SUND. 

Her* [Inn, well spoken of), a small island opposite Helvik, where 
passengers for the Hardanger sometimes change boats (9 hrs. from 
Stavanger, 5 hrs. from Bergen). 

The scenery now becomes more interesting ; the mountains are 
higher and less barren ; on every side the eye is met with a pro- 
fusion of rocks, islands, promontories, and wooded hills, enlivened 
with bright-looking hamlets nestling in sheltered creeks. 

3 S.M. (from Sunde) Tertf (Olsen's Inn), a little island and vil- 
lage near the N. coast of the fjord, is an important station, four 
steamers running thence weekly to Bergen, three into the Har- 
danger, and one to Stavanger. Travellers have often to change boats 
here. Beautiful scenery; to theW. the large island of Tysnaese; to 
the E. appears the huge snow-mantle of the Folgefond (p. 98). 

The district of Nord-Horland begins here. The steamer passes 
through the Loksund, a narrow strait between the mainland and 
the Tysncese, an island attractive to artists, anglers, and others. The 
next station, Einingeviken, lies on the Tysnaesa, at the N. end of 
the strait. Then Godtfsund (*Gullaksens Inn, pens. 3 l /2-&kr., with- 
sea-baths), on a small island to theN. of theTysnaesa, recommended 
for a stay. The Bjernefjord is next traversed. To the N. lies Qs or 
Oseren (Hansen's Hotel, well spoken of; fast skyds-station), pleasantly 
situated on the Fusefyord (walks to Hatviken, the Ulvenvand, the 
convent of Lyse, etc.). The steamer passes Lepse (to the right) 
and steers through the narrow Krogene ('windings') and the Kors- 
fjord. To the right is the Lysefjord, with the charming island of 
Lysee , property of the widow of the famous violinist Ole Bull 
(pleasant day's excursion from Bergen, viaNestun andFane, p. 115), 
and the ruined Lysekloster (dating from 1146) on its E. bank. The 
steamer then rounds the peninsula of Korsnas. Later, on the left, 
is the lighthouse of Marstenfyr, rising almost directly from the sea. 
Then Bukken, an islet between the mainland and the Sartore; and 
next, on the left, the mountainous Aske (p. 115). Bergen comes 
in sight when the steamer rounds Kvarven, the N. spur of the 
Lyderhorn (p. 110). 

17 S.M. (from Haugsund; 11 from Ter») Bergen, see p. 108. 

18. The Hardanger Fjord. 

From Stavanger to Odde ore the Hardanger Fjord the overland route 
already described (R. 16) is the most interesting. Or we may go direct 
by Steamboat (Com. 211), twice weekly, in 23-24 hrs. (fare 15 kr.). Or we 
may take a steamer from Stavanger to the Tere, and there change into 
the steamer from Bergen to Odde. 

From Bergen to the Hardanger Fjord: Steamboats (Com. 241, 244) to 
Eide almost daily in 91/2-I5 hrs. (fare 8V2kr.); to Odde in 12 , /s-14 hrs. 
(fare IOV2 kr.). 

From Bergen via Vossevangen (railway) to Eide, see R. 20. 

From Telemarken vid the Haukeli-Saeter to Odde, see R. 5. 

Rowing-boats are advisable for short distances only (tariff C). 

The favourite headquarters for excursions are Sundal, Eide, Vine, Vik 



HARDANGER FJORD. 18. Route. 97 

i Eidfjord, Ulvik, Lo/thus, and Odde. The inns are generally good and 
reasonable, but are often full in the height of the season (ending about 
10th Aug.). 

The *Hardanger Fjord is justly celebrated for the beauty and 
grandeur, as well as for the variety, of its scenery. It is enclosed 
by rocky and precipitous mountains 3000-5000 ft. in height, often 
separated from the water by fertile and thickly peopled districts, 
while the huge and spotless snow-mantle of the Folgefond (p. 98) 
is frequently visible in the background. The W. bank is much 
more varied in outline than the E. bank, where the rocky heights 
skirt the fjord for miles in an almost unbroken wall. To other at- 
tractions must be added two of the finest waterfalls in Norway, or 
indeed in Europe, both easily accessible to good walkers. The 
population ('Harcenger'), too, and their national characteristics 
will interest many travellers. The bridal crowns and gold and sil- 
ver trinkets (such as the Selje, or Sylgja, a kind of brooch or buckle) 
are curious, and the embroidery, coverlids (Slumretapper), and car- 
pets (Tapper) manufactured in this district are much sought after. 
The costumes are only seen to advantage on a Sunday morning be- 
fore or after divine service. The women wear the 'Skaut', a kind of 
cap of white linen with stripes, and sometimes a picturesque red 
bodice. The primitive mode in which public worship is conducted 
is very characteristic. The national music and the six-stringed Har- 
danger violin are also curious and interesting, 

Our description follows the course of the Hardanger-S»nd- 
horland Steamboats (Com. 241), which however call at different 
stations on different trips and alter their routes accordingly. The 
distances are given in Norwegian nautical miles (comp. p. 84). 

a. The Western Hardanger Fjord, to the Mauranger Fjord. 

Steamer (Com. 241) from Bergen to Simdal twice a week in 5'/2-6'/2 hrs. 
(fare 6 kr. 10 0.). The other steamers do not call at Sundal , but keep 
nearer the N. bank of the fjord. 

At the entrance to the Kvindherreds-Fjord , which forms the 
avenue to the Inner Hardanger, lie on the N. and S. sides respec- 
tively the steamboat-stations Ter-or and Her« (p. 96) , at which 
the Sundal steamer does not touch. 

At Tere we obtain a beautiful survey of the snowy Folgefond 
(p. 98) with its buttresses. Beyond Here the vessel steers into 
the Stor-Sund, a strait between the islands of Skorpen and 
Snilsthveid on one side and the mainland on the other. On this 
strait are the stations Vskedal, overtopped by the Englefjeld and 
the Kjeldhaug, and Demelsviken or Dimmelsviken (Inn), between 
the dark Solfjeld on the S. and the Skinnebergsnut on the E., 
adjoined by the Malmangernut. Then — 

2^2 S.M. (from Terer) Rosendal, near the towerless church of 
Kvindherred , with the park and chateau (built in 1665) of the 
Barons Hoff-Rosenkrone , whose baronial dignity however was 

Baedekeb's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 7 



98 Route 18. FOLGEFOND. Hardanger 

abolished along with all other titles of nobility in 1837. To the E. 
towers the conspicuous Melderskin (4680 ft.), which may be ascended 
in 6 hrs.: a fair path through the Melsdal to the Midtsmter and the 
Myrdalsvand, beyond which the ascent is rather steep. Grand view 
of the Folgefond and of the fjord down to the open sea. 

Some of the steamers now cross to the stations Gjerrnundshaven 
and Mundheim on the N. bank (see Map, p. 95), or to the station 
Skjelrues in the large Varaldse. Thence to Bakke, Jondal, etc., see 
p. 99. — Between the Varaldse and the mainland to the E., on which 
we observe the church of Mn«s, the fjord is called Sildefjord. 

At ^Enfes opens the *Mauranger Fjord, flanked with lofty cliffs, 
and stretching one of its arms up to the foot of the ice-clad Folge- 
fond. On this fjord lies — 

3 S.M. 8un&a.l(Hotel Sundal, well spoken of ; horses and guides), 
the starting-point for a visit to the Folgefond (see below) and its 
beautiful glacier the Bondhusbra). Near Sundal is the gaard of 
Bondhus, with its pretty 'Regstue'. 

A bridle-path ascends the valley of Sundal , enclosed by high 
mountains, on the left bank of the stream, crossing remains of old 
moraines, to the (2-2y 2 hrs.) Bondhusvand , a small lake from 
whose steep banks fall several cascades. A boat belonging to the 
Norwegian Tourist Club conveys us to the other end (rowed by the 
guide), and on the way we enjoy a superb view of the *Bondhus- 
brse, which descends from the Folgefond, between the Selsnut and 
the Bonddalsnut. The adjoining SEeter is occupied till the middle 
of July. From the lake to the glacier about l / 4 hr. 

From the Bondhusvand a path constructed by the German 
'Nordlandsverein' in 1890 ascends to the Folgefond. It crosses the 
glacier-brook to the left by a new bridge and ascends rapidly be- 
tween the huge boulders of an old moraine. In about 2 hrs we 
reach the Oarshammer-Sceter (about 2300 ft.; where the night may 
be spent). Samson Sundal , the owner , is one of the best glacier 
guides Thence by a good path, passing at one point over steep 
debris ( Ur'), uncomfortable for riding, in 2 hrs. more to the margin 
(about 4450 ft.) of the huge *Folgefond ('fond', a field of snow), 
which covers a plateau about 36 Kil. long and 6-15 Kil broad 
without any distinct peak or summit. This enormous mass of 
snow and ice, which sends offshoots down the valleys in all direc- 
tions, may be crossed without difficulty. At the rock called Botten- 
horgen the horses are yoked to sledges and trot up the gradual 
snowy incline in about 3 hrs. to the top (5425 ft.) , where we ob- 
tain a view of the Hardanger Vidda. On the E. side the Folgefond 
descends abruptly. The best descent is by Tokheim, with superb 
view (p. 105). The descent by the Buarbrce is suitable for ex- 
perienced mountaineers only (p. 107). But without going farther 
the traveller will be repaid by an excursion from Sundal to this 
point and back. 



Te lemarlren. 




Fjord. NORHEIMSUND. 18. Route. 99 

From £fre on the Nordpotten, the N. arm of the Mauranger Fjord, to 
the SjetrdaU-Fot and hack , 5 hrs. (guide 3 kr.). From the Foa we may 
walk across the hill* to Jondal (see below; 8-10 hrs.). — From Gjerde on 
the 0stre Pollen, (boat from Sundal, 50 0.), a good and safe path ascends 
to the Folgefond and crosses it, passing the Hundigr (5370 ft.), and after- 
wards descending rapidly to Tokheim, nearly 6000 ft. below (p. 107; guide, 
Gotschalk Gjerde: 1 pers. 8, 2 pers. 10, 4 pers. 12 kr.). As from Sundal, 
travellers may ride to the margin of the glacier and drive over the snow 
by sledges (16, 20, 32 kr.). 

b. The Central Hardanger Fjord, to TJtne and Eide on the E. 

Steamek (Com. 241) from Sundal to Eide twice a week in 4-4>/:j hrs. 
(fare 2 kr. 40 0.). From Bergen to Eide, omitting Sundal, in 9'/2-14 hrs. 
(fare 8 kr. 50 0.). 

On leaving the Mauranger Fjord the steamer steers N. to Vi- 
kingsnses and Norheimsund (see below). The other steamers, after 
calling at Gjermundshavn or Skjelnses (p. 98), touch at — 

5 S.M. (from Ter») Bakke (*Inn), on the Strandebarmsbugt, a 
bay of the His fjord, to the S. of the church of Strandebarm, grandly 
situated. To the E. we see the Myrdalsfos and the Folgefond , to 
the N.W. the snow-clad Thveite Kviting (4190 ft.), and to the N.E. 
the Terviknut (3520 ft). 

To the left of the T0rviknut a path leads by the gaards of Haukaas 
and Solbjerg and the Torahetta sseter to (4-5 hrs.) Netland in the Steinsdal 
(p. 100). But the route along the bank of the fjord to Sandven, though 
longer, is more attractive. 

Passing Rervik , where the steamer touches once a week , and 
Vikingsnces (three times a week), we next cross the Hisfjord to — 

2 l /2 S.M. Jondal (Vine's Inn), on the E. bank, noted for its 
'Hardanger boats'. The fjord contracts. 

Excursion to the Sj0bdalsfos , there and back in one day (with 
guide ; Bamson Underhaug or Nils Vigene; 3 kr.) : road to Birkeland ( 3 /i hr.) ; 
then a steep ascent on foot to the ( 3 /j hr.) Tveidalssteil, the ( 3 /i hr.) Breitater, 
and the (1 hr.) Freidalsstel (quarters) ; row over the Kvcmdalsvand, and ascend 
the SjerdaUskar, where we see the Sjerdalsfos before us (5 J /2-6 hrs. from 
Jondal). About 1 hr. farther is the Juttevandshorg , a grand point of view. 

Feom Jondal the road just mentioned ascends the Korsdal by Birke- 
land to (3 hrs.) Qaard Flatebe (1100 ft.), grandly situated. We may then 
go to the S. to the Jondalsbrw, near the Dravlevand and Jeklevand; or to 
the E. to the Serfjord (p. 104). The latter route (8-10 hrs.; guide necessary) 
leads from Flateb0 to the N.E. to Sjuscet, ascends steeply and describes 
a wide bend towards the N., turns to the E., skirts the Thorsnut (5164 ft), 
and passes the Saxaklep. The highest point of the route is 4510 ft. above 
the fjord. Then a steep descent to the Reisceter (1080 ft.) and thence to 
Bleie (Naae, p. 105). 

Beyond Jondal the steamer passes several waterfalls, leaving 
Jonarnces on the right, and enters the Ytre Samlen-Fjord, touching 
&t Skuteviken once a week. Beautiful scenery. The steamer rounds 
the Axenas on the W. side, passes the church of Viker, and enters 
the Norheimsund, on which lies — 

2 S.M. (from Jondal) Norheimsund or Sandven (Sandveris 
Hotel, E. 1, B. 1, S. 1 kr., D. 1 kr. 60 ».), charmingly situated, 
and suitable for some stay. Admirable view of the Folgefond, with 
a succession of intervening mountains. To the W. a road ascends the 



100 Route 18. EIDE. Hardanger 

Steinsdal; after ^2 ^ r - we cross a bridge on the right in order to 
visit the 0fsthus (0verate Hus) Fos, a waterfall 100 ft. high, with a 
path passing behind it. — The Torenut (about 3430 ft.), to the N., 
easily ascended by the Sjau-Sceter in 5 hrs., is a fine point. 

Beyond the J&fsthusfos the road ascends the Steinsdal , passing the 
farms of Steine (tolerable quarters) and Birkeland, to (1 hr.) Wetland. 
Thence to Bakke , see p. 89. — Feom Noeheimsund to Teengebeid on 
the Voss Railway, IV2 days. To the gaard of Steine, see above. Thence 
with guide, in 4'/2-5 hrs., to Gaard Eikedal or Egedal (1030 ft.); then a 
precipitous descent past the Mkedalsfos, 285 ft. in height, to the beautiful 
Frelandsdat (i Samnanger), in which , 9-10 hrs. from Norheimsund, we 
reach Tesse (Inn), on the Aadlandsfjord. From Ttfsse we cross by boat 
to (4 Kil.) Aadland (p. 116), whence a skyds-road leads to Trengereid. 

Beyond Norheimsund the steamer touches at — 
0stens,e [Hotel J&stense, at the pier), prettily situated on the 
bay of that name, a summer resort. 

A promontory to the W. of J0stens# separates the hay of J&stenstf 
from the narrow and picturesque 'Fiksensund, 11 Kil. long, at the head 
of which lies Gaard Botnen (reached hy boat from J0stens0 in 3 ] /2-4 hrs.). 
High up on the hill-side beyond the Nses is seen a huge giant-basin ('Jsette- 
gryde'), called Gygrereva (Gygr, 'giantess'), from the tradition that a gian- 
tess, trying to draw an island in the fjord towards her, failed from the 
breaking of the rope , and caused this indentation by falling backwards. 
— From Botnen a path (guide unnecessary), very rough and steep at places, 
ascends the Flatebegjel (Gjel, 'rocky ravine') to the (5 Kil.) Lekedal sseter 
(whence we may ascend the Flatebefjeld, 3460 ft., a fine point of view, 
2-3 hrs. there and back). From the sseter the path ascends to the water- 
shed (1900 ft.), and then descends a little to (6 Kil.) Hodnaberg , at the 
N.E. end of the Bamlegrevand (1965 ft.; said to afford good fishing). We 
now descend by the course of the river issuing from the Thorfinvand to 
(6 Kil.) Gaard Skjeldal (1075 ft.). From this point a good road to (5 Kil.) 
Grimestad, at the W. end of the Vangsvand, I Kil. from rail. stat. Bulken 
(p. 118 ; the road to which passes the gaard of Liland), Skyds by water 
from Grimestad to Vossevangen reckoned as 9 Kil. The whole route from 
0stens0 to Vossevangen takes 12-14 hrs. in all. 

Soon after leaving 0stens« the steamer commands a view, to 
the left, of the beautiful Indre Samlen - Fjord. Some boats cross 
the fjord to Herand, on the S. side of the bold Samlehovd or Sam- 
lekolle (2060 ft.); others steer past the mouth of the Fiksensund 
to Stenste and to Aalvik, on the N. bank, near which is the pictur- 
esque Melaanfos. All the steamers steer to the head of the narrow 
and somewhat monotonous Gravenfjord and there stop at — 

3 S.M. (from Norheimsund) Eide (*Mceland's Hotel, on the 
river, R. from i 1 /^, B. or S. i\j%, D. 2kr. ; *JaMnsen's, 5 min. from 
the pier; fast skyds-station) , the busiest place on the Hardanger 
Fjord, being the station for Vossevangen, and prettily situated. 
Beautiful walk to the N. to the Oravensvand (1/2 hr.). 

Feom Eide to Ulvik (19 Kil., pay for 32), a splendid walk (4-5 hrs.). 
Riding (horse 3 kr. 76 0.) or driving (stolkjserre 8 kr.) is inconvenient 
and at places almost impracticable. Luggage should be sent round by 
steamer from Eide to Ulvik. From Eide we follow the Vossevangen 
road to (4 Kil.) Gravens-Kirke (p. 118), where our route to Ulvik, very 
steep at places, diverges to the right. Nearly halfway is the Vatnesceter 
(refresbm.). A little further we reach the highest point of the route 
(about 1900 ft.), between the Graahellerfjeld and Grimmut on the right 
and the Kvashmed on the left , and soon get a magnificent view of the 



Fjord. EIDFJORD. 18. Route. 101 

Ulviksfjord. To the E. rise the Onen , from which the Degerfos falls 
to a depth of 1500 ft., and the Balonefjeld, and to the N.E. the majestic 
Tas-Fjaeren (5350 ft.)- On the descent to (l'/4 hr.) Brakences , very steep 
at places, the scenery becomes even more picturesqne, particularly at 
the Furusceter and Lindebrcekke. On the hill, about >/ 4 hr. before we reach 
Brakenses, is Wilhelmsen's Hotel, beautifully situated (p. 103). 

From Eide to Vossevangen, see p. 118. V/^ S.M. (from Eide) 
Utne (*Inn), beautifully situated on the Vtnefjord, the avenue to 
the inner ramifications of the Hardanger. At the back of the village 
lies a shady valley. The (2!/2 hrs.) Hanekamb (3590 ft.) affords a 
flue survey of the Utnefjord, the Eidfjord, and the Serfjord. 

To the N. of Utne, at the mouth of the Gravenfjord, on the right, 
rises the Oxen (4120 ft.), "which may be ascended from the S.E. 
side; fine view, especially of the S»rfjord to the S. and the high 
mountains to the E. On the S. slope of the Oxen is a Runic stone. 

c. The Eidfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 242) from Eide to Ulvik daily, in 3-4 hrs. (fare 2 kr.). 

The Eidfjord, the easternmost branch of the Hardanger Fjord, 
is enclosed by precipitous rocks. The steamer calls when required 
at Bingeen, Djenne, and Vallavik. Beyond the Busnas, with the 
gaard of Bu (which the Bunut behind it shades from the sun the 
whole winter), the Osefjord diverges to the left (p. 103). The 
steamer passes its mouth. On the right towers the Skoddalsfjeld. 
At the mouth of the valley running inland between the Skoddals- 
fjeld and the Rullenut lies Erdal , with a saw-mill and a group of 
houses, where moraines and ancient water-lines are observable. 
On the N. side of the fjord rises the ice-girt Ontn (5150 ft.). Facing 
us rises the almost entirely bare Vindaxel. Between the Onen 
and Vindaxel opens the Simodal , above which peers the snowy 
plateau of the Hardanger-Jeikul (p. 103). Some of the steamers 
call at Simodalen and steer thence to — 

6 S.M. (from Eide) Vik i Bifjord or Eidfjord. — Hotel V^eings- 
fos, a large timber-built house, rather noisy, kept by the brothers Naes- 
heim, who speak English ; R. f/2, A. l /i, B. l'/a, D. 2 kr. — Skyds accord- 
ing to tariff II. 

Vik, grandly situated in a bay near the E. end of the Eidfjord, 
is a good starting-point for several tine excursions. About 1/2 M. 
distant is the church of 0ifjord or Eidfjord, situated on a moraine 
('Vor') about 1 M. broad, which separates the fjord from the 
0ifjordsvand. The river issuing from the latter forces its way 
through the moraine. 

To the V0B.INGSFOS , 8-9 hrs., there and back. The carriage- 
road leads past the church to the 0ifjordsvand, a lake enclosed by 
huge rocks, from which several waterfalls descend. It follows the 
W. bank , passing the gaard of Kvam ('basin') on the hill above, 
from which the Kvamfos descends. On the opposite bank rises the 
0ifjordsfjeld, with the Trellefos. 

8 Kil. Ssebe (tolerable quarters) , with several other gaards 



102 Route 18. V0RINGSFOS. Hardanger 

(Megeletun, Lilletun," Varberg , 'and Betee), lies at the head of the 
lake on a small fertile plain, bounded by the Bygdarelv (or Hjal- 
rnoelv), -which descends from the Hjalmodal on the S., and by the 
Bjereia emerging from the Maabedal. 

The path to the Veringsfos (unmistakable ; horse there and 
back 5 kr.) ascends the moraine, and then descends into the wild 
Maabedal on the left bank of the Bjereia, which it afterwards 
crosses by a lofty bridge. In 1 hr. we reach the gaard of Thveit- 
hougen. The path ascends steeply, passing enormous blocks of rock 
and wild cataracts , to (Y2 hr-) Maab0 , amidst a chaos of rocks 
where the river is lost to view. 

The path constructed by the 'Turistforening' from this point 
to the fall crosses the river and ascends its steep left bank to the 
small, dark-green Maabevand. Alpine vegetation. In 1 hr. more 
we reach the stupendous **V«ringsfos, the roar of which has long 
been audible {Qaaratwris Inn, coffee, beer, cold meat ; also 3 beds ; 
moderate}. The Bjereia plunges over the rocks at the head of the 
ravine in a single leap of 470 ft. into a basin enclosed by perpen- 
dicular rocks on three sides. Two ridges of rock at the top divide 
the river, which comes from the right, into three falls, which 
however soon re-unite. A dense volume of spray constantly rises 
from the seething cauldron , forming a cloud above it. A wire 
bridge carries us close to the fall. Beautiful rainbow-hues are 
seen in the spray, especially of an afternoon. 

A path made in 1889 ascends by the fall , and at the top crosses a 
second bridge to a projecting rock, the view from which however is 
less impressive. 

From Maab0 a bridle-path ascends the Maahegalder ('Gald', 'rocky 
declivity') to (2 hrs.) the gaard of H#l (tolerable quarters), situated on u 
dreary plateau, 2000 ft. over the sea-level, above which is seen the column 
of spray rising from the waterfall. It was this phenomenon which led 
Prof. Hansteen to the discovery of the fall in 1821. 

Those who sleep at H0I may now , instead of retracing their steps, 
cross the plateau towards the S. to the Skiswter and Bcerrastel, and descend 
into the imposing Hjcelmodal , through which a good path descends to 
Ssebjj (a walk of 7-8 hrs. in all). — Or we may take a path leading 
from H0I to the N. through the Isdal , with the Isdalsvand , descend 
abruptly to the gaard of Thveit in the Simodal (see below), and follow 
the valley down to the fjord, a rough walk of 10-12 hrs. (in the reverse 
direction 13-14 hrs. ; boat to Vik, 1 hr. more). Guide necessary. 

Excursion to the Simodal. Splendid walk to the Rembes- 
dalsfos and back (7-8 hrs.; guide 3 1 /2 kr.); or to the top of the 
fjeld opposite the Skykjefos, and back (10-12 hrs.; guide 5 kr.). 
Provisions necessary. — The E. end of the Eidfjord consists of a 
narrow bay about 3 Kil. long, where the steamer calls two or three 
times a week only (Simodalen station) , but it is generally most 
convenient to visit it by rowing-boat from Vik (5 Kil., in 1 hr.). 
To the N. from the head of this bay stretches the Aasdal, in which 
rises a curious isolated rock about 380 ft. in height, and to the 
E. runs the *Simodal. A road ascends the latter of the gaaTds of 
Melius, where the valley is so narrow that the towering rocks above 



Fjord. ULVIK. 18. Route. 103 

may be seen thiough the Ljor ('smoke -hole'), and to (5KA1.) 
Thveit (good quarters), the highest gaard in the valley. Near it 
are several 'Koldehuller' ('cold holes'), in which water is said to 
freeze even in summer (uninteresting). The path now leads on 
the right bank of the torrent to the (5 Kil.) head of the valley, 
which terminates abruptly in a lofty rock , over which falls the 
Rembesdalsfos , while to the E. is seen the *Skykjefos, a grand 
waterfall nearly 2000 ft. high, part of which is a single leap of 
over 700 ft. — We may next ascend to the Rembesdalsvand , to 
the margin of which a glacier of the Hardanger Jekul (6540 ft.) 
descends. The most striking point of view is an abrupt rock op- 
posite the Skykjefos , from which we command the fall, and look 
sheer down into the valley beneath. 

From Vik i 0ifjord, Kinservik, UUensvang , Espen, and Skjwggedal, 
rough mountain-paths , rarely trodden except by reindeer-stalkers , cross 
the wild solitudes of the Hardanger Vidda to Telemarken in 2-3 days. 
These routes unite at the base of Haarteigen (5550 ft.), a truncated cone, 
where an excellent idea of the singularly desolate character of the Nor- 
wegian 'H0ifjeld' may be formed. On every side extends a dreary table- 
land, rarely relieved by 'Nuter' or knolls, while the distant snow-moun- 
tains are also flat and shapeless. Far and wide not a trace of human 
habitations, not even a valley to suggest their existence. But the count- 
less lakes teem with trout, wildfowl nestle in the chaos of rocks , rein- 
deer follow the migrations of the lemmings (see p. 150) , and the eagle 
pursues his quarry unmolested. The atmosphere on this plateau , 3000- 
4000 ft. above the sea-level, is exceedingly clear and bracing, but mists 
and storms are frequent. Travellers or sportsmen traversing this region 
must sleep in a sseter, in the hut of a reindeer-stalker ('Vej demand') or 
fisherman, or in a wretched Fcelceger (p. 135), or shepherd's hut, no other 
shelter being procurable. 

From Vik we steam down the Eidfjord and turn to the right 
into the Osefjord , the N. branch of the Eidfjord , with a grand 
mountain-background. On the right, near the entrance , is a fall 
of the Bcegnaelv. A low wooded hill, called Osen, separates the 
severe Osenfjord from its W. arm , the smiling L'lviksfjord , into 
which we steer. We soon come in sight of the farms of Ulvik 
thickly clustered round the head of the fjord. 

3 S.M. (from Vik) TJlvik. — "Vestkheim's Hotel, largely occupied 
by summer boarders; Braken^es Hotel, R., B., S. each 1, D. 1 kr. 60 0.; 
'Wilbelmsen's Hotel, on the hill (p. 101), V* hr. from the pier. — Sktds 
Station at Bjwltnas. 

Ulvik-Brakenas, beautifully situated, is one of the most attrac- 
tive places on the Hardanger Fjord. Brakences , with its church, 
behind which there is a fine waterfall, is the chief cluster of houses 
among the hamlets and farms at the head of the fjord , which are 
collectively known as Ulvik. 

Pleasant *Walk along the shore to the E. to Hagestad and Lekve, 
an ancient 'Kongsgaard', or royal domain , and thence across the 
hill to the Osefjord (1 hr.). At a group of huts here a boat may 
be hired for the trip to Ose (4 Kil.; 1 hr.). Another walk to the 
Solsivand, 1 hr. N. of Lekve. 

The *Head of the Osefjord (where the steamers do not touch), 



104 Route 18. S0RFJORD. Hardanger 

enclosed by huge mountains, is worthy of a visit (take provisions). 
We may either hire a boat for the trip at the place just mentioned, 
or row all the way from UMk (14Kil.; 272-3 hrs.). In the latter 
case we get a view of the fine fall of the Degerdalselv on the 
right, descending to the fjord between the Onen (p. 101) and the 
Balonefjeld. At the head of the fjord lies Ose (tolerable bed, but 
poor food at Lars Ose's) , */4 nl - fr° m which are several 'Kolde- 
huller' (comp. p. 103). From this point the wild *Osedal runs 
inland, between the Krosfjaren and Nipahegd on the E. and the 
Vasfjceren on the W. 

A toilsome walk of 10-12 hrs. (guide at Ose) may be taken up the 
Osedal, which narrows to a ravine, to the Otescetei; and thence, between 
the Oseskavl and Vossetkavl on the right and the Gangdalskavl on the left, 
to the Opsmtsceter (1800 ft.) , at the head of the Rundal (p. 118). Then 
across the Oravehals (3710 ft.) to Kaardal in the Flaamsdal (p. 128). 

The ascent of the Vasfjaeren (5350 ft.) takes 12-16 hrs. from Lekve, 
there and back. Ole Hakestad of Lekve is a good guide (6-8 kr.). The 
fatigue is lessened by sleeping at the sseter on the Solsivand on the pre- 
vious night. Splendid view from the top. — From the Solsivand to Kle- 
vene and the Opsaetsseter in the Rundal (p. 118) 10-12 hrs. 

From Ulvik to Eide, see p. 100. — The Espelandsvand, 7 Kil. N.W. 
of Ulvik (a walk of l>/2 hr.), abounds in fish. 

d. The S#rfjord. 

Steamer (Com. 241) from Eide to Odde in 3-4 l /2 hrs. (fare 2kr. 80 0.). 
From Ulvik via Eide to Odde, once weeklv in 7 hrs. (Com. 242; fare 
3 kr. 60 0.). 

The **S*rfjord ('Southfjord'), running to the S. from the Ut- 
nefjord (p. 101) for a distance of 40 Kil., and gradually narrowing 
from 2 Kil. to a few hundred yards , is the finest part of the Har- 
danger Fjord and presents a most characteristic picture of Nor- 
wegian fjord and fjeld scenery. Its rocky banks, from which a 
number of waterfalls descend, rise for the most part very abruptly, 
showing that the fjord is of the nature of a huge chasm between 
the snow-clad Folgefond and the central Norwegian mountains to 
which it belongs. At places the debris from the mountains and 
particularly the alluvial deposits of the torrents have formed fer- 
tile patches of land, where cherries and apples thrive luxuriantly, 
especially towards the mouth of the fjord where it is never frozen 
over. The fjord is therefore comparatively well peopled , and its 
great charm consists in the contrast between the smiling hamlets 
on its bank and the wild fjeld towering above them. 

As already stated, the steamer from Eide first touches at Vtne 
(p. 101). It then steers past the gaard of Tronms on the right, with 
the promontory of Kirhences rising opposite, into the Serfjord. 

Grimo (*Inn) lies on a fertile spot on the W. bank. Beautiful 
walks (to the hill of Hangsnaes, 20 min. S., etc.). 

Opposite Grimo opens the charming Kinservik (reached by 
rowing-boat), with the Husdal and the Tkveitafos and Nyastelsfos. 
A lofty road, with fine views, leads from the church of Kinservik, 
past the promontory of Krosnres, to Lofthus (a walk of QA/z hrs.). 



Fjord. LOFTHUS. 18. Route. 105 

3 S.M. (from Eide) Lofthus {Hans Helgesen Utne's Inn; several 
Pensions), in an OTcnard-like region on the E. bank, enclosed by 
a wide girdle of rocks , with a lofty waterfall , is one of the finest 
points on the Hardanger. A little to the S. is Oppedal, a landing- 
place and gaard where the steamers call once a week instead of at 
Lofthus. The parish-church of TJllensvang, on the S. side of the 
Aapo-Elv, which falls into the fjord here, dates from the Gothic 
period ; fine W. portal ; Gothic choir-window , with the head of a 
bishop at the top, and a weeping and a laughing face on the right 
and left. Observe the venerable limes and ashes by the 'Prseste- 
gaard'. Brurastolen, a rocky height above the church, affords an 
excellent survey of the Serfjord, N. to the Oxen (p. 101) and S.W. 
to the Folgefond. A visit to Bjernebykset ('bear's leap'), a fall of 
the Aapo-Elv, takes 172 nr - from the inn (there and back). Farther 
off is the Skrikjofos , higher but of less volume. At TJllensvang 
there are several 'Koldehuller' (p. 103) in which the natives keep 
their provisions. 

On the opposite (W.) bank of the fjord are the large gaards 
of Jaastad, Vilure, and Aga. The last-named still contains an old 
hall lighted from above. Above Aga rises the Solnut (4830 ft.); 
beyond it the Thorsnut (5164 ft.). The glaciers of the Folgefond 
peer down the valleys at intervals. — Next station — 

Barrven or Berven , on the road leading S. from TJllensvang 
(about 6 Kil.), with a view of the glaciers on the other side. The 
prominent peak of Barvenuten (1 hr.) is an admirable point of view. 

On the W. bank is the Vikebugt, with the station of — 

Naae and the gaards of Bleie, where just above fertile fields 

and gardens are the protruding glaciers of the Folgefond , from 

which several waterfalls descend. — Path from Bleie over the 

mountains to Jondal, see p. 99. 

The next places on the E. bank are the gaards of Sandste and 

Sexe; Hovland, with a spinning - mill ; Kvalences, a promontory 

and gaard. 

Espen, a station on the E. bank, with several gaards charmingly 
situated on the hill. 

Then, on the W. bank, Kvitnaa, at the entrance to an imposing 
valley, with glaciers in the background ; farther on, Digrences, 
with several waterfalls. Between these places, on the hill, is the 
gaard of Aase, whence the Folgefond may easily be ascended. 
(Rowing-boat thither from Odde, 2 hrs.) — Beyond Digrenaes are 
the gaards of Apald and Aaen, with the waterfall of that name, 
also called the Ednafos ; then Eitrheim , with the peninsula of 
Eitnas , and Tokheim with its waterfall and the Tokheimsnut, 
whence a path crosses the Folgefond to the Maurangerfjord (p. 98). 
— In the background to the S. are the Ruklenut (right) and the 
Rosnaas (left). 



106 Route 18. ODDE. Hardanger 

On the E. bank, after Espen, comes Fresvik, with its fine 
amphitheatre of wood, bordered with meadows and corn-fields. 
Then, opposite Digrenses, are the gaards of Skjalvik, in another 
wooded hay, and Stana, with Isberg at a dizzy height above it. 
Between the Tyssedalsnut and the Thveitnut opens the Tyssedal, at 
the mouth of which is the fine gaard of Tyssedal. Close to the fjord 
the Tyssaa forms a fall picturesquely set in pine-forest. A group 
of rocks farther on is called Biskopen, Prazten, og Klokkeren. 
Lastly, on the hill, is the gaard of Freheim. 

4 S.M. [from Lofthus) Odde. — Hotels. "Haedangek Hotel, kept 
by the brothers Tolle/son, well situated on the fjord, but noisy, frequented 
by English travellers, R. 1 kr. 40, B. 1 kr. 50 0., D. 2, pension 6 kr. ; *Ole 
Pb^stegaaed's Inn, near the pier, E. 1, D. 2, B. 1, S. 1, A. >/s kr-i "Baaed 
Aga's Inn, a little inland, E. 1, B. 1, S. I'/t, pension 3 kr. ; Kbistensen's 
Hotel, frequented by Norwegians. Rooms also at Jacob JordaVs, adjoining 
Kristenaen's. 

Skyds at Baard Aga's Inn, tariff II. — Guides. Lars Olsen Bustetun, 
Asbjern Lars Olsen, and Ole Torslensen (speak English). — Post Office, 
adjoining Baard Aga's. — Adjoining the Hardanger Hotel antiquities and 
various useful wares are sold by G.Hellstrem (from Stavanger) and M. Ham- 
mer. — English Church Service in summer at the Parish Church and the 
Hardanger Hotel. 

Odde, at the S. end of the Serfjord, the terminus of the great 
routes from Telemarken and the Stavanger Fjord (RR. 5, 16), 
forms excellent headquarters for excursions. It consists of the 
farms of Bustetun, Opheim, Bergeflot, and others, while the name 
of Odde ('tongue of land') is applied to the large church. 

Walks. (1). To (35 min.) Tokheim, on the W. bank, with fine 
views of the fjord, especially a little inland from above Tokheim. 

(2). To the *Sandvenvand, to the S. of Odde (there and back 
l 1 ^-^ hrs.). We follow the Telemarken road, ascending the Eid, 
an old moraine. At the top of the hill the Aabo-Elv, issuing from 
the Sandvenvand, forms a fine waterfall. Grand landscape. On 
the right, above the lake, rise the Eidesnut and Jordalsnut ,- be- 
tween these lies the Jordal ; to the N. we survey the whole of 
the SOTfjord. By following the road for 20 min. more along the 
E. bank of the lake, passing under menacing rocks and over 
'Urer' or rocky debris, we obtain a *View of the Buarbrae and the 
Folgefond ; farther on, to the left is the beautiful Kjendalsfos ; 
opposite is the Strandsfos, descending from the Svartenut (with a 
bridge high above it). 

Exctjbsions. (1) To the Buarbb.^ (5 hrs., there and back; 
guide quite unnecessary). Road to the (25 min.) Sandvenvand, 
see above. We then eitber follow the bank of the lake to the 
right, or take the steam-launch which plies half-hourly, to (about 
IY4M.) the entrance to the Jordal, where the gaard of that name 
lies on the right bank of the river descending from the valley. 
(Guide unnecessary.) We walk up the Jordal, a valley enclosed 
by precipitous rocks. The Folgefond forms the background. In 



Fjord. BUARBRyE. 18. Route. 107 

20 min. from Gaard Jordal we cross a bridge to the left bank of 
the Jordals-Elv, which the stony path now follows. In 3 / 4 hr. more 
we pass the gaard of Buar, on the opposite bank. The path, nearly 
level towards the end, leads in 20 min. more to the foot of the 
*Buarbrse, which has been visible for some time. (A small restau- 
rant here.) This is the finest of all the glaciers descending from 
the Eolgefond on the E. side, the Bondhusbrae (p. 98) being the 
finest on the W. side. The blue ice-grotto is not accessible. By 
ascending the hill to the right we have an opportunity of observ- 
ing traces of the steady advance of the glacier. It is divided into 
two arms, which afterwards unite, by a rock called the Urbotten, 
and consequently has an unusually large central moraine. The 
Jordal is remarkable for its rich vegetation (birches, elms, etc.), 
and fields of barley are seen close to the glacier, the foot of which 
is about 1000 ft. above the sea. 

Good mountain-walkers may ascend on the right side of the Buartrse 
to the Folgefond, skirt the Eidesnut and the Ruklenut , and passing the 
Tokheimsnut descend to Tokheim and Odde, an interesting, but fatiguing 
expedition of 8-10 hrs. (guide 4-8 kr.). Part of this walk coincides with 
the route from Sundal across the Folgefond (p. 98). 

(2). To the Lotefos and the Espelandsfos (6-8 hrs., there 
and back). 

To the Sandvenvand, see p. 106. At the end of the lake, 7 Kil. 
from Odde , lies the farm of Sandven. The road next passes 
(2 Kil.) Hildal (330 ft.), where the Vcefos or Hildalsfos descends 
on the left, and (4 Kil.) Orensdal, the starting-point for the ascent 
of the Saue-Nut (about 3960 ft. ; splendid view of the Folgefond). 
The valley contracts to a ravine ('Djuv'), through which dashes 
the Orensdals-Elv. About 1 Kil. beyond Grflnsdal, by a small 
inn, we reach, on the left, the *Lotefos and the Skarsfos , the 
waters of which unite below, while opposite to them is the veil- 
like *Espelandsfos, one of the most beautiful waterfalls in Nor- 
way. The best point of view is on the hill, just above the road 
(ascent in 5 min.). 

The road then passes below the gaards of Skard , which lie 
about 8 min. to the left of the road, 3-4 Kil. from Gransdal. (We 
may ascend thence in ! /2" 3 /4 nr - t0 the Lotevand, from which first the 
Skarsfos and then the Lotefos issue. By the fall are several mills. 
The cloud of spray through which we see the Espelandsfos opposite 
has a curious effect. Otherwise this digression hardly repays.) 

The excursion to the Lotefos may be combined with a visit to the 
BcABERa: (see above). On our way back we dismiss our vehicles at the 
N. end of the Sandvenvand, and walk down the W. bank of the lake to 
the Jordal. The whole excursion from Odde and hack would then 
take 10-12 hrs. 

Frcm Skard to Seljestad and the "Gorsvingane (10-12 hrs. from Odde, 
there and back), fee pp. 94, 93. The scenery of this route is more 
striking when approached from the south. Excursionists from Odde 
should retrace their steps from the Gorsvingane, as the roule to Eoldal is 
less interesting (see p. 93). 



108 Route 18. LOTEFOS. 

(3). Across the Folgefond to Sundal on the Mauranger 
Fjord, about 10 hrs. (guide 12-16 kr. ; riding practicable), but 
better in the Teverse direction (see p. 98). 

(4). To the Skj-eggedalsfos, 10-12 hrs., there and back (half 
on foot), steep and fatiguing at places, and not without risk in 
wet weather. Guide (5 kr. or more) and provisions had better be 
taken from Odde. "We row from Odde to (6Kil.) Tyssedal (p. 105). 
We ascend thence on foot through wood, enjoying beautiful retro- 
spective views of the fjord and the Folgefond. We pass (i/ 4 hr.) 
a second fall of the beautiful clear green river, and (!/ 4 hr.) a 
third. The path ascends steeply over 'Ur' and roots of trees. We 
pass ( 3 / 4 hr.) a small pasture on the left, and next reach (^4 hr.) 
a hay-hut, at the foot of the Svelberg , near which is a primitive 
kitchen under the rocks. This is the highest point on the route, 
about 1850 ft. above the fjord. The path next descends the Flad- 
berge, and (1 hr.) reaches the gaard of Skjseggedal (pron. Shegga- 
dal ; 2!/2 hrs. from Tyssedal ; small Inn ; order meal for return). 
On the left the Mogelifos descends from the Mogelinut, and on the 
right is the Vasendenfos, the discharge of the Ringedalsvand (see 
below). We cross the Vetlevand ('small lake') by boat in a few 
minutes, and in 8 min. more walk over an 'Eid' or isthmus to the 
■picturesque and exquisitely clear Ringedalsvand (about 1300 ft. 
above the sea), with the huge Einsatfjeld on the S. Here we 
embark in another boat. (A high wind sometimes prevails here, 
while the fjord below is calm, in which case the night must be 
spent at the inn, or the excursion abandoned. It is desirable to 
have one or more rowers besides the guide; fee 1.60, 2.40, 3.20 kr., 
according to number of persons.) The lake is 6 Kil. long, and we 
row to its upper end in 1^2 hr. ; about halfway the Folgefond 
becomes visible behind us. On the left, farther on, the picturesque 
Tyssestrenge fall from a rock 500 ft. high, uniting in one cas- 
cade about halfway down the face of the rock. Landing at the head 
of the lake , we ascend across 'Ur' to the (20 min.) foot of the 
*SkjEeggedalsfos, a superb waterfall 525 ft. high , less imposing 
but more picturesque than the Vflringsfos (p. 102). In summer 
the volume of water is sometimes scanty, but when the snow is 
melting ('Flomtid') and after heavy rain the effect is very grand. 

(6). Ascent of Mofalsskardene (about 3950 ft.), to the E. of 
Odde, 6 hrs., with guide (6 kr.); the top commands a fine pano- 
rama of the Ringedalsvand, Serfjord, and Folgefond. 

19. Bergen. 

Arrival. The large steamers are berthed by the Toldbod or by Brad- 
bcenken, on the other side of the harbour; the Hardanger boats at the 
Holbergs-Almmning ; the Sogn and Nordfjord boats by the Nykirke. Porter 
('Bserer') to the hotels, l /2-l kr. — Travellers leaving Bergen by steamboat 
should ascertain in good time where the vessel starts from. As to berths, 
see p. xvi. Most of the offices are in the Strandgade. — The Railway 



]d svaag 



1. Banegaard 11. Sored -Brandvagt 

2. Borsai ■£ Telegraf yZ.Forskfdnnelseit 

3. Bjens Srgehus 
i.KaMwlske Kirke 

5. Kreditbanken 

6. Post 
l.Baadhus 

8. Soljst (Badehus) 

9. Stadsporten 
iO.Tek7iisJcSkol& 




Hotels. 



BERGEN. 



19. Route. 109 



Station (PI. 1; p. 115) is in the S. part of the town, near the Lille Lunge- 
gaardsvand. 

Hotels (none first-rate). Hotel Norge (PI. n), near the railway- 
station, and to the W. of the Park, R. 2>/ 2 -6 kr. , L. 50, A. 60 0., D. 3kr., 
with baths; Holdt's Hotel (PI. c), between the Engen and the Torve- 
Almenning, with baths, R. from 2, S. 2, D. 3, L. & A. 1 kr. ; Nordstjernen 
(PI. d), Raadstue-Plads, less pretending, R. 2, D. 272 kr., L. 40 0.; Hotel 
Bergen (PI. a), Strand-Gade, to the E. of the Nykirke, well spoken of, 
R. 2, B. 1, S. 1, D. 2, A. i/ 2 kr. ; Smebt, Strandgade, to the W. of the Ny- 
kirke, plain but very fair; Skandinavie (PI. b), in the Plads called 
'Klosteret', R. 2 ] /2, B. l'/2, S. l'/2, A. V2 kr. — Michelsen, confectioner, 
Olaf Kyrre's Gade, corner of Starvhusgade, by the Park. 



1 pers. 



pers. 



2. 25 

2. 25 

60 

90 



pers. 



2. 65 

3. 40 
70 

1. 05 



pers. 



3. — 

3. 95 

80 

1. 20 



Cabs, by the Exchange. 

With one horse, per hour 

With two horses, per hour 

Per drive in the town 

Per drive in the suburbs 

Carriages for excursions at Miinter^s, Engen 22, adjoining Holdt's 
Hotel : carriole 2 , carriage with one horse 3 , with two horses 5 kr. 
per hour. 

Boats (Flet): across the harbour 10-20 0., according to distance; for 
several persons 10-13 0. each. A trip towards the N.W. is described as 
udover, towards the Torv as indover. 

Post Office (PI. 6), Smaastrandgade, 8 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. — Telegraph 
Office (PI. 2), by the Exchange (p. 111). 

Shops. Hammer, Strandgade 57, Norwegian antiquities, modern silver 
ornaments, and pictures; Brandt, Strandgade, corner of the J&stre Mural- 
menning, furs, one of the best shops of the kind in Norway; Kahrs, 
Strandgade, fishing-tackle, travelling requisites, alpenstocks ; Sundt & Co., 
Strandgade, tailors for ladies and gentlemen ; Michelsen, Strandgade, wood- 
carvings; Frak. Vedeler, in the Torv, figures in Norwegian costumes. — 
Chemist: Monrad Krohn (English spoken). — Cigars and Tobacco: Rei- 
mers <Sc Son, Smaastrandgade 3, near the post-office. — Wine, Tinned 
Goods ('Hermetisk'), and Biscuits: 0. Krepeliens Enke , Strandgade 40; 
J. E. Mowinckel, Strandgade 23 (cigars also). — Spirits and Liqueurs at 
the shops belonging to the company (Brcendevins-Samlag), which mono- 
polises the trade, devoting all profit over 5 per cent to charitable and public 
works. — Hair-Dresser: Andreas Pettersen, Olaf Kyrre's Gade 6. 

Banks. Norges Bank, Bergens Credit-Bank, Privatbank, all in the Torv. 

Goods Agents. Ellerhusen <fc Lund, Lille Altonagaarden, Strandgade. 

Baths. Warm, in the Sygehus (PI. 3) and at the large hotels. Sea- 
Baths at the Solyst (PI. 8), to the N.W. of Bergenhus Fsestning; for gentle- 
men 7-9 and 3-8 o'clock; for ladies 10-2 o'clock. 

Theatre, performances thrice weekly. — Music in the Park on Sun. 
& Wed., 12-1, also 8-10 p.m. (adm. 10 0.). 

Consuls. British vice-consul, Mr. A. Stewart Mac Gregor, Strandgade ; 
pro-consul, Mr. D. M. M. Crichton Somerville. American consul-general, 
Mr. F. G. Gade, Smaastrandgade; vice-consul, Mr. Joh. Isdahl. 

English Church Service in summer in the 'Gamle Muswum' school- 
house, on the N. side of the Lille Lungegaardsvand, near the Park, and 
5 min. from Holdt's Hotel. 

Tourist Offices. T. Bennet, Torv-Almenning 18, and Th. Cook & Son, 
No 21b; Beyer, Strandgade 2, also a bookseller and dealer in photo- 
graphs, etc. 

Bergen (N. lat. 60°23'), one of the oldest and most picturesque 
towns in Norway, with 53,600 inhab., lies on a hilly peninsula 
and isthmus bounded on theN. by the Vaagen and the By fjord, on 
the 8.E. by the Lungegaardsvand, and on the S.W. by the Pudde- 
fjord. In the background rise four mountains, 1300-2100 ft. in 
height, Blaamanden (1890 ft.) with the Fleifjeld (820 ft.) to the 



110 Bottie 19. BERGEN. History. 

N.E., Ulriken (2105 ft.) to the S.E., Levstaken (1560 ft.) to the S., 
and Lyderhorn (1300 ft.) with the Damgaardsfjeld to the S.W.; 
but the citizens count seven, and the armorial bearings of the 
town also contain seven hills (formerly seven balls). The climate is 
exceedingly mild and humid, resembling that of the W. coast of 
Scotland ; the frosts of winter are usually slight and of short duration, 
the thermometer very rarely falling below 15-20° Fahr., and the 
average rainfall is 72 inches (in the Nordfjord about 35 in., at 
Christiania 26 in. only). The mean temperature of the whole year 
is 45° Fahr. (Christiania, 41°), and that of July 58° (Christiania, 
62°). Owing to the mildness of the climate the vegetation in the 
environs is unusually rich ; flowers are abundant, while grain and 
fruit ripen fairly well. 

The general aspect of the town is modern. The quarters ad- 
joining the harbour, which is entirely enclosed by large warehouses 
('Sagaarde'), alone retain a characteristic mediaeval appearance. 
The town extends round the spacious harbour , called Vaagen, 
stretches over the rocky heights at the base of the Fleifjeld and 
over the peninsula of Nordnaes, which separates the Vaagen from 
the Puddefjord (to the S.), and is now spreading to the S.E., 
towards the Lille and Store Lungegaardsvand. Many of the houses 
are roofed with red tiles, which present a picturesque appearance. 
The older houses only are timber-built, and usually painted white. 
The streets running parallel with the harbour are called 'Gader', 
the lanes and passages 'Smuger' or 'Smitter', and these are inter- 
sected at right angles by wide open spaces called 'Alme'nninge', 
designed chiefly to prevent the spreading of conflagrations. Not- 
withstanding this precaution , Bergen has been repeatedly de- 
stroyed by fire, as for example in 1702, the disaster of which year 
•is described by Peter Dass (p. lxxii) in two pleasing poems. A con- 
duit now supplies the town with water from Svartediket (p. 115), 
thus diminishing the danger. 

The inhabitants of Bergen, as well as those of the whole district 
(Nordhorland, Sflndhorland, and Voss), are more vivacious than 
those of other parts of Norway, and are noted for their sociability 
and light-heartedness, which burst forth in song on festive occa- 
sions. English and German are much spoken by the better- 
educated. 

Bergen (from Bjeirgvin, 'pasture on the mountains') was founded by 
King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-75 on the site of the old royal residence of Aal- 
rekstad, at the E. end of the present harbour, which at that period ran 
inland as far as the Cathedral. The town must soon have become an 
important place, as the greatest battles in the civil wars of the following 
centuries were fought near it. In 1135 Magnus Sigurdssen was captured 
and deprived of his sight here by Harald Gille, who in his turn was 
slain by Sigurd Slembe the following year. In 1154 Harald's son Sigurd 
Mund was killed by the followers of his brother Inge on the quay of 
Bergen. In 1181- a naval battle took place near the Nordnses between 
kings Magnus and Sverre; and in 1188 the Kuvlunger and Otkjegger were 
defeated by Sverre at the naval battle of Florvaag (near the Ask0). Ten 



Kongshall. BERGEN. 19. Route. Ill 

years later, daring the so-called 'Bergen summer', the rival Bierkebtnrr ,,„ 
der Haakon JaH and Peter Sleyger, and Bagler under Philipp Jarl and' £r- 
Img Stemvag, fought for possession of the town, till the latter were de- 
feated in a great battle near the old German church. In 1223 a national 
diet was held at Bergen, at which Haakon Haakonem's title to the crown 
was recognised (p. xlv). "" 

For its subsequent commercial prosperity the town was indebted to 
the Hanseatic League, which established an office here about the middle 
of the 15th century. From this Comptoir the German merchants were 
known as Konorske, and the nickname of Qarpev (probably from garpa 
to talk loudly') was also applied to them. Having wrested various privil 
leges from the Danish government, they gradually monopolised the whole 
trade of northern and western Norway, and forcibly excluded the Eng- 
lish, Scottish, and Dutch traders, and even the Norwegians themselves 
from all participation in it. At length, after an oppressive sway of more 
■?T^ a Q C6 « ry '^l y *v e - e successfuI 'y opposed by ChrMopher Valkendorf 
in 1559, after which their power declined. Their 'Comptoir' continued to 
exist for two centuries more, but in 1763 their last 'Stave', or office, was 
sold to a native of Norway. ' 

Even in the 17th cent, the trade of Bergen much exceeded that of Co- 
penhagen, and at the beginning of the 19th ceift. Bergen was more populous 
than Christians. At the present day Christiania, however, carries on 32 
per cent of the whole trade of Norway, while Bergen's proportion is 16 
per cent only. r 

th„ ( Amon S emin ?nt natives of Bergen may be mentioned Ludwig Holberg, 

Ia l«TO fh SO nt Te ^ TmeT -^ nip ,° e L ( Ji- 1754) > Johan Welhaven,the poet 
(d._1873), J. G. Dahl, the painter (d. 1857), and Ole Bull (d. 1880) the mu- 



„,«w « t * ay - S xT eU the St ^? le commodity of Bergen, which is the 
greatest fish-mart in Norway. The Hanseatic merchants compelled the 

Ztl nff t0 - e ? d S? dr £ Sh t0 Ber § en ' and t0 the P^ent day 
the trade still flows mainly through its old channels. In May and June 
occurs the first Nordfar-Simne ('arrival of northern seafarers'), when the 
fishermen of the N. coasts arrive here with their 'Jagter' deeply laden, 
w th cod-liver oil (of five qualities : 'Damp Medicin-thran', 'Medicin-thran' 
blank, 'brun-blank, and brun') and roe('Rogn'); and in July and August 
they bring K hpfisk' and 'Rundfisk'. Bergen also has a considerable mer- 
cantile fleet (over 100 steamers and 250 sailing-vessels). The exports, 
chiefly fish, are valued at 20, the imports at 30 million kr. annually. The 
ship-building yards are the largest in Norway: Georgernes Ver/t on the 
Puddefjord: Laksevaag Dampskibsbyggeri at Laksevaag, and Bergens Me- 
chanlske Vwrksted at Solheimsviken. *•■>»*««• me 

The main street is the Stbandgade, running parallel with the 
harbour, and containing the principal shops and offices, fits W 
prolongation leads to the Nordn»s; see p. 113.) 

At the E. end of the Strandgade lies the Torv-Almenning with 
the adjoining Toav, which together form a long 'Plads', running S. 
from the E. end of the harbour, and separating the old part of the 
town from the new quarter built since the fire of 1855. In this 
new quarter are the principal modern buildings, including the 
Exchange (PI. 2) and several banks. At the upper (S.) end of the 
Torv-Almenning is a Statue of Christie (by Borch), the president 
of the first Norwegian Storthing, which concluded the convention 
with Sweden in 1814 (comp. p. Ixxii). To the N. of this point, in 
front of the Exchange, rises a Statue of Ludwig Holberg (born at 
Bergen 1684, died at Copenhagen 1754), poet, historian, and 
founder of modern Danish literature, especially comedy QyyBdrje- 



112 Route 19. BERGEN. Tydskebryggen. 

son). — From the Torv, at the head of the harbour, projects a pier 
called Triangelen , at 'which the fishermen usually land. Interest- 
ing fish-market here (especially Wed. and Sat., 8-10 a.m.). 

To the N. of the Torv, on the N.W. side of the harbour, ex- 
tends *Tydskebryggen, or the German Quay, bordered with a long 
row of brightly painted warehouses. In front of each rises a crane 
('Vippebom') for unloading the fish brought to Bergen by the 
Northmen in their smacks. The Tydskebryg, formerly the Han seatic 
quarter, assumed its present form after the fire of 1702. Here re- 
sided the clerks of the merchants of Bremen, Liibeck, and other 
towns of the League, who, owing to the jealousy between the rival 
nations, were forbidden to marry. There were sixteen different 
gaards (counting from the Torv): Finnegaarden , Dramshusen, 
Bratten, Leppen, Rcevelsgaarden, Solegaarden, Kappen, Kjalderen 
(which contained the old Exchange), and the Holmedels, Jacobs, 
Svends, Enhernings, Bredv, Bue, Engel, Sester, and Ouldsko gaards. 
Each gaard was presided over by a 'Bygherre' and was divided into 
'Staver', or offices, belonging to different owners. Each merchant 
had a clerk and one or more servants ('Byleber') resident here. 

The "Hanseatic Museum in the Finnegaard (open 11-3; adm. 1 kr. ; ca- 
talogue lkr.) conveys a good idea of how the Gaards were fitted up, and 
contains a collection of furniture, weapons, fire-extinguishing apparatus, 
etc., mostly of the latest Hanseatic period. On the Gkodnd-Flooe were the 
warehouses; on the First Flook is an outer room leading to the 'Stave', 
or office of the manager, with his dining-room and bedroom behind ; and 
on the Second Flook are the 'Klaven\ or rooms of the clerks and ser- 
vants. — As the use of fire or light in the main building was forbidden, 
a common room ('3^013^6^) for the inmates of the Gaard was erected a 
little behind it, near the vegetable gardens. The remains of only a few 
of these common rooms survive. One of them has lately been restored 
in the Dramshus. 

Above the gaards of Tydskebryggen, to the N., rises the Marise- 
kirke, with its two towers, erected in the 12th cent., enlarged in 
the 13th, and used by the Hanseatic merchants as a German church 
from 1408 to 1766. The nave is Romanesque, the choir Gothic. 

To the N.W. of Tydskebryggen, by the entrance to the harbour, 
rises the old fortress of Bergenhus , with Valkendorf's Taam and 
the Kongshall (apply to the sentinel ; fee to soldier who attends 
visitors ifa ^ r 0- Valkendorf's or the Rosenkrantz tower, originally 
built by Haakon Haakonsen , extended by Rosenkrantz in 1565, 
and restored in 1848, consists in fact of two towers, of which that 
on the N. is the more modern. Several balls built into the walls 
and gilded commemorate an unsuccessful attempt of the English 
fleet to capture the Dutch fleet which had sought refuge in the 
harbour. The interior of the tower serves as an arsenal (fine 
chimney-pieces, old flags, etc.). The gallery at the top affords an 
admirable survey of the harbour and the town. Behind this tower 
is the Kongshall , of the 13th cent., with a large festal hall now 
being restored. Above the fortress of Bergenhus rises the ancient 
Sverresborg. 



Museum. BERGEN. 19. Route. 113 

On the W. siffe hf the harbour, between it and the Pudde fjord, 
the peninsula of Nordnses projects far into thesea(boats, seep. 109). 
On the summit rises Fort Frederiksberg, now the fire-watch (entrance 
in the E. corner; fine view). A new road leads on the S.W. side 
of the fort, the Observatory , and the Hospital (PI. L) to the end 
of the peninsula, where a promenade looks far out to sea. 

On the N. side of the large 'Plads' called Engen is the house 
of the Bergen Art Union (Kunstforening , PI. K), with a collection 
of modern pictures , changed from time to time , and the small 
Town Picture Gallery (adm. Sun. 2-4, Wed. Frid. 11-1; 25 ».). 

The latter collection contains works by Bodom, Eckersberg, Tidcmand, 
Gude, Nordenberg, and others. Among older works may be noted, on the 
1st Floor, No. 115, by A. R. Mengs , Design for an Entombment, and 
No. 179, by Carstens, The inhabitants of Biigen wish to purchase their 
freedom from the Holsteiners. 

In the Theatergade, to the S.W. of Engen, is the Theatre. (Play 
3 or 4 times a week.) ~ J * 

By the Lille Lungegaardsvand, in the quarter which has sprung 
up since the fire of 1855, is the Railway Station (PL 1); to the 
N. of it is the small Park, where a band plays daily except Sat. and 
Sun., and to the S. is the tasteful Rom. Cath. Church (PI. 4). Also 
to the S. of the station, on the Sydnceshoug, rises the large — 

Museum, completed in 1865, containing antiquarian and na- 
tural history collections. Adm. Mon., Wed., Frid. 11-1; Sun. 
11.30 to 1.30 and in summer 4-6; at other times 25 ». 

On the Ground Floor are the Library (Tues., Thurs., Sat. 11-1) and 
the collection of Norse Antiquities (good catalogue, with illustrations, 
by Lorange, 50 #.), chiefly from W. Norway ; in the entrance-hall , on 
the right, two carved Church-portals from Sognedal; then ecclesiastical 
vessels and pictures , a fine altarpiece in carved oak with wings, of the 
16th cent., tankards, porcelain, furniture (mostly Dutch); also prehistoric 
curiosities. — The Natural History Collection (first and second floors ; 
catalogue 25 0.) comprises a very complete set of specimens of Norwegian 
fish and marine animals (skeleton of a huge whale, etc.). 

On the hill to the E. of the museum are a number of pleasant 
villas. The Store Parkvei here leads E. to the chief entrance of the 
*Nygaardspark, pleasure - grounds recently laid out, with tine 
views. On the S. side of the grounds, opposite Holmen, is a pav- 
ilion where a band sometimes plays (see bills). 

To the S.E. of the Nygaardspark the railway and the road cross the 
Store Strem, which connects the Store Lungegaardsvand with the Sol- 
heimsvik and the Puddefjord. The tide flows in and out of this 'stream' 
and turns a mill-wheel, which is thus always kept going except at high 
and low water. 

To the N.E. of the Torv extends the Vittekslevs-Almenning, 
in which stands the covered market or 'Bazaar', containing the Mu- 
seum of the Fishei ■ Company (Wed., Sat. 11-1) and the Public Li- 
brary (12-1 and 5 7). — Near this is the Korskirke, or Church of 
the Cross, where Niels Klim, who figures in Holberg's 'Subterranean 
Journey', was sacristan. Several streets here derive their names 
from the 'Fif Amten', or five German guilds, oiSkomagere, Skinnere, 
Bagere, Ouldsmede, and Bartskjarere, who were under Hanseatic 

Baedeker's Norwav and Sweden. 5th Edit. g 



114 Route 19. BERGEN. Environs. 

protection. — Further E. is the Cathedral (<St. Olaf i Vaags- 
bunden, i. e. 'at the end of the harbour'), originally a monastery- 
church, erected in 1248, rebuilt in 1537, and restored in 1870. It 
consists of a nave and S. aisle only. Fine Gothic -window and portal 
in the lower story of the tower. — The Vestlmndske Kunstindustri- 
Museum, Asylpladsen 2, is a collection of art-industrial objects of 
the 1 6th and 17th cent. , founded in 1891 (adm. on Sun., Tues., Thurs. 
11-1 ; for strangers at other hours also ; apply to the custodian). 

Walks. From the upper end of the Vitterslevs-Almenning (p. 113) 
a road ascends in windings (accompanied by nights of steps for 
walkers), towards the E., passing the reservoir, to the (20 min.) 
*Fjeldvei, a road made in 1880 halfway up (about 400 ft.) -he 
side of the Fleifjeld (p. 109). By morning light particularly the 
Fjeldvei affords a beautiful view of the town lying at our feet, 
with the Vaagen and Puddefjord, the hills of Lyderholm and 
Damsgaardsfjeld, the sea stretching into distance, the Ask», and 
a host of rocky islets. The finest point is marked by a white flag- 
staff at a bend in the road above the cathedral (about 7 min. S.E. 
of the point where we reached the Fjeldvei, and whence the road 
to the Fleien ascends). Following the Fjeldvei further S.E., we 
then descend in windings to the Pleielsestift on the road mentioned 
below (15-20 min. ; those who approach the Fjeldvei from this 
side ascend to the left just opposite the 'Brand-Telegraf of the 
hospital). The whole walk takes I-IV2 nr - — From the Fjeldvei, 
we may ascend in about 1 hr. by the road, whose beginning is 
above noted , to the top of the hill , marked by the conspicuous 
iron vane called Fl»ien (825 ft. ; hut with refreshments). View 
more extensive, but less picturesque than from the Fjeldvei. 

Instead of going S.E. and returning to the town by the Pleielsestift, 
we may, after enjoying the view from the flagstaff above the cathedral, 
follow the Fjeldvei towards the N., thus obtaining a fine survey of the 
suburb of Sandviken, to which we then descend by a new road winding 
through the Skradderdal. At Sandviken is a large lunatic asylum. Thence 
we return to the town by Skudeviken and past the Sverresborg and the 
Marisekirke (p. 113). We observe many pretty villas, and enjoy views of 
the sea and of the mountains to the S. 

A finger-post by the Fl0ien points the way S.E. to Blaamanden (1805 
ft.), whence a path descends to the Isdal and Svartediket (p. 115). 

Another favourite walk is by Kong Oscar's Gade, past the 

Teknisk Skole (PI. 10), the Cemetery of St. Jacob, which contains 

a monument to Christie (p. Ill), and the Stadsport (PI. 9). Observe 

the rich vegetation in the gardens on the road-side and the fine 

trees in the Forskjennelsen promenade. On the left is the road 

ascending to the Fjeldvei (see above), and on the right are the 

Pleielsestift, a hospital for lepers, and the Lungegaards Hospital. 

Further on is the Kalfaret promenade, with handsome villas and 

fine view of the Lungegaardsvand and the hills of Ulriken and 

Lervstaken. The road leads to the right to Fleen and Mellendal. 

From the highest point of the road a road diverges to the left to the 



NESTUN. 20. Route. 115 

Kalvedal, in which, tyg hr. from the Stadsport, is *Svartediket, 
a lake enclosed by barren rocks, whence Bergen is supplied with 
water. To the S.E. towers Ulriken. About J /2 hr. farther on is 
Isdalen, a picturesque gorge. 

We may cross the outlet of the lake , turn to the right, and descend 
by a beautiful shady road, by Mellen, to the Store Lungegaardsvand. We 
may either return thence to Kalfaret, or follow an attractive road leading 
to the S. round the lake to the bridge over the Store Str0m, to the S.E. 
of the Nygaardspark (p. 113) and the suburb of Nygaard. 

A trip may be taken from Westet (to the W. of the theatre) by 
steam-ferry (every •/« hr. ; 5 0., after 9 p.m. 10 0.) across the Pudde- 
fjord to Laksevaag , with its large shipbuilding- yards and dry docks 
(p. 111). We then walk to the pretty Gravdal at the foot of the Lyderhorn 
(1350 ft.), which may easily be ascended, or to the E. along the fjord, 
passing pleasant villas, to Solheimsviken (see p. Ill and below) and to the 
bridge across the Store Strizrm (p. 113). 

The ascent of *L0vstaken (1560 ft. ; p. 110) , and back, takes 3-4 hrs. 
from Solheimsviken. A new path leading from the railway station past 
the steamboat-quay ascends in windings through a pleasant plantation 
(above which is a fine view), and then towards the S. to the top. The 
view is perhaps the most beautiful near Bergen. We may descend on 
the S.E. side by a rough , but tolerable path to the Fjesanger Station 
(see below). 

To Fjesanger and the estate of Fantoft (adm. Thurs. and Frid. only) 
see below ; from Nestun to Fane, Lysekloster, and Os, see p. 116. 

A pleasant trip may be taken in the small steamer which plies on 
the two Lungegaard Lakes (every l /t hr.). A visit may also be paid by 
steamboat to the Ask#, a large island in the Skjsergaard, N.W. of Bergen 
(t hr.), where the Udsigt (Dyrteigen, '/« hr.) commands a splendid view 
of the sea and coast. 

20. From Bergen by Vossevangen to Eide on the 
Hardangerfjord, or to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord. 

Railway ('Vossebane') to Vossevangen, 108 Kil., in 4 hrs. 20 min. 
(fares 7 kr. 70, 3 kr. 85 0.). — Roads from Vossevangen to Fide, 30 Kil., 
and from Vossevangen to Gudrangen, 48 Kil., with fast skyds-stations. 

The Railway (station, see p. 108 ; views mostly to the left) 
passes through a short tunnel, crosses the Store Strern, and runs 
S., rounding the hill of Ulriken, on our left. — 2 Kil. Solheims- 
viken, the industrial S. suburb of Bergen (p. Ill), lies on the 
bay of that name at the foot of Lervstaken (see above). "We pass 
several small lakes. — 5 Kil. Fjesanger, with villas , on the 
Nordaasvand, with its charming islets. Near the station, on the 
hill to the left, is the villa of the German consul. About 1/2 hr. 
farther S., not seen from the station, is the beautiful estate of 
Fantoft, belonging to Mr. Gade, the American consul, where an old 
'Stavekirke' from Fortun (p. 157) has been re-erected. (Admission 
Thurs. and Frid. ; fine view of the Nordaasvand from the pavilion 
above the church.) 

8 Kil. Hop. The train ascends to (9 Kil.) Nestun or Nedsttun 
(104 ft. ; Rail. Rest.), near Midtunbro, where marble is quarried. 
The high level of the line affords a fine view across the Nestunsvand 
to the slopes of Ulriken. 

8* 



1 1 6 Route 20. GARN.ES. From Bergen 

Nestun has a fast skyds-station. Pleasant drive to the S. to the (8 Kil.) 
church of Fane, whence the Fanefjeld (about 880 ft. ; fine view) may be 
ascended, and hack by Birkeland (11 Kil.). The excursion may be ex- 
tended, past the Kallandsvand, to Lysekloster and Os (20 Kil. from Nestun; 
see p. 96). 

The train crosses the Nestun-Elv by a high bridge (views right 
and left), turns to the N.E. into the pretty Langedal, ascends 
rapidly, passes through two tunnels, and crosses the river twice 
more. 15 Kil. Heldal, a little to the S. of the Orimenvand, the 
AV. bank of which the train skirts. Two tunnels. "We next pass 
the Haukelands-Vand and reach (18 Kil.) Haukeland (265 ft.), 
at its N. end, the highest point on the line. In descending thence 
we overlook the brawling stream which issues from the lake. 

25 Kil. Arne (65 ft.), with a church, at the S. end of the 
Arnevaag , a narrow branch of the Serfjord. 

29 Kil. Garnses (65 ft. ; Rail. Rest), on the Serfjord. Opposite 
rises the church of Haus on the Osterei, a large island which bounds 
the Serfjord on the N. and remains in view till we reach Stang- 
helle. The engineering of the line on the S. bank of the Serfjord 
is very interesting. Eleven short tunnels between Gamees and the 
next station. 

39 Kil. Trengereid (47 ft. ; M. Trengereid's Inn). The Gulfjeld 
(3235 ft.; extensive panorama) may be ascended hence (5 hrs., 
there and back ; landlord acts as guide, 4 kr.). 

A new road leads from Trengereid (skyds, tariff II), passing between 
the Gulfjeld and Kraaen (2145 It.) to (11 Kil.) Aadland {"Inn), on the bay 
of that name at the N. end of the Sammanger Fjord. Row to T#sse, and 
walk thence to Norheimsund, see p. 99. 

The train rounds the promontory which separates the S. from 
the E. arm of the Serfjord, and which culminates in the Hanenip 
(2440 ft.) and the Raunip (2475 ft.). Ten tunnels. Across the 
fjord, here only 550 yds. broad, we still see the Oster0, on which 
rises the church of Brudvik. Above it towers the Brudviksnip 
(2945 ft.). On the pretty Ulfsnces-0 a new school has been built. 
The train crosses the Vaxdals-Elv , which has a fall above the 
bridge (right) and drives a large mill lower down. 

51 Kil. Vaxdal (47 ft. ; Rail. Rest.). Five tunnels, the longest 
penetrating the Hattaparti. 

59 Kil. Stanghelle. The train leaves the Serfjord, crosses an 
arm of it called the Dalevaag, skirts the W. bank of the latter, 
and ascends the Dalselv. A short tunnel. 

66 Kil. Dale, from which a short line of rails runs to Jebsen's 
large cloth-factory. Nine more tunnels, one of them the longest 
(1410 yds.) on the line. The train now reaches the S. bank of the 
Bolstads- Fjord. 

About 20 Kil. N. of this point is the picturesque Eksingdal , with 
numerous waterfalls. At its mouth is Eidet, touched at twice weekly by 
a Bergen steamer. The finest part is above Flatekval. Farther up are 
passes to Evanger, Voss, Vinje, and the Arnefjord. Quarters poor. 



to Eide. VOSSEVANGEN. 20. Route. 1 1 7 

78 Kil. Bolstad (27 ft. ; Inn), at the E. end of the fjord, enclosed 
by rocky hills, is visited several times weekly by Bergen steamers. 
Eight tunnels. The train ascends the left bank of the Vosse-Elv, 
which forms several rapids, and then skirts the S. bank of the 
Evangervand. — Comp. the Map, p. 98. 

88 Kil. Evanger (47 ft. ; Monsen's Hotel, well spoken of), at 
the head of the lake. The village with its church lies on the oppo- 
site bank of the Vosse-Elv, which here enters the Evangervand. 
To the S. towers the Myklethveitvet (3740 ft.), ascended from 
Evanger in 2-3 hrs. (extensive view; guide, Jacob A. Evanger). 

The train follows the left bank of the Vosse-Elv, with its occa- 
sional lake-like reaches, crosses it, and passes through the fifty- 
second and last tunnel to (99 Kil.) Bulken, situated at the efflux 
of the Vosse-Elv (over which a suspension-bridge leads to the gaard 
of Liland, p. 100) from the picturesque Vangsvand (148 ft.). The 
train skirts the N. bank of this lake. On the S. side we observe the 
long crest of Graasiden (4270 ft.), with its large patches of snow. 

108 Kil. VOSS. — Railway Station to the W. of the village, 55 ft. 
above it. 

Hotels. "Fleischer's Hotel and Station, a large house in an open 
situation, near the station, often crowded, R. 2, D. 2, B. l l J2, S. i'/a kr.; 
adjacent , *Meinhardt's ; Johnsen's Hotel , R. from l 1 /^ kr. — To the 
E. of the station, in the village, "Vossevangen Hotel, by the church, 
unpretending (good cuisine), R. 1, D. 2, S. 1 kr. 20 0.; Hotel S0eheim 
and Kjeller's Hotel, both unpretending, at the upper end of the village, 
further from the station. — When the hotels are full, quarters may be 
obtained in lodging-houses, indicated by tickets. 

Post Office by the church, on the side next the railway station. — Tele- 
graph Office at the railway station; also telephone to Stalheims-Hotel 
(p. 119; 25 0.). 

Carriages are usually engaged here for the whole journey to Eide 
or Gudvangen, to save delay in changing horses. (Skyds-tariff III.) 

Voss, or Vossevangen (320 ft.), charmingly situated at the E. end 
of the Vangsvand, is suited for some stay. The stone Church, in 
the middle of the village, dating from the 13th cent., contains 
memorial-tablets to pastors of the 17th and 18th cent., a candela- 
brum of 1733, and Bible of 1589. L. Holberg, the Danish poet, was 
tutor at the parsonage in 1702. At the upper end of Voss the road 
divides : left to 'Gudvangen, Sogn'; right to 'Eide, Hardanger'. 

The admirably cultivated environs of Vossevangen form the 
kitchen-garden of Bergen. Many large farms and several pleasant 
villas. Although the mountains are near, cultivation has taken more 
complete possession of the plain than in almost any other part 
of Norway. The Vossinger are a gifted and enterprising race. 

The opposite bank of the lake, reached in 1 /t hr. from the church by 
following the road to the S., affords a fine view of Vossevangen. We 
may extend the walk up the valley to Herre. 

A few hundred yards to the W. of Fleischer's Hotel, on the Bergen 
road, is the Finnefod, which is said to be a relic of an ancient Norman 
timber church. At the gaard of Levde, about l ] /4 M. further in the same 
direction, there are also several old buildings. 

The ascent of the L/anehorge (4680 ft.), to the N. of Voss, takes about 



118 Route 20. SKJERVET. From Vossevangen 

6 hrs. : at Ringeim (p. 119) we diverge to the left from the Gudvangen road 
and ascend by a bridle-path to the gaard Traae and the Klepsceter, and 
thence by a footpath. The view embraces the mountains to the N. as 
far as the Jostedalsbras, to the E. to the Hardanger Jjakul, and to the S. 
to the Folgefond. 

Another grand view is obtained from the Hondalsnui (4800 ft.), the 
ascent of which also takes about 6 hrs. 

From Voss, or from Bulken (p. 117), by Orimestad and Skjeldal to 0stense 
on the Hardanger Fjord, see p. 100. 

Between the roads to the Hardanger and the Sogn, described below, 
a road ascends the Rundal to the E., on the right bank of the Rundals- 
elv, to the gaards of Kleve (where the i Sverresti\ a path once used, 
according to tradition, by King Sverre and his Bjerkebener, diverges), 
Qrove, Bemberg, Void, Mmindingen, and (about 26 Kil. from Voss) Eggereid 
(1850 ft.). Still ascending the Rundal, a bridle-path leads thence in l 3 /4-2 
hrs. to Klevene (24,65 ft.), where it joins a path from Ulvik, passing the 
Solsivand (p. 103), In 3 /4-l hr. more the path reaches the Opicet-Sceter or 
Opswt-Stele (2790 ft.), above the Runde-Vand (where it joins a path coming 
across the Hallingskei from Tufte, p. 42), and crosses the Gravehals (3730 
ft.) to Kaardal in the upper Flaamsdal (see p. 128). 



From Vossevangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord (30 
Kil. ; pay for 33 in reverse direction). The road crosses the Run- 
dals-Elv and ascends its left bank, through a beautiful wooded tract, 
passing several farm-houses. It then turns into a side-valley and 
beyond the gaard of Male reaches its highest point (870 ft.). It then 
descends gradually and crosses the boundary of the Hardanger 
('Harang') district. The Skjerves-Elv, which flows S.E., is coloured 
dark brown by a number of marshy ponds. The upper part of the 
valley terminates suddenly, and the road descends in zigzags into 
*Skjervet, a deep and picturesque valley flanked with imposing 
rocks. On the left the Skjervefos descends in two halves, the 
upper resembling a veil. The road crosses a bridge between the 
two parts of the fall, and soon passes the new Skjerven Hotel. 
Rich vegetation. Many old moraines. 

22 Kil. Seim i Graven, or 0vre Vasenden (tolerable station ; 
Nsesheim's Hotel, a little farther on, R. 1, D. l-l 1 /^ kr.), is prettily 
situated on the Gravensvand, the E. bank of which is skirted by 
the road. Opposite rises the massive Nasheimshorgen (3250 ft.). 
In front of us the Oksen (p. 101) becomes visible. Halfway to Eide 
is the Gravem-Kirke. 

To Ulvik from this point, see p. 100: from Seim 17 Kil. (pay for 29). 

We next pass Nedre Vasenden, at the lower end of the Gravens- 
vand, pass through a rocky defile, and reach — 

8 Kil. Eide (see p. 100). 



From Vossevangen to Gudvangen in the Sogn, 48 Kil. 
(skyds-tariff III; comp. p. 117), a drive of about 6 hrs. 

The finest point on this route is the top of the Stalheimsklev, seen to 
best advantage by afternoon light. To enjoy this we leave Voss early, 
and can go on to Gudvangen the same evening. Those who cannot start 
from Voss till about noon should spend the night at Stalheim, regardless 
of invitations to stop at other inns. Carriole to Stallieims-Hotel (3B Kil.) 



to Gudvangen. STALHEIMS-HOTEL. 20. Route. 119 

6 kr. 12, stolkjserre 9 kr. 18 0.; to Gudvangen (43 Kil.) 8 kr. 16 0. or 
12 kr., carriage and pair for four persons 30-35 kr. 

The road ascends gradually and passes a little to the E. of the 
Lundevand. On the left , 2 Kil. from Vossevangen , is the gaard 
of Bingeim (p. 118). A rich wooded and grassy region. To the left 
towers the abrupt Lenehorge (p. 118), on the right the horn-shaped 
Hondalsnut (p. 118), behind us Graasiden (p. 117). We pass the 
small Melsvand, on the opposite bank of which we observe the gaard 
of Dukstad (past which comes another road from Voss, joining the 
main road at Tvinde), and also the Lenevand, 4 Kil. long. By the 
gaard of Lene, where the road runs close to the lake, we see on 
the left the Lenefos. which descends from the Lemehorge and turns 
a saw-mill. The road then ascends the Vossestrands-Elv , the feeder 
of the two lakes. 

12 Kil. Tvinde or Tvinne i Voss (310 ft.; Tvindes-Hotel, R. 1 kr. 
20, B. 1, S. 1 kr. 25 ».). On the left is the fine *Tvindefos. The 
road becomes steeper. The valley is enclosed by lofty wooded rocks. 
About 2 Kil. above Tvinde theVossestrands-Elv forms a picturesque 
fall, across which the road is carried by the Asbrcekke Bro (435 
ft. ; we descend a few paces to see the fall, using caution). About 
4 Kil. farther up, the road returns to the right bank of the stream. 
It next crosses (2 Kil.) the Merkadals-Elv , descending from a side- 
valley on the left, through which a path leads by Aarmot to Vik 
on the Sognefjord (10-12 hrs. ; p. 122). The valley expands. 

10 Kil. Vinje i Vossestranden (955 ft. ; Vinjes-Hotel, praised), 
in a pleasant situation, not far from Vinje-Kirke. 

The road ascends the course of the stream, through a ravine, 
to the S.W. end of the Opheimsvand (970 ft.; abounding in fish) 
and skirts its N.W. bank. Above the wooded hills of the opposite 
bank tower mountains of grey 'Labrador' rock, presenting a curious 
picture. To the S. rises the Malmagrensnaave (3820 ft.). By the 
church of Opheini, prettily situated on the lake, 4 Kil. from Vinje, 
are two hotels (*Opheims-Hotel , R. 1, D. II/2 kr. ; Johannes en's). 

Beyond the Opheimsvand the road crosses the watershed be- 
tween the Bolstads-Fjord and the Sognefjord. On the right the 
Aaxel; then the Kaldafjeld (4280 ft.). We follow the left bank 
of the Nceredals-Elv, which descends to the Sognefjord, and ascend 
in a curve, high above the stream, to — 

*Stalheims-Hotel (1125 ft.), from Vinje 14, from Gudvangen 
12 Kil. 

This large and well-managed hotel, built of timber and opened in 
1891, contains 150 beds, besides baths, verandahs, balconies, etc., and a 
telephone to Vossevangen and to Gudvangen (25 0.). E. from 2, A. 1/2, 
B. li/i, D. 2'/4, S. IV2 kr. ; pension for three or more days 6 kr. per day. 
Mr. Alb. Patterson, the landlord, speaks English. Advisable to enquire as 
to rooms beforehand by telephone from Voss or from Gudvangen. 

Stalheim is not a skyds-station, but vehicles are always to be had. 
Carriole to Gudvangen 2 kr. 4, stolkjserre 3 kr. 6 0. ; to Voss, see p. 117. 

The hotel is situated at the top of the Stalheimsklev, a precipi- 



120 Route 21. SOGNEFJORD. 

tous rock about 800 ft. high, forming the head of the Naerodal, 
which descends E. to Gudvangen. The **View hence of the deep 
and sombre Nserodal and the huge mountains enclosing it, especially 
by afternoon light, is considered one of the grandest in Norway. 
On the left is the commanding Jordalsnut (3620 ft. ; p. 127), on 
the right are the Kaldafjeld and Aaxel (see above), all of light- 
grey 'Labrador' rock or felspath. In the distance the background 
of the valley is formed by the hill from which the Kilefos near 
Gudvangen descends (p. 127). We also enjoy a fine view, looking to 
the S., of the broad valley towards Opheim. The river descending 
thence forms the Stalheimsfos, which however does not come in 
sight until we descend into the Naerfldal (p. 127). 

The hill rising N.W. of the hotel is the Stalheimsnut, past which a 
green dale runs towards the N. Fum Brcekke, the first gaard in this 
valley, a difficult mountain-path, called Naalene, leads to the gaard Jordal, 
from which the Jordalsnut may be ascendel (with guide; Anders Olsen 
Gudvangen or Ole Myren). — The Brcekkenipa , ascended in 3 hrs. there 
and back (guide 3 kr.), is a fine point of view. 

The road winds down the Stalheimsklev and leads thence to 
Gudvangen (a walk of 2-2Y 2 hrs. ; see p. 127). 

21. The Sognefjord. 

The distance by sea from Bergen to Lcerdalseren at the E. end of the 
Fjord (starting-point of the routes to Christiania through the Valders and 
through the Hailing dal. R.R. 7, 6) is 31 Norwegian sea-miles in a straight 
direction. The Steamboats (Com. 252 , 253) perform the voyage in 15'/2- 
24 hrs., according to the number of stations called at. These vessels are 
well fitted up and have good restaurants, but their berths are limited. 
Those who have to spend a night on board should lose no time in securing 
a sofa or a berth. 

Rowing Boats, suitable for short distances only, may be hired accord- 
ing to the skyds-tariff C (21, 31, 41 0. per Kil. with 2, 3, or 4 rowers). 

Headquaetees for attractive excursions to the Fjarlandsfjord, with 
the Suphelle and Bojum Glaciers, the S. arms of the Jostedalsbrse, and to 
other points of interest, should be taken up at Balholm. From Gudvangen 
the traveller should not omit to visit the Nceredal and the Stalheimsklev. 
From Aardal or from 8k j olden he may penetrate the Jotunheim region 
(R. 22). From Marifjwren he may visit the Mgardsbrce in the Jostedal, 
the finest of the E. offshoots of the Jostedalsbrse. 

Inns, with few exceptions, inferior to those on the HardaDger Fjord. 

The * Sognefjord (from the old word 'Sogne', a narrow arm of 
the sea), the longest of all the Norwegian fjords, measures 180 Kil. 
(112 M.) from Sognefest to Skjolden, averages 6 Kil. (4 M.) in 
width, and is nearly 4000 ft. deep at places. Like all the other 
fjords, it is unattractive at its entrance, where the rocks have been 
worn smooth, partly by the action of the waves, and partly by the 
enormous glaciers which once covered the whole country. The 
scenery improves as we go E., until the fjord ends in a number of 
long narrow arms, with banks rising abruptly at places to 5000 ft., 
from which waterfalls descend. At the heads of the N. branches 
of the fjord huge glaciers descend from the snow-mountains. The 
Jostedalsbrct ('Brae', glacier), to the N., is the largest glacier in 



SOGNEFJORD. 21. Route. 121 

Europe (350 sq. M. ). In other parts of the fjord the narrow banks 
present a smiling character, being fringed with luxuriant orchards 
and waving corn-fields, and studded with pleasant dwellings. In 
the grandeur of its mountains and glaciers the Sognefjord surpasses 
the Hardanger, but its general character is severe and at places 
monotonous, while its southern rival unquestionably carries off the 
palm for its softer scenery and its splendid waterfalls. 

The climate of the W. Sognefjord, as far as the point where its 
great ramifications begin, is the same as that of the W. coast, being 
rainy and mild in winter and damp and cool in summer. Nowhere 
in Norway is the rapid decrease of the rainfall from W. to E. so 
marked as in the Sognefjord. At Sognefest, at the entrance to the 
fjord (p. 122), the annual rainfall is about 80 inches, on the 
Fj;erlandsfjord (56 M. from the coast) 50, on the Najrafjord (70 M.) 
31, on the Lysterfjord (80 M.) 19, and at Lajrdal (87 M.) 16 inches 
only. In these E. arms the climate resembles that of inland 
European countries, a short and warm summer being succeeded by 
a long and severe winter. In winter, however, these arms are only 
partly frozen over, and although the ice is detached from the shore 
at its margins, rising and falling a couple of feet twice daily with 
the tide, it serves as a highway for sledges. The steamers then ply 
to the margin of the ice. 

The inhabitants (Sogninger) of the W. regions of the fjord have 
the placid Norwegian character ; those of the E. parts show great 
vivacity, particularly in their rapid utterance. 

The following description generally follows the order of the 
stations touched at by the Nordre Bergenhusamts steamers (Com. 
252) , but their route varies on different trips. The distances of 
the chief stations from each other are given in Norwegian sea- 
miles (comp. p. lxxviii). 

a. The W. Sognefjord, to Balholm at the mouth of the 
Fjaerlandsfjord. 

Steamboat (Com. 252, 253) from Bergen to Balholm 6 times a week 
in 10V2-13V2 hrs. (fare 10 kr. 10 0.) ; to Vadheim only, 8-IOV2 hrs. O kr. 
70 #.). Note that the two companies generally have difl'erent piers. 

Bergen, see p. 108. The voyage to the mouth of the Sognefjord 
is of little interest. It carries us through the 'Skjiergaard' fringing 
the district of Nord-Horland , which with Sflnd-Horland (p. 95) 
formed the ancient Herdafylke. The low, shapeless, and generally 
bare islands have been worn down by the glaciers of the ice period. 

The first stations Alverstrem and Lygren are rarely touched at. 
More important is Skjcerjehavn, at the N. end of the Sonde. Then 
Eivindvik or Evenvik, on the small Qulenfjord, the ancient meeting- 
place of the Oulathing (p. xlvi). 

At the mouth of the Sognefjord lie the Sulen-0er, the 'Sol- 
undare' of Frithjof s Saga, a group of islands with hills rising to 
1830 ft. (about 5 Kil. to the left of the steamboat). 



122 Route 21. VADHEIM. Sognefjord. 

On the mainland, to the right, lies the station of Sognefest or 
Sygnefest, to the E. of which rises the Stanglandsfjeld. 

On the N. bank we observe the Lihest (2275 ft.). On the same 
bank are the stations of Befjord or Lervik and, beyond the pro- 
montory of Vcerho Im, Ladvik or Lavik, thechief place in the W. Sogn. 

On the S. bank lie Brakke, on the small Risefjord, and Trcedal 
or Tredal, on the Eikefjord, at which the steamers call alternately 
with the stations on the N. bank just named. 

The scenery improves. The mountains become higher. We 
enter the pleasant Vadheimsfjord on the N. bank and call at — 

19 S.M. (from Bergen) Vadheim (Vadheims- Hotel, R. 1 kr. 50, 
B. 1 kr. 40, S. 1 kr. 40 ».), situated at the mouth of two valleys,, 
through one of which (W.) runs the overland route to the Molde- 
fjord (R. 24). The verandah of the inn overlooks the fjord. To the 
"W. is a waterfall with a factory adjacent, above which rises the 
Norevikshei. 

On the S. side of the fjord, opposite the Vadheimsfjord, opens 
the Fuglsat fjord, with the station of Bjordal, called at once weekly. 

On the N. bank lies the pleasant village of Kirkebe, with its 
church on a high rock, near the mouth of the Hej anger fjord, past 
which we steer. Then Maaren, prettily situated, with a waterfall. 
Next, Nase or Nesse. 

On the S. bank lie Ortnevik and Sylvarncts or Selvarnces; then 
Naset, on the Arne fjord, with its fine mountain-background. At 
these places the steamers usually call once a week only. 

As we steer farther E. the beauty of the scenery becomes more 
striking. The mountains, rising to upwards of 3000 ft., assume 
picturesque forms and are clothed with vegetation to their summits, 
while between them peep occasional expanses of snow. The steamers 
call at Kvamse on the N. bank once weekly. They next steer to 
the S., round a promontory at the mouth of the small bay of Vik, 
where we observe a 'Gilje' and other salmon-fishing appliances, to — 

6 S.M. Vik or Vikeren (*Hopstock), lying in a fertile region 
at the mouth of two valleys, the Bodal on the AY. and the Ofriddal 
on the E., with its branch the Seljedal. Snow-mountains form the 
background; to the E. rises the Rambaer (p. 125). The old churches 
of Hoprekstad and Hove, the one of stone, the other of timber, 
are interesting. 

From Vik we may drive inland aboutSK.il. in one of three different 
directions, in order to cross one of the mountain-passes (about 8hrs. each) : 
to Stalheim (p. 119; the last part of the route passing the Jordalsnut, 
fatiguing hut interesting), or to Vinje i Vosseslranden (p. 119; W e may 
drive the last 11 Kil. from Aarmot onwards, and past the M/srkedalsvand), 
or to Gulbraa in the Exingdal (with guide in each case). 

The Sognefjord here turns at a right angle to the N. In the 
distance, even from Vik, we observe the Vetlefjordsbrae (p. 123). 
The passage to Balholm takes about 3/ 4 hour. On our right lies 
Vangsnas, on a promontory where the fjord again turns towards 




* 



wa j I ^-SjmT \ Br g 




Sogneflord. BALHOLM. 21. Route. 123 

the E. The W. bank being the supposed scene of Frithjof's Saga, 
as rendered by Tegner , Vangsnaes it said to have been Frithjof' s 
Framnses. 

2 S.M. Balholm. — *Kvikne's Hotel, E. ii/ 4 , A. >/ 2 , D- 2, B. li/ 2 , 
S. iVz kr. — Observe that the Nordre Bergenhus steamers have a pier to 
the N., and the 'Jotunheim' to the S. of the inn. 

Balholm, the chief place on the fertile Balestrand, beautifully 
situated at tbe mouth of the small Essefjord, is the starting-point 
for several fine excursions. Grand mountain-background : Qjeite- 
ryggen , Vindrekken (3880 ft.) , and Guldaple ; further N., sepa- 
rated from the last by the sharp gap of Kjeipen, the Furunipa and 
Toten (4610 ft.). To the S.W. rises the Munkegg (4135 ft). 

About V2 M. to the S. of the inn at Balholm a mound, with a 
modern 'Bautasten', is pointed out as the tomb of King Bale of 
the Frithjof s Saga. The road goes on, skirting the beautiful bank, 
to Flesje (4 Kil., a pleasant walk). 

Opposite Balholm, to the N., on the other side of the mouth of 
the Essefjord, rises the prettily situated church of Tjugum, from 
which a walk may be taken to the Fjasrlandsfjord. 

The 'Essefjord may he visited by rowing-boat from Balholm in 3 hrs., 
there and back, a very fine excursion ; the ascent of the Toten takes S hrs., 
that of the Munkegg 11 hrs. (grand views). 

Fkom Balholm to Sande i Holmedal (two days). 1st Day. By the 
Fjserland steamer to Torsnces on the Svasrefjord (see below); walk to the 
gaard Svceren at the head of the fjord (2 Kil.; tolerable quarters); then 
ascend the valley gradually for about 3 Kil.; mount a steep and rough 
path to the pass of Svoerskard (2300 ft.), where we get a fine view looking 
back to the Sognefjord; ascend a steep and marshy slope to the watershed; 
descend past the Torences Scoter (5 hrs. from Svseren) to the Holme- Vand 
in the Viksdal; then through a good deal of wood, past the Lange-Sceter, 
across the river, and over marshy ground to Mjell (8-10 hrs. from Svseren). 
— 2nd Day. From Mjell bridle-path to the gaard Hof; then down the 
Eldal to Eldalseren on the Vikivand (p. 162); cross by boat to Holsevik, 
and walk thence by the road to Sande (p. 162; in all, 3-4 hrs. on foot 
and l 3 /4 hr. by boat). 

The most beautiful excursion from Balholm is to the *Fjser- 
landsfjord, which runs inland towards the N. (Steamer from Bal- 
holm to Fjaerland daily in 3 hrs.; fare there and back 2 kr. 40 0.; 
see Com. 252.) This fjord is 26 Kil. long, nearly 2 Kil. broad 
in its S. and 1 Kil. in its N. half. Its banks are less precipitous 
than those of the Nserefjord (p. 126), but the scenery at its head, 
backed by the snow-mantle of the Jostedalsbrae and the glaciers 
descending from it, is very striking. 

The entrance to the Fjserlandsfjord is commanded by the Toten 
(see above) on the left and the Storhaug (1210 ft.) and Trodalsegg 
(3645 ft.) on the right. 

To the left diverges a broad bay of the fjord , dividing into the 
Svarefjcrd and the *Vetlefjord. The steamer calls at Torsnces, at the 
mouth of the former, and at Vlvestad, at the head of the Vetlefjord. 

FromUlvestad a road ascends the valley to Mell (plain quarters), where 
we see the Vetlefjordibrce descending from the Jostedalsbrse. The Melsnipa 
(5800 ft.) to theK. and the Oolopfjeld or Gotop/iesten([>650 Ct.)to theN. are said 



124 Route 21. F.LERLAND. Sognefjord. 

to command superb views. ■ — From Mell a toilsome mountain route leads 
to the gaard Qrmiing, near Haukedal (p. 164; 7-8 hrs., with guide). 

After the steamer has rounded the promontory of Mences , we 
observe on the right, above the Rommedal, the Romhest (4110 ft.; 
ascent said to be easy ; fine view) , and on the left the Harevolds- 
nipa (5360 ft.) and the Melsnipa (see above), separated from the 
Jorddalsnipa by the Jorddalsdal. The head of the fjord with its 
snowy background now becomes visible. On the right lies the 
gaard Ilerge , at the mouth of the Bergedal. (To Sogndal , see 
pp. 126, 125.) 

The steamer stops at Fjaerland or Mundal (Mikkel MundaVs 
Hotel, new), nearly 2 Kil. from the head of the fjord. A granite 
stone recalls King Oscar II. 's visit. Emp. William II. was here 
in 1889. As the steamer usually remains here for 6 hrs., we have 
time to visit the glaciers which descend, a little to the N. of Fjaer- 
land, into the Bojumsdal and the Suphelkdal, two valleys sepa- 
rated by the Skjeidesnipa. The latter glacier only is seen from the 
fjord. We may drive the greater part of the way. (Stolkjserre there 
and back 3 kr.; guide unnecessary.) 

The road to the two valleys passes the gaard of Bojutn , where 
it turns to the right , crosses the Bojumselv about 4 Kil. from 
Fjserland, and then forks into the Bojumsdal on the left and the 
.Suphelledal on the right. 

To the *Bojumsbrae, the grander of the two glaciers, it is a walk 
of l 3 / 4 hr. from the fork of the road. New road as far as (1 1/4 hr.) a 
Sastev, from which we ascend and cross the stream in 20-25 min. 
to the glacier , the foot of which lies 450 ft. above the fjord. 

The *Store Suphellebrse is also l 3 /i hr. from the fork of the 
road. (We may drive to its foot and walk the last 20 min.) Its base 
is only 152 ft. above the fjord. About 480 ft. above its base a rock 
divides the glacier into two parts. Of these the upper only is 
united with the Jostedalsbrse ; the lower part is formed of accu- 
mulated masses of ice which have fallen over the rock. The roar 
of the ice-avalanches is frequently heard. The ice is of an azure- 
blue colour, particularly in the great vault from which the glacier- 
stream emerges. 

Grand passes from Fjecrland lead across the Jostedalsbrse to Lunde 
on the Kjusn&'sfjord (p. lt>4J and to Aamot in the Stardal (p. 166; guides 
Joh. Mundal and Hans Beium, 10 kr.). Skirting the Bojumsbrse, we 
ascend the Jakobbakkadn to the glacier in 2 x /2 hrs., reach its highest 
point, the Kvitevarde, in 1 hr. more; then descend S.W., past the Trold- 
vand and across the Lundeskar to Lunde in 4V2 hrs , or N.W. over the 
Befringsskar to the Stardal and Aamot. 

From Hillestad to Fjserland, p. 130; from Sogndal to Fjserland, p. 125. 

b. From Balholm to Gudvangen. Aurlandsfjord and Naer-efjord. 

Steamer (Com. 252, A, B, and 253) from Balholm to Gudvangen direct, 
3 times a week in 5-6 hrs. (fore 3 kr. 20)9.); also several times a week, 
changing at Lserdal or Amble. 

Balholm, see p. 123. The first station is Vanysrues (p. 122). 



Sognefjord. SOGNDAL. 27. Route. 125 

The steamer skirts the S. bank of the fjord , above which rise im- 
posing mountains. 

On the S. bank is the station ofFedjos or Fejos, whence, through 
the Oulscetdal , we may ascend the Rambcer (5260 ft), affording a 
grand view of the Jostedalsbrse and the fjord (those who do not care 
to mount so high may go as far as the Kongshei or the Kongsvand, 
2-3 hrs.), and the Fresviksbrce (5160 ft.). 

2i/ 2 S.M. (from Balholm) Lekanger or Leikanger (7nm of Herrn. 
Bruus Enke , suited for some stay, and Fretheim's Inn, in Her- 
mansvik, or Hermansverk , both good) lies on the Sjestrand, the 
fertile N. hank of the fjord. To the E. lies the gaard Henjum, 
with a 'Stue' (wooden house) of the 17th cent., and to the "W. the 
gaard Husebe, with a lofty 'Bautasten'. A day's excursion may 
be taken from Lekanger to the N. through the Henjumdal to the 
Gunvordbra (5150 ft.). 

The direct steamer to Gudvangen steers S. from Lekanger to 
Fresvik (p. 126). The other steamers first enter the narrow Nord- 
nassund to the E. On the left are the gaards of Lunden (sometimes 
touched at) and Slinde; then the church of 0lmheim. On the right 
is Fimreite, on a fertile hill, commanded by the mountain of that 
name (2570ft.). On 15th June, 1184, Magnus Erlingssem was 
defeated and slain here in a naval battle by King Sverre. Round- 
ing the peninsula of Nordncss , a spur of the Skriken (see below), 
we enter the Nerumsfjord, with smiling and well-cultivated hanks. 
On the left lies the gaard of Fardal , at the mouth of the 0verste 
Dal or 0fste-Dal. On the right rises the Storhaugfjeld (4235 ft.). 
Turning to the N. , we now enter the Sogndalsfjord , and pass, to 
the left, the gaard Stedje, with its thriving orchards. 

3 S.M. Sogndal (Danielsen's Hotel, at the landing-place ; Skyds 
Station at the gaard Fjcern), consisting of Sogndalskirke, Hofslund, 
and Sogndalsfjam, is charmingly situated on an old moraine 
through which the Sogndals-Elv has forced a passage, and amidst 
lofty mountains : the Storhaugfjeld , to the S. (see above; easily 
ascended and affording a fine view); Skriken (4115 ft.), to the 
S.W.; and IVwfcenipa (3200 ft., totheN., easily ascended in 31/2 hrs.). 
Large gaards on the banks , Aabjerge to the N. being conspicuous. 
Pleasant walk on the bank of the river to the Waterfall, with 
its mills, and then to the S. to the pretty new church, a Bautasten 
on which bears the Runic inscription : 'Olafr konungr saa ut mille 
staina thessa'. We may then follow the road, to Stedje (see above), 
with its two large 'Kiempehouge' ('giant tumuli'), whence we may 
return to Sogndalsfjseren by boat (an excursion of 1 hr. in all). 

From Sogndal to Fj^ekland (10-12 hrs.). A tolerable road ascends from 
Sogndal to the SogndaUvand (1500 ft.) and along its E. bank to Gaard 
Selseng (17 Kil.). To the W. opens the Gunvorddal, with a small sana- 
torium. From Selseng we may ascend Thovstadnakken (5250 ft.; imposing 
view of the mountains to the E. of the Fjserlandsfjord and of the Joste- 
dalsbrse; to the E. the Horunger in clear weather). — The path now 
ascends the Langedal, uassine several saeters- t.n the central of the three 



126 Route 21. N^EROFJORD. Sognefjord. 

depressions in the mountain, about 4130 ft. above the sea, to the left of 
which rise the peaks of the FrudaUbroe (5165 ft.). It then descends the 
Bergedal to Qaard Bevge on the Fjserlandsfjord (p. 124), from which we 
row in 1 hr. to (6 Kil.) Fjserland. — From Sogndal to Marifjceren, a beauti- 
ful walk or drive, see p. 131. 

The steamer returns to the great highway of the Sognefjord 
and steers S., past the promontories of Meisen and Hensene, to — 

2 S.M. (from Lekanger, 3 from Sogndal) Fresvik, situated on a 
hay formed by the projecting hill of Nute, and commanded on the 
S. by the Nonhaug ('non' is 2 p.m., the time when the sun appears 
above the hill). Fine view looking back on Lekanger , with the 
Gunvordsbrse rising above it. A visit to the Fresviksbrm, 8-9 hrs. 
from Fresvik, is said to be attractive. 

From Fresvik through the Tundal and across the hills to the Jordal 
and Stalheim (p. 119) takes fully 8 hrs. 

Continuation of Route to Lcerdal, see p. 128. 

The direct steamer to Gudvangen, after leaving Fresvik, steers 
S. between the promontories of Saltkjelnas and Solsnas into the 
* Aurlandsfjord , an enormous ravine about 1^2 Kil. broad, with 
precipitous rocky banks, 3000-4000 ft. high, forming the slopes of 
higher mountains which are rarely visible from the lake. At a 
few spots only dwellings have been erected on the alluvial deposits 
('0r', 'Aur') of a stream , or are perched high above the lake on 
some apparently inaccessible rock. From these abrupt slopes 
descend lofty waterfalls , either perpendicularly , or in streaks of 
foam gliding over the dark-brown rock, and reflected in the som- 
bre fjord. Their monotonous murmur alone breaks the profound 
silence of the scene. 

Beyond the Solsnaes we observe on the left the buildings of 
Buene, with a 'slide' for shooting down timber from the forests 
above. On the right is Simlenas ; farther on, the Fyssefos. Then, 
on the left, Brednas or Breinas, beyond which we pass the mouth 
of the valley of the Kolarelv. — To the left, by the promontory of 
Ncerences, we obtain a superb view of the upper Aurlandsfjord, 
with its vista of rocky headlands (p. 128). 

Passing the promontory of Bejteln, we next steer into the **Nser«- 
fjord, the S.W. arm of the Aurlandsfjord, and the grandest of all the 
ramifications of the Sognefjord. It is at first about 900-1000 yds. 
in breadth. Soon after entering it, we see on the right a waterfall 
of the Lcegde-Elv, nearly 1000 ft. high. Opposite rises the pointed 
Krogegg; then the Ojeitegg. Between these two hills, and afterwards 
between the Gjeitegg and the Middagsberg, we obtain fine glimpses 
of the snow-clad Steganaase (p. 128) high above. Opposite the 
Middagsberg, on the right, are the gaards of Dyrdal at the mouth 
of the Dyrdal. The fjord contracts to a defile about 200 yds. broad, 
bounded by perpendicular rocks. On the right, between the 
Middagsberg and the Rauegg , are the gaards of Styve, endangered 
by the river; above them rise the snow-masses of the Store Brce. 
Several veil- like waterfa 1 '" rvr ' tV, ° "°i»* f>« rwrf<-/7..«A>/4, Xo 



Sognefjord. GUDVANGEN. 27. Route. 127 

the left, further on, the Nissedals-Elv descends from the Skamme- 
dalsheidn (not visible from the steamer). To the right is a water- 
fall descending from the Ytre Bakken, forming a double leap far 
above. The fjord now turns more to the S. We now observe the 
mountains of the Nser»dal, particularly the Sjerpenut (see below), 
and to the right the waterfall of the Bakke-Elv and the small 
church of Bakke, to which a good road leads from Gudvangen (a 
pleasant walk). This is probably the finest part of the fjord. 
Farther on, several waterfalls are seen on both sides. 

5 S.M. (from Fresvik) Gudvangen. — 'Hansen's Hotel & Skyds- 
Station, R. 1, B.l, D. 2 kr., English spoken; '-Vikingvang Hotel (English 
landlord), R. 1 kr. 20, B. 1 kr. 50, Lunch 1 kr. 50, D. 2 kr. 25 0.; both 
these hotels are about 5 min. from the steamboat-pier. 

Conveyances to Stalheim and Vossevangen usually await the arrival 
of the steamer (skyds-tariff III): to the foot of the Stalheimsklev 9, to 
the top 12, to Vinje 26 Kil. (as to charges, see p. 118). A visit to the 
Stalheimsklev takes a whole day, the steamboat arrangements not ad- 
mitting of its being managed in less. As to ordering rooms at Stalheim 
by telephone (from Hansen's Hotel), see p. 119. Those who have enjoyed 
the view from the top of the 'Kiev' by favourable afternoon light may 
drive on to Opheim or Vinje the same evening without losing anything. 

Qudvangen is a group of gaards at the head of the Naertffjord, 
at the influx of the Nceredals-Elv. The mountains enclosing the 
ravine are so lofty and abrupt that this little hamlet does not see 
the sun throughout the whole winter. On the E. rises the Sjerpe- 
nut, on the W. the Solbjargenut. From the Kilsbotn, to the N. of 
the former, comes the *Kilefos, a waterfall 1840 ft. in height, be- 
ginning with a leap of 500 ft. ; to the right of it are the small 
Hestnasfos and Nautefos, whose waters unite below. 

The *Nser«rdal (the most enjoyable way of seeing which is to 
walk both up and down: to the top of the Stalheimsklev 12 Kil. 
in about 3 hrs., back in 2 hrs.), the landward continuation of the 
fjord, preserves the same wild character. About 1/2 nr - from Gud- 
vangen the road crosses a great 'Ur' (p. 126) and the clear river. 
To the right towers the huge Jordalsnut (3620 ft. ; ascent , see 
p. 120), which consists of light-gray felspath. On the rocky slopes 
are seen many traces of the avalanches ('Skred') which fall into 
the valley in the early summer. The road follows the right bank, 
gradually ascending. On the left bank are the gaards Hemre and 
Hylland. Further on (9 Kil. from Gudvangen) the road recrosses 
to the left bank and reaches the foot of the * Stalheimsklev ('cliff'), 
which terminates the valley. The vehicles of visitors to the 'Kiev' 
usually await their return at the bridge. The road ascends the 
'Kiev' in sixteen somewhat steep zigzags , the ascent of which 
takes nearly an hour. On the right and left are the *Sevlefos and 
the *Stalheimsfos, two picturesque waterfalls. At the top of the 
pass (1125 ft.) we reach the comfortable *Stalheims-Hotel and enjoy 
a superb view (see p. 119). 

The steamers (Com. 252 A, B, and 253), either in ascending or 
in descending the Sognefjord, penetrate several times weekly into 



128 Route 21. AURLAND. Sognefjord. 

the *TJpper Aurlandsfjord , which stretches S.E. from the pro- 
montory of Bejteln (p. 126). To the left, high up on the steep E. 
hank, we observe the gaards Horken and Nedberge, and in a ravine 
Kappadal. To the right, on the hill, are the Stegesatre, with two 
waterfalls near. The steamer sometimes calls at Vnderdal, finely- 
situated, with a church ; through the valley of that name we may 
ascend by the Melhus-Sater to the Steganaase ('ugly' or 'terrible 
nose' ; 5660 ft.), the highest peak of the Syrdalsfjeld. — Farther 
on, to the right, rises the long Flenje-Egg, with its highest peaks, 
that of Jelben, to theN., and the Flenjanaase (4840 ft.). The fjord 
widens. On the left open several deep ravines, first the Skjerdal, 
with the gaard of that name, then the small Voldedal and the Vas- 
bygd, the chief place in which is — 

Aurland or Aurlandsvangen (Brim's Inn, well spoken of), with 
its small stone church, the usual terminus of the steamers. — 
The Aurlandselv abounds in fish ; 6 Kil. up its valley lies the Vas- 
bygdvand. (Route to the Hallingdal, see pp. 44-42.) 

At the head of the fjord, about 7 Kil. from Aurland, lies Fret- 
heim (touched at once weekly; Com. 253) at the mouth of the 
Flaamsdal, with a fine girdle of mountains, 3 Kil. from which is 
the church of Flaam. 

Beyond the church the bridle-path ascends the Flaamsdal, mounting 
a 'Kiev' in windings to a higher part of the valley. Fine view looking 
back. We then pass the fine Riondefos on the right. We ascend several 
other 'Kleve', pass through the Berakvarnsgjel, a narrow ravine, pass the 
aaard of Melhus, and reach that of Kaardal, the highest in the valley 
{5-6 hrs. from Fretheim; comp. Map, p. 98). — Thence over the Grave- 
hals and through the Rundal to Vossevangen (path to Eggereid 6 hrs. ; 
road thence to Voss about 26 Kil.), see p. 118; or over the Gravehals to 
the Osefjord (10-12 hrs.) or to Lekve and Vlvik (10-12 hrs.), see p. 104. 

Fkom Aurland to T0njdm in the L^rdal (2 days). 1st Day: steep 
ascent of about 4000 ft. between the Blaaskavl (Skavl, 'snow-drift'; 2815 ft.; 
ascended in 6 hrs. from Aurland; fine view) un the N. and the Heiiskarsiiut 
on the S., and afterwards passing the lofty Hodnsnipe on the right, to 
the Eodnsceter (8 hrs.). — 2nd Day: to the Skaale-Sater and ascend the 
Barshegda (4635 ft.), commanding a fine view as far as the Horunger, 
and of the Jjzrranaase with the Troldelifjeld. A rough sfeter-path then 
descends to the (7 hrs.) church of Tenjum in the Lasrdal , from which 
Leerdalteren (p. 129) is 10 Kil. distant by the high-road. 

c. From Balholm or from Gudvangen to Lserdalsaren. 

Steamer from Balholm to Lcerdalseren almost daily, in 3 3 /4-7V2 hrs. 
(fare 2 kr. 80 #.); from Gudvangen to Lmrdal&dren dailv, in 3>/2-5 hrs. 
(fare 2 kr. 80 0.). 

From Balholm and from Gudvangen to the mouth of the Aur- 
landsfjord, see p. 126. — The steamer rounds the Saganas, the base 
of the Holten, and sometimes calls at the substantial gaard of — 

Ytre Freningen. On a green plateau , about 400 ft. higher, 
stands the school, attended by the children of this scattered district. 

From Ytre Fr0ningen the "Blejan (5560 ft.) may be ascended in 6-7hrs. 
(rather steep): admirable view of the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbrse, the 
Horunger, the Jotunheim Mts., the Hallingdal, and Voss. The fjord itself 
is best seen from the brink o f *'"■ i--™-"" «'>» - "^ <w,.»„,i„ twin a a i m0f . t 



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Sognefjord. L.ERDALS0REN. -21. Route. 129 

perpendicularly to theN. — An easier ascent is from the Vindedal(?ee below ; 
poor quarters), reached from Lserdalsizfren by small boat. The best plan 
is to sleep at the Vindedals-Soeter, f/2 hr. above the Vindedal and 2-3 hrs. 
from the top. 

To the N. towers the Storhaugfjeld (p. 125). We next pass 
Indre Freningen and the promontory of Re fncBstangen, a spur of the 
Hausafjeld, behind which rises the Leme(/£r(see above). We either 
steer direct to Laerdalsmen, or first to the N. to — 

Amble (Husum's Inn), charmingly situated on the crater- 
shaped Amllebugt. A pleasant road leads hence, passing the Amble- 
gaard (the owner of which, Hr. Heiberg, has a collection of relics 
relating to the large Norwegian family of that name), and skirting 
the fjord, tof^lKil.^Kaupanger, beautifully situated. The small 'Sta- 
vekirke', restored, dates from the 12th cent. Fine elms and ashes. 

From Amble to Sogndal (13 Kil.). Beyond Kaupanger the road be- 
gins to ascend; superb view looking back on the Sognefjord, particularly 
of the precipices of the snow-clad Blejan (p. 123). The road leads through 
pine-forest to the top of the hill, and then descends past several large 
farms (each with a 'Stabbur' and belfry) to (7 Kil.) Eide (a poor station). 
A road skirting the Eidsfjord, with a fine view of the avalanche-furrowed 
slope of the Storhaugfjeld towards the S., leads hence to (6 Kil.) Loftes- 
nces, a substantial farm-house opposite Sogndal, to which we cross by 
boat. — To row direct from Eide to Sogndal (6 Kil.) takes 1 hr. (boat with 
two rowers 1 kr. 8 0.). Herrings are largely caught in the Eidsfjord. The 
water in this bay is almost fresh on the surface, but Salter below. 

To the S. rises the Blejan (p. 128) ; to the W., farther distant, 
the Fresviksbrae (p. 125). On the left opens the Aardalsfjord (p. 129). 
Opposite the headland of Fodnces, on the right, between the Lemegg 
and the long Olipsfjeld , descends the Vindedal, with the Store 
Graanase in the background. The fjord, now called Lardah fjord, is 
bounded on the left by the Vetanaase and, fartherE., the Heganaase 
(4900 ft.). We pass the gaards of Haugene, on the right, at the 
mouth of the Eijerdal, and land at — 

8 S.M. (from Balholm) Lserdalseren. — Pier 1 Kil. from the hotels 
(earr. 50 n. each pers. ; with luggage 60 0.). — ! Lindstr0m's Hotel and 
Skyds Station, two houses with 80 beds in all, R. from l'/2, A. >/2, B. t'/a, 
D. 2, S. lVzkr.; L^EKDALstfREN's Hotel, R. 1 kr. 20 0., B. 1 kr.; English 
spoken at both. 

Fast Skyds-Station, both for horses (tariff III) and boats. — Tele- 
graph Office at the upper end of the village. — English Church Service 
at Lindstr#m's in summer. 

Lcerdalseren , generally shortened to 'LardaV, the terminus of 
the Valders and Hallingdal routes (RR. 7, 6), lies on a broad and 
marshy plain at the mouth of the Lara , enclosed by bare rocky 
mountains. View limited. Towards the E. we observe at the end 
of the Oftedal, on the left , the Haugnaa.se (5250 ft.), and on the 
right the Freibottenfjeld. The village with its 800 inhab., has a 
doctor, a chemist, and a few tolerable shops. The church, a 
curious -looking modern timber edifice, with a group of houses 
around it, lies several hundred yards further inland. 

Pleasant Walk of '/2 hr. along the bank to the winter pier (used 
when the fjord is frozen), and thence to Haugene at the mouth of the 
Eijerdal (see above). 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 9 



130 Route 21. AARDAL. Sognefjord. 

d. The Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord. 

Sieamek (Com. 252) from Lserdalstfren to Aardal 3 times weekly ; in 
l'/2-2 hrs. (fare i kr. 60 0.); to Bkjolden at the head of the Lysterfjord 
4 times weekly, in 5-7>/2 hrs. (fare 2 kr. 80 0.) ; to Marifjseren only, in 3'/2-4 
hrs. (fare 2 kr.). 

From Laerdalseren to Fodnces, see p. 129. After rounding the 
promontory we obtain , to the left , a -view of the Lysterfjord (see 
below), with the Haugmselen ; in the background is the Jostedals- 
bra? (p. 120). To the S.W. towers the Blejan (p. 128). 

The entrance of the Aardalsfjord is somewhat monotonous. 
On the N. hank rise the Bodlenakken and then the Braendhovd, 
between which lie the Ytre and Indre Oferdal (see below). On 
the wooded S. bank is the station of Nadviken or Vikedal. We 
next obtain a view of the Sceheimsdal to the N., and a little later 
we see the superb girdle of mountains around — 

Aardal, or Aardalstangen (Inn , tolerable). The little village 
with its pretty church lies on an old coast-line (p. xxix), and on 
deposits from the mountains on the right, at the mouth of the Aar- 
dalselv, whichissues from the neighbouring Aardalsvand. Opposite, 
to the S. , rises the snow-clad Slettefjeld or Middagshaugen (4435 ft.). 
Aardal is the starting-point for a visit to the Vettisfos (1 day ; 
p. 152) and for a *Tour round the Horunger to Skjolden (4 days ; 
see p. 153 and pp. 158, 157). 

Returning from Aardal , the steamer calls when required at 
Oferdal , the station for the valleys of Indre (E.) and Ytre (W.) 
Oferdal , which lie between the Brcendhovd and the Bodlenakken. 
We then round the wild precipice of the Bodlenakken and enter 
the *Lysterfjord , the N.B. arm of the Sognefjord, 40 Kil. in 
length , where the wildest scenery is combined with the most 
smiling. Owing to the numerous glacier-streams falling into it, the 
water of the fjord near the surface is fresh and of a milky colour, 
but is salt underneath. On the W. side rises the precipitous Haug- 
mcelen (4135 ft.), which may be ascended nearly the whole way on 
horseback. In 2 1 / i hrs. from Aardal the steamer reaches — 

Solvorn (Hotel Solvorn , R. 1 kr., B. 80, S. 80 0.), a skyds- 
station, finely situated on a bay in the W. bank of the fjord, backed 
by the snow-mountains around the Veitestrandsvand (see below). 

A hilly road leads from Solvorn to the (2 Kil.) Hafslovand (455 ft.), 
the bank of which is skiTted by the road from Marifjseren to Sogndal 
mentioned below. About 2 Kil. to the N. of the junction of the two 
roads lies Hillestad (Hillestads-Hotel, praised; 4 Kil. from Solvorn, pay 
for 6), where guides and horses are obtained for the ascent of the Molden 
(see below; on foot 3-4 hrs.). 

From Hillestad the road leads by Hafslo, with a church and parson- 
age, to (8 Kil.) the S. end of the Veitestrandsvand (640 ft.), a lake 17 Kil. 
long. We may then row to the N. end of the lake, where rustic quar- 
ters may be had at the gaard of Nordre Xws, and walk thence in 9 hrs. by 
the Veitestrandsskar to the Suphelle- Swter and to Fjcerland (p. 124), a 
fatiguing expedition (guide and provisions necessary). 

On the promontory opposite Solvorn, in a charming situation, 
lies llrnces (where the steamer calls when required), with its large 



Sognefjord. MARIF.LEREN. 21. Route. 131 

tumuli ('Kaempehouge') and the oldest 'Stavekirke' in Norway, 
dating possibly from the 11th cent, (see p. 26). To the left towers 
the huge Molden (3645 ft.). On the E. bank , about */2 hr. after 
leaving Solvorn, we pass the gaard of Ytre Kroken , famed for its 
orchards. To the N.W. appears the Hestebra, part of the Joste- 
dalsbrse ; to the right of it is the Leirmohovd; more to the N. are 
the hills of the Krondal (p. 133). In !/ 2 hr. more -we reach — 

Marifjeeren (*HotelMarifjceren), prettily situated on the Gaupne- 
fjord, the best starting-point for a visit to the Josledal (p. 132). 
Beautiful walk to the N.W. up to the old church of Joranger , which 
commands a magnificent view of the fjord and the Feigumsfos 
(see below). To the S. of Marifjaeren (10 min.) is the gaard 
Hundshammer, whence part of the Jostedalsbraa is visible. 

The Road from Makifj^ken to Sogndal (22 Kil., pay for 33; a drive 
of 4-5 hrs. ; fast stations all the way) traverses beautiful scenery. The 
road, good at first, but afterwards very hilly, passes the base of the Molden 
(see above), which is very steep on the W. side, and follows the course 
of the Bygde-Elv. On the right, above us, lies Joranger. We pass many 
farms with well-cultivated fields, chiefly on the sunny side ('Solside'') of 
the valley. A little to the right lies Fet, with its old church. At the 
highest point of the road (about 900 ft.) we obtain a view of the distant 
snow-mountains to the S. of the Sognefjord (Fresviksbrse, fiambseren, etc.) 
The descent is rather steep. Grand view of the Hafslobygd, the Hafslo- 
vand, and the mountains of the Sognefjord. 

8 Kil. (pay for 14) Hillestad, see above. 

The road skirts the E. bank of the Hafslovand , where the road to 
Solvorn diverges to the left (see above), and traverses a pine-wood, afford- 
ing glimpses of the lake and the Jostedalsbrse to the N. Beyond the 
gaard Okleviken the road attains its highest point, and then descends the 
winding *G-ildreskreden (Skreien), where caution is necessary in driving. 
Superb view of the fjord. On our right rushes the Aarei-Elv, descending 
from the Veitestrand and Hafslo lakes, and forming the Helvetesfos and 
Futesprang. Below lies Nagleren. The road now skirts the Barsnassfjord. 
Observe the glacier-worn rocks , with large isolated boulders resting on 
them at places. Oaks, elms, and ashes begin to appear. Passing through 
the Berhul, a curious aperture in the rock, the road ascends to the heights 
of Kvam, which afford another splendid view. The fjord contracts to a 
narrow channel. On the opposite bank lies Loftesnses (p. 129). 

14 Kil. (pay for 19) Sogndal, see p. 125. 

The upper part of the Lysterfjord is grand and picturesque. 
The steamer passes Ncbs, on the left, and on the right the imposing 
Feigumsfos , which descends from a valley to the N. of the Bive- 
naase (3450 ft.), in two falls, about 650 ft. in height. To the N. 
of the fall rises the Serheimsfjeld ; then the Skurvenaase (4520 ft). 

On the W. bank is the small station of Hojheim or Hojums- 
vik. Then — 

D.ersen (*Inn), charmingly situated. Adjacent is the old stoue 
church of Dale, with a fine portal. 

From D#sen we may ascend the Daledal by a horse-track, passing 
the gaards of Bringe and Skaar and the sseters of Vallagjerdet and Kvale, 
to the gaard Kilen, the highest in the valley. Thence a steep climb over 
the Slorhaugs Vidde (2600 ft.) to the Vigdals-Sceter ; then to the W. through 
the Vigdal , passing the Buskrednaase on the right , to the fjeld-gaards 
of Idvve and Nedre Vigdal. From the latter the path leads across a hill, 
descends abruptly to the Ormbergsitel , and leads N. to Oaard Ormberg 



132 Route 21. JOSTEDAL. Sognefjord. 

in the Jostedal (p. 133), about 27 Kil. from Dersen (a fatiguing walk of 
9-10 hrs. ; guide necessary). 

From Dasen the steamer goes N.E. to — 

Skjolden [*Thorgeir Sulheim's Inn, at the gaardof Eide, p. 157), 
finely situated at the head of the Lysterfjord , the starting-point 
for an excursion to the Fortundal and to the views of the Horunger 
(p. 157 et seq.). To the E. rises the snow-clad Fanaraak. 

Skjolden lies at the entrance of the somhre HUfrkereidsdal , which 
extends about 20 Kil. to the N. and contains the farms of Stole, Bolstad, 
Flohaug, and then Moen and Mm'kereid. Beyond these are several saeters : 
the Knivebakke-Swter to the left, the Dul-Swter and the Dalen-Sceter to 
the right; then the Fosse-Sceter and the Rausdals-Sceter. On both sides 
are lofty fjelds and glaciers. From the Rausdals-Sseter we may go to the 
W. over the fjeld and through the Martedal and Fagerdal to the gaard 
Faaberg (p. 134) in the Jostedal (a long day's walk). 



From Maeifj^eebn to the Jostedal. 

l'/2-2 Days. To the Nigardsbrw a drive of 5 hrs., returning in 4>/2 hrs. 
(a day's journey, changing horses at Sperle). It is usual to engage a 
carriole for the whole journey (to Kroken and back 16 kr.; skyds-tariff III) 
and to spend a night at Sperle on the way back. 

The -Jostedal, like almost all the Norwegian valleys, is a rocky rift 
or ravine in the midst of a vast plateau of snow and ice, the W. part of 
which consists of the Jostedalsbrce (p. 120), with its ramifications, while 
the E. half is formed by the SpeHegbrw and numerous snow-clad peaks or 
'noses'. The sides of the valley, rising to 3000 ft., are generally wooded, 
and are often broken up by transverse rifts, from which torrents and water- 
falls descend ; and at intervals they recede, forming basins which are usually 
bounded by rocky barriers, marking the different zones of the valley. 

Marifjaren, see p. 131. The road leads past the precipitous 
slopes on the W. bank of the Gaupnefjord to (3 Kil.) Reneid, at 
the mouth of the Jostedals-ELv , opposite the church of Gaupne. 
Above Gaupne rises the Raubergsholten (2675 ft.). 

The road ascends on the right bank of the turbulent and muddy 
river. The lower part of the valley is well cultivated. The road 
passes an old moraine and crosses the Kvmrne-Elv. The high and 
shapeless rocks which flank the road all the way to Leirmo begin 
here. In front of us rises the Leirmohovd. After crossing the Fon- 
dela, the road turns to the right to the gorge of Hausadn. To the 
W. we see the twin peaks of the Asbjemnaase (5270 ft.). From the 
rocks on the right falls the Ryfos. We soon reach the first of the 
basins peculiar to the Jostedal, named after the hamlet of Leirmo, 
on the hill to the left. (From Leirmo we may visit the * Tunsberg- 
dalsbra, 14 Kil. in length, the longest glacier in Norway.) We cross 
the foaming Tunsbergdals-Elv. To the right towers the Kolnaase. 
The river expands until it covers the whole floor of the valley. 

14 Kil. Alsmo lies on an old moraine ('Mo'). The road soon 
enters a gorge called the Haugaasgjel , and continues to skirt the 
river , while the old road crossed the precipitous Haugaas. The 
Jostedals-Elv and its tributary the Vigdela , descending from the 
right, form several fine falls. The road traverses the deep and im- 
posing basin of Myklemyr, once occupied by a lake. To the left 



Sognefjord. NIGARDSBR^E. 21. Route. 133 

rises the Hompedalskulen (4820 ft.), on which lies the HompedaU- 
Sceter. We next enter a basin much devastated by the river, and 
pass the gaards of Myten, Teigen, 0en, and Myklemyr. 

The road leads through a narrower part of the valley, past the 
large gaard Ormberg on the right, to another small basin, with the 
gaards of Fossen and Dalen; then through another *Gorge, with a 
bridge leading to Ormberg (p. 131), to the basin of — 

13 Kil. Sperle (properly Sperle»er; good quarters). Beyond 
the school is the gaard of Sperle, with the waterfall of that name, 
descending from the Listelsbra on the left. Beyond Sperle a steep 
ascent to the Nedre Lid, which is wooded at the top, and past the 
'Gjel', or ravine, of that name which opens on the right. We then 
descend into a beautiful basin containing the church of Jostedal 
(660 ft.), to which the 900 inhab. of the whole valley belong. 

On the left we observe the Bakkefos, which descends from the 
Strondafjeld, and near it the 0vre Gaard, We then reach another 
broad basin. On the right the Ojeitsdela forms three fine water- 
falls. To the S.E. rises the imposing Vangsen (5710 ft.) , with a 
glacier on its N.E. slope, which may be visited from Jostedal 
(4 hrs.). Between the valleys of Vanddal and Gjeitsdal, which 
here open to the right, is seen the pyramidal Myrhorn, rising from 
the great Spertegbrcs behind. Beyond the gaard of Gjerdet we cross 
the stream issuing from the Krondal, which is flanked on the right 
by the Haugenaase (4260 ft.) and on the left by Vetlenibben and 
the Orenneskredbrce. Corn thrives thus far. 

From the Krondal over the Jostedalsbr^: to Loen , or to Olden 
on the Nordfjord (p. 169), 12-14 hrs., a grand but trying route. (Guide, 
Johannes Snelwm, in the Krondal, 12-14 kr. ; porter 10 kr.). We sleep at 
the gaard Kronen, and start early next morning. We ascend the Tvcerbrce 
or Bjernestegbroe, which descends from the N., to the (3 hrs.) Haugeneiset, 
between the Tvserbrse and the Nigardsbrse (see below) , marked by the 
last 'Varde' in the Jostedal (good water). Roping is necessary for the 
passage of the glacier which now begins. In 1 hr. the Kjendalskrona, 
the Lodalskaupe, and other mountains of the Nordfjord come in sight. 
In 2-3 hrs. more we reach the first 'Varde' on the opposite side. We 
descend across the Kvandalsbrce (20 min.) and by a very fatiguing route 
skirting its margin to the (IV2 hr.) Kvandal (p. 172). Or we may follow 
the Jostedalsbrse farther W. and descend by the Sundebrce to the Olden- 
vand, which we reach at Sunde (p. 170). 

Farther on we cross a hill and obtain a fine view looking back. 
Before us soon comes in view the *Nigardsbrae, between the Hau- 
genaase (4260 ft.) and the Liaxel. We reach the foot of its 
moraine in 1/2 hr. by a new path diverging to the left (about 
14 Kil. from Sperle). The best view of this famous glacier, so 
often described by Norwegian and foreign writers, is obtained from 
the top of the moraine. Time permitting, we may go further up 
the valley on the N. side. (Guide to the glacier unnecessary ; to 
the top of the glacier 6 kr.) 

The road crosses the stream issuing from the Nigardsbrae, passes 
the gaard Kroken, and ends at — 



I 



I 34 Route 22. JOTUNHEIM. 

18 Kil. Faaberg (1310 ft.; Rasmus Larsen's Inn, R. 1, B. 1, 
S. 1 kr.), where Rasmussen Larsen Faaberg , an admirable guide 
for the Jostedal, lives. 

From Faaberg through the Fagerdal to the Merkereidsdal, see p. 132. 

From Faaberg across the Jostedalsbb* to Gredeng i Strtn, 12- 
13 hrs. (guide 12-14 kr.). It is usual to ascend in the evening, between 
the Liaxel and the Hamrene and past the Bjamestegadn - Sceter in the 
Stardal, to the Faabergstel (1875 ft.; IV2 hr.), where tolerable quarters 
are obtained. To theW., just above the sseter, extends the Faabergstels- 
brce. Next morning we ascend the desolate Stordal, passing the Oi-Sceter, 
where the path to the Gudbrandsdal over the Hanspikje, mentioned at 
. 62, diverges to the right. Farther on we keep to the left and in 
I'z hr. reach the Lodalsbrw (about 2970 ft.), which we ascend to the 
right, skirting the Rauskarfjeld, to the Jostedalsbrce. The highest point 
of the latter is reached to the right of the Lodalskaupe (6790 ft.; ascended 
for the first time by Mr. Slingsby in 1889). The descent to Gredung takes 
5-6 hrs. We first cross the creviced Gredungsbrce or Erdalsbrce , which 
comes down from the Stornaase and the Klubben (5150 ft.) on the W., 
and then descend by a difficult and unpleasant rocky path (rope necessary) 
past the Skaarene to the lower end of the glacier (2300 ft). The valley 
now becomes less steep, and we reach the sseter of Gredungsstel and the 
gaard of Gredung without farther difficulty (see p. 173). 

An easy pass leads from the Liaxel (see above) into the Bedal and 
down to the Loenvand (p. 171). Descent on the W. side from an ancient 
dim S.E. of the Brattebakbrw. 

22. Jotunheim. 

A map of this district on a large scale is published by A. Cammermeyer 
of Christiania ('Lomme-Reisekart over Norge, No. V, Lom, Vestre-Slidre, 
Borgund, Lyster'; scale, 1 : 175,000; price 1 kr.). Still better are Section 
30D (Galdhtfpiggen) and Section 30B (Bygdin) of the Topographical Map 
mentioned in the Introduction (p. xxiv; scale 1 : 100,000). 

Although the greater part of Norway consists of a vast table- 
land, rising occasionally into rounded summits , and descending 
abruptly at the margins, it possesses three districts with the Alpine 
characteristic of well-defined mountain-ranges. One of these dis- 
tricts is on the Lyngenfjord in Troms» Amt (p. 228), the second 
in Sendmere (p. 173), and the third is the region bounded by the 
Sognefjord on the "W. and the plateaux of Valders and the Gud- 
brandsdal on the S. and the N.E. This last was explored for the 
first time by Keilhau in 1820 and named by him Jotunfjeldene, or 
the 'Giant Mountains', but is now generally known as Jotunheim, 
a name given to it by later 'Jotunologists', chiefly Norwegian stu- 
dents, as a reminiscence of the 'frost giants' in the Edda. 

The peaks of Jotunheim (called Tinder, Pigge, Home, and 
Nabber, while the rounded summits are Heer) are all over 5900 ft. , 
several are upwards of 6550 ft., while the Galdhepig (p. 147) and 
the Olittertind (p. 145) exceed 8200 ft. in height. The Swiss Alps 
are much higher (Mont Blanc, 15,784 ft.), but are surpassed by 
the Jotunheim mountains in abruptness. The plateaux between 
the peaks are almost entirely covered with snow, the snow-line here 
being about 5580 ft. (in Switzerland 8850 ft.). Huge glaciers 
(Brceer, the smaller being called Huller, 'holes') descend from these 
masses of snow, but without reaching the lower valleys as in 



JOTUNHEIM. 137 

Switzerland. The mountain-basins -which occur \ 

enclosed by precipitous sides rising to 1600 ft. or n\ 

as Botner. A peculiarity of the valleys , which w\ 

ceptions lie upwards of 3300 ft. above the sea-levt 

than the forest-zone) , is that they rarely terminate i\ 

intersect the whole mountain , gradually rising on e\ 

'■Band' 1 or series of lakes without any distinct culmim" _,ic. 

The scenery of Jotunheim is greatly enhanced by its Urfee large 

and several smaller lakes. 

The Jotunheim inns are inferior to those on the more fre- 
quented routes, but thanks to the spirit and enterprise of the Nor- 
wegian Turist-Forening (p. xxi) fairly good quarters are obtainable 
at all the chief resorts. Besides the refuge-huts erected by the 
club, a number of private 'hotels' have lately sprung up, where 
tinned meats ('Hermetisk'), beer, and wine are generally to be had. 
The beds, as a rule, are broad enough for two persons if necessary. 
The usual tariff is so moderate that bed and board need not exceed 
3-4 kr. per day. Members of the Turist-Forening, recognisable by 
their club-button, have a preferential right to beds at the tourist-huts 
(except those built with subvention of government) until 10 p.m. 
(paying 40 m. ; non-members pay 1 kr. 25 ».). 

On some of the excursions the only accommodation procurable is at 
the 'Sseters' and 'Feeboder' kept by good-natured cowherds ('Fsekarle'' or 
'Driftekarle'), who regale the traveller with 'Fladbrjzfd', milk, cheese, and 
butter, and can generally provide him with a tolerable bed (i'/2-2 kr. per 
day for bed and food). See remarks on Sseter Life at p. 60. 

The Equipment required by the traveller is similar to that used by 
Alpine mountaineers, but should if possible be even more durable, as he 
will have no opportunity of supplying deficiencies and will often have to 
ford torrents , wade through marshes , and walk for hours over very 
rough stony ground ('Ur'J. Heavy luggage should be left behind, as it 
hampers the movements. 

The Guides are generally inferior to those of Switzerland ortheEastern 
Alps. The usual fee is 4 kr. per day, but the charges for the different ex- 
peditions are given in each case. The guide is not bound to carry more 
than 2 'bismer' -pounds (24 lbs.) of luggage, and even this he carries un- 
willingly. For the longer tours, therefore, the traveller must engage a 
porter, who receives about two-thirds of a guide's fee. No charge is made 
for the return-journey. — Ice-axes ('Is0xe') and stout ropes ('Reb 1 ) are 
now provided at the chief stations of the Turist-Forening. — Those who 
travel without a guide should, as a rule, on leaving one of the sseters, 
whence numerous paths always diverge, ask to be shown the way for the 
first half-hour. 

With the exception of the greater ascents, most of the excursions may 
be made on horseback. In the hire paid for a horse the services of an 
attendant are never included, but must be paid for separately; if he is a 
full-grown man ('voxen Mand') he receives the same fee as a guide. 

The best Starting Points for a tour in Jotunheim are : — from 
the S. Skogstad and Nystuen (p. 138), from which Eidsbugarden is 
a short day's walk only ; — from the N. Andvord (p. 62) , on 
the road from Bredevangen to Marok (R. 9), whence it is a drive 
of 2 hrs. only to Rejshjem; — from the W. Aardal (p. 130) and 
Skjolden (p. 132) on the Sognefjord. — The approach from Fager- 



136 Route 22. ROGNE. Jotunheim. 

nces (see below) is apt to be tedious owing to the long and sometimes 
windy passage of Lake Bygdin. A similar remark applies to the 
routes from the E. leading to Lake Gjende, which are seldom taken 
(p. 56, 61). 

The Finest Sceneby may be visited in 9-10 days thus : — from 
Skogstad to Eidsbugarden (and ascent of the Skinegg), 1 day; to the 
Ojendebod (ascent of the Memurutunge), 1 day; to Rejshjem, iy 2 
day (ascent of the Oaldhepig, 1 day more); to Turtegre, 1 day; excur- 
sions to the Horunger views, 1 day ; over the Reiser and by Skogadals- 
been to Vetti, 1 day; to Aardal on the Sognefjord, ifed&y. — Or from 
Turtegre to Fortun and to Skjolden on the Sognefjord, */ 2 day. 

Distances in ihe following descriptions are calculated for good walkers. 
It should tie borne in mind that walking in Jotunheim is much more 
fatiguing than among the Swiss Alps owing to the want of paths. Ample 
time should therefore always he allowed. 

A standard rule of Norwegian travel, which applies specially to Jotun- 
heim, is that horses, guides, hoats, food, etc. should always he ordered 
in good time, or the day hefore if possihle. 

a. From Fagernaes to Raufjordheim, and up Lake Bygdin 
to Eidsbugarden. 

88 Kil. (two days). 1st Day. Drive to (45 Kil.) Beito, the last skyds- 
station (fast) ; walk to Raufjordheim in 3'/2 hrs. — 2nd Day. Ascend the 
Bitihom early, 3-4 hrs. there and hack; row up Lake Bygdin to Eidsbu- 
garden in 6-S hrs. 

Fagernas, see p. 48. — The road ascends the valley of the 
0stre-Slidre-Elu, running a little way from the left bank of the 
stream. It is nearly level at first, and afterwards ascends rapidly 
through wood. To the left , below, lies the Scelbo-Fjord, with 
several gaards high above it, and snow-mountains in the distance. 
"We pass, on the right, the loftily situated church of Skrutvold. 
Below u?, farther on, is the Voldbo-Fjord, at the N. end of which 
is the church of Voldbo. 

17 Kil. Eogne (*Inn, often full in summer) lies a little beyond 
the church of that name. To theE. rise the Mellene mountains, the 
W. slope of which is the 0iangenshei, a splendid point of view 
(ascent 3-3 1 /2 hrs. i guide 1 kr. 60 ».). 

From Eogne across the Slidreaas to Fosheim (22 Kil.), hy a good road, 
see p. 48. 

The road crosses the Vinde-Elv. It next skirts the Hceggefjord, 
and then ascends steeply to Hcegge, with its old 'Stavekirke'(p. 26). 
About 13 Kil. from Rogne we pass Northorp, a very characteristic 
gaard. To the left, farther on, are tike Dais fjord and the Marstafjord, 
connected by a river with each other and with the Hedalsfjord. 

16 Kil. Kjek ('Station). Farther on, to the left, are the He- 
dalsfjord and LakeBiangen. Fine view of the lake, with the Slette- 
fjeld, Mugnatind, and Bitihom (see below). 

12 Kil. Beito (2380 ft.; *Inn, plain), the last skyds-station. 
On Sundays the national 'Springdans', accompanied by the 'Norske 
Harp', may sometimes be witnessed here. 



Jotunheim. RAUFJORDHETM. 22. Route. 137 

The path to Raufjordheim (guide l^kr. ; comp. Map, p. 134) 
leads N.W., at first nearly level, and afterwards ascends steeply. 
At (1 hr.) the top of the hill is a marshy plateau enclosed by moun- 
tains, to the "W. the Mugnatind, and to the N. the Bitihom 
(5250 ft.), which rises precipitously on the E. side. In 1 hr. more 
we reach the Smerhul-Sater. [By making a digression of 2-3 hrs., 
with a guide, we may now ascend the Bitihorn direct, via, the Biti- 
horn-Sfeter (3460 ft.), hut the ascent is easier from the Raufjord.] 
The path ascends steeply for 25 min. more. Extensive view towards 
the S. ; close to us, on the left, rises the Bitihorn. We now 
descend towards the N., skirting the base of precipitous rocks 
(echo), walk across marshy ground and round the Bitihorn, and 
reach (1 hr.) the refuge-hut on the Raufjord called — 

Raufjordheim (3430 ft. ; six beds, three of them double ; 
tinned meats, trout, coffee, wine, etc.; guide to Hestvolden l 1 /^, 
Nyboden2, Gjendesheim4, Besse-Ssetre4Y2, Eidsbugarden 6 kr.). 
The water of the Raufjord, an arm of Lake Bygdin, is strongly im- 
pregnated with iron, tinging red the stones on its bank (whence the 
name: 'raud', 'red', meaning 'red'). Trees have almost disappeared. 

The ascent of the 'Bitihorn (5*250 ft.) from Raufjordheim takes 3-4 hrs., 
there and back (guide not indispensable). We ascend the W. slope the 
whole way, keeping well to the left of several swamps at the beginning. 
The 'Horn' soon becomes visible, serving as a guide. For an hour the 
route traverses 'Rab\ or ground covered with underwood (juniper, dwarf- 
birches, Arctic willows), and the soft soil peculiar to the Norwegian moun- 
tains, and for another hour it ascends steep rocks. Magnificent view of 
the imposing Alpine landscape to the W., and of the vast plateau to the 
B., relieved by several peaks and large lakes. 

From Raufjordheim to Eidsbugarden by boat in 6-8 hrs. 
(for 1, 2, 3 persons with two rowers 8 kr. 40 a. , 10 kr. , 12 kr. ; to 
Nyboden only, 4 kr., 4 kr. 40, 5 kr. 20 ».). From the Raufjord a 
narrow strait leads to *Lake Bygdin (3485 ft.), the largest of the 
three lakes of Jotunheim, about 25 Kil. in length from E. to W., 
li/ 2 -2i/ 2 Kil. in breadth, and at places 700ft. deep. On the N. it 
is bounded by lofty mountains, on whose steep slopes large herds 
of cattle are pastured. The S. bank is lower and less picturesque. 
Storms sometimes make the navigation of the lake impossible. To 
walk along theN. bank to Eidsbugarden (10-12 hrs.) is wearisome, 
though free from danger since the Tourist Club improved the path 
and bridged the streams. 

The boat skirts the N. bank. On the right we first observe the 
Sund-Smter and the mouth of the Breilaupa. (Path toGjendesheim, 
see p. 143.) About 4 Kil. farther is the 'Faelaeger' of Hestvolden, 
whence we may ascend the *Kalvaahegda (7160 ft.), a still finer 
point than the Bitihorn, affording a magnificent view of Jotunheim. 

We next pass the deep Turftnsdal (see p. 138), with remains 
of old moraines at its entrance. At the base of the Turfinstind 
we then reach the Langedals-Soeter, and close to it the Nybod, a 
shooting-lodge, of which the 'Fsekarl' has the key. 



138 Route 22. SVARTDAL. Jotunheim. 

From the Nybod we may ascend the huge "Turfinstind (6930 ft. ; 
7 hrs., there and hack), the jagged crest of which is called the Brudefelge 
('bridal procession'). Fine survey of Lake Bygdin and half of Valders ; 
splendid view of the other Turfinstinder to the N., the Svartdalspigge, 
and the Knutshulstinder (p. 141). This ascent should he made early in 
order to avoid falling stones. 

From the Nybod to Lake Gjende (p. 141), two routes. One, very 
grand, hut toilsome, leads N.W. through the Langedal, passing the Lange- 
dalstjcern, and crossing the Langedalsbras (6233ft.) between the Sletmarkpig 
(7070 ft.) on the left and the Svartdalspigge (7030 ft.) on the right, into the 
Vesle-Aadal. Guide (2 kr.) rarely to be found at the Nybod. The other route, 
preferable and comparatively easy (4-5 hrs. ; guide, not indispensable, 2kr.), 
leads through the Turflnsdal and the Svartdal. It ascends steeply at first 
on the W. side of the Turfinsdals-Elv, commanding the whole valley, 
which is separated from the Svartdal to the N. by a 'Band', or table-land 
with a series of lakes. The path then follows the E. side of the valley. 
To the left, farther on, we obtain a superb view of the Turfinshul, a basin 
formed by the Turfinstinder; before us rise the three Knutshulstinder, 
enclosing the Knulshul, but the highest (7680 ft.) of them is not visible. 
Adjoining the northernmost are several peaks of Alpine character. The 
highest part of the route is reached at the S. end of the long 'Tjaern' (tarn), 
to the left, whence we see the mountains to the N. of Lake Gjende, par- 
ticularly the pointed Semmeltind. Beyond a second, and smaller lake 
(4750 ft.) and a glacier descending from the left, we enter the Svartdal, and 
follow the right (E.) bank of the Svartdela; to the left tower the huge 
Svartdalspigge. We then cross to the left bank, and soon reach the 
huge precipice descending to Lake Gjende, called Ojendebrynet, through 
which the Svartd0la has worn a deep gorge, the Svartdalsglup. We may 
either follow the latter from 'Varde' to 'Varde', or, better, ascend a ridge 
covered with loose stones to the left to the "Svartdalsaaksle (5855 ft.), 
which commands a superb survey of the whole N. side of Jotunheim. Far 
below lies Lake Gjende (From the Svartdalsaaksle we may ascend the 
Svartdalspigge without difficulty.) We now descend to the W., below the 
Langedalsbree, at first rapidly over loose stones (caution necessary), and 
then over soft grass; then by the course of the glacier-stream into the 
Vesle-Aadal, whence we soon reach the Ojendebod (p. 140). Or, on reach- 
ing Lake Gjende, the traveller may shout for a boat to ferry him across 
(10 min.). 

Voyaging on Lake Bygdin, we next pass the Langedals-Elv , 
and then the Galdeberg, from which falls the Oaldebergsfos. On 
the S. side of the lake rises Dryllerwsen (4935 ft.). Rounding the 
sheer rooks of the Galdeberg, we observe to the right above us the 
Oaldebergstind , and facing us the Langeskavl (or Rustegg) with 
the Uranaastind (p. 140), an imposing scene. On the right next 
opens the valley of the Tolorma (Heistakka), which forms a water- 
fall, backed by the Grashorung (p. 140). To the S.W. rise theKol- 
dedalstinder (p. 139), and lastly, to the S., the Skinegg (p. 139). 
Looking back , we observe the three peaks of the Sletmarkpig 
(p. 140). The lake owes its milky colour here to the Melkedela, a 
genuine glacier-brook. After a row of 6-8 hrs. in all, we reach 
Eidsbugarden (see p. 139). 

b. From Skogstad orNystuen to Tvindehaugen and Eidsbugarden. 

30 Kil. Road to Lake Tyin (12 Kil. ; horses to be had at Skogstad and at 
ffystnen) ; tow to (12KU.) Tvindehaugen ; walk thence to (6 Kil.) Eidsbugarden. 

Skogstad and Nystuen on the Valders route, see p. 50. About 



Jotunheim. EIDSBUGARDEN. 22. Route. 139 

halfway between them, near the Besceter, the new road to Lake 
Tyin diverges to the N., crosses the Bjerdela, and leads over the 
hill which separates the lake from the district of Valders. Fine 
view from the top. 

lake Tyin (3535 ft.), 14 Kil. long, 1-2 1/2 Kil. broad, and at 
places over 300 ft. deep, with a large hay at theW. end whence the 
Aardela issues, is a fine Alpine lake, the hanks of which, like those 
of the other Jotunheim lakes, are uninhabited, except by a few 
'Fsekarle' in summer. We reach the lake at its S. end (about 
12 Kil. either from Skogstad or from Nystuen), where there are two 
inns, the Jotunsater Hotel and Framncss Hotel. We embark here 
for(12Kil.)Tvindehaugen (for 1,2, 3 persons with 1 rower 2 kr. 40, 
2kr. 80, 3kr. 20 0. ; with 2 rowers 3kr. 60, 4kr. 40, 5 kr. 20 0.). 
On every side rise lofty mountains. Off the Fselager of Maalnces we 
sight the pyramidal Uranaastind (p. 140), and to the S. rises the 
Suletind on the Fillefjeld. 

Tvindehaugen, a club-hut of the Turist-Forening (kept by Oud- 
brand Skattebo), is one of the chief stations of the Jotunheim 
guides. Ascent of the Skinegg (see below) l 1 /^ hrs. ; guide 
hardly necessary. 

The Koldedalstind or Falketind (6700 ft.), to the N.W. of Lake Tyin, 
ascended in 1820 by Prof. Keilhau and Chr. Boeck, and the first of the Jo- 
tunheim mountains ever climbed, is most conveniently reached from 
Tvindehaugen (8-10 hr9. ; guide 4 kr.). We row across the lake, ascend the 
valley of the Koldedela to the foot of the Falketind, and climb to the top, 
most of the way over glaciers. The dangerous descent to the Koldedal 
(p. 154) should be avoided; better return by the same route. 

A new road, skirting the lake, and crossing the low Eid or isth- 
mus between lakes Tyin and Bygdin, leads from Tvindehaugen to 
(6 Kil.) — 

Eidsbugarden, Eidsbugaren, or Eidsbud, a log-hut at the W. 
end of Lake Bygdin (p. 138), about 33 ft. above it, the most finely 
situated 'hotel' in Jotunheim (R. lkr., D. 1 kr. 30a.), and starting- 
point for several magnificent excursions. 

The *Skinegg (5150 ft.) is ascended from Eidsbugarden in 
H/2 hr. (there and back 2 1 / 2 hrs.; no guide required). "We cross 
the stream which descends from the Eid between lakes Bygdin and 
Tyin, and ascend straight to the N. peak, avoiding the soft snow- 
patches as much as possible. The view from the summit, where 
rocks afford welcome shelter, is one of the finest in Jotunheim, 
though shut out on the E. by the higher S.E. peak (5265 ft.). 

To the S we survey the Tyin and the whole of the Fillefjeld, with 
the Stugunerse near Nystuen and the majestic Suletind (5810 ft.). Of more 
absorbing interest are the mountains to the W. and N. , where the Tys- 
egg, the Gjeldedalstinder (7090 ft.) and Koldedalstinder (see above; Falke- 
tind, Stalsnaastind) with their vast mantles of snow, and farther distant 
the Horunger (beginning with the Skagastnlstind on the left, and ending 
with the Styggedalstind to the right ; p. 159) rise in succession. Next to 
these are the Fleskedalstinder, the Langeskavl, the Uranaastind (p. 140), 
with a huge glacier on its S. side, the Melkedalstinder, the Grashorung, 



140 Route 22. URANAASTIND. Jotunheim. 

and other peaks. To the N. rise the mountains on the N.W. side of Lake 
Gjende, and still more prominent are the Sletmarkh/j , Galdebergstind, 
and Turfinstinder on Lake Bygdin. Of that lake itself a small part of the 
W. end only is visible. — To Tvindehaugen on Lake Tyin (p. 139) we may 
descend direct from the Skinegg towards the S.W. — A walk to the top of the 
Skinegg, down to Tvindehaugen, and back to Eidsbugarden takes 5-6 hrs. 
The Ascent of the Langeskavl, there and back, takes half-a-day 
(guide necessary, 2 kr.). We ascend the course of the Melkedela (see below), 
and at the top of the hill, instead of turning to the right into the Melke- 
dal, enter a side-valley to the left, where we keep as far as possible to 
the right. The bare summit of the Langeskavl (6115 ft.) towers above 
masses of snow. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. of 
the Skinegg, to which we are now nearer, and also the whole of Lake 
Bygdin as far as the Bitihorn. 

The Ascent op the Ueanaastind from Eidsbugarden takes 6-7 hrs., 
or a whole day there and back (guide necessary, 4 kr.). We follow the 
route to the Langeskavl, which after a time we leave to the W. in order 
to ascend the extensive Uranaasbroe. We cross that glacier to the Brte- 
skar, whence we look down into the Skogadal to the W. (p. 155). Lastly 
an ascent on the N. side of about 800 ft. more to the summit of the "Ura- 
naastind (7035 ft.), the highest E. p'oint of the Uranaase, which is always 
free from snow. The extensive view vies with that from the Galdh0pig 
<p. 147). The compass is utterly useless on the top owing to the presence 
of iron. Towards the W. the Uranaastind descends precipitously into the 
Uradal (p. 155). To the S. it sends forth two glaciers, the Uranaasbrae, 
already mentioned, and the Melkedalsbrw, the E. arm of which descends 
into the Melkedal (p. 150), while the W. arm, divided by the Melkedals- 
pigge and furrowed with crevasses, descends partly into the Melkedal, and 
partly into the Skogadal (p. 150). — The Uranaastind may also be ascended 
rom Skogadalsbeen (p. 155). 

c. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod on Lake Gjende. 

From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod, 4-5 hrs.; guide (hardly neces- 
sary) 2 kr. 40 0., horse 4 kr. (A still finer route is that already described, 
from the Nybod through the Turfinsdal, p. 138.) After arriving at the 
Gjendebod we may ascend the Memurutunge the same day and return by 
boat from the Memurubod. 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 139. We follow the N. bank of Lake Byg- 
din, cross (V4 M the rapid Melkedela (p. 149) by a narrow wooden 
bridge, and reach ( 3 / 4 hr.) the Tolormbod, at the mouth of the To- 
lorma or Heistdkka, which point may also be reached by boat (with 
one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80 0., 1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 0.). Grand 
view, looking back, of the snow-mountains to the W. (comp.p. 139). 

The path ascends the left bank of the Tolorma , on the W. 
slope of the Oaldeberg and the Oksedalslw, crossing (l 1 /^ nr a 
brook which descends thence. We then ascend the Gjelhe, to the 
N.E. , to the plateau of Grenneberg (4210 ft.). To the left rises the 
Grashorung (7145 ft.) with the Snehul, and to the right the huge 
Sletmarkpig (7070 ft.), from which the Sletmarkbroe descends N. into 
the Vesle Aadal. Having crossed the Granneberg, we descend rap- 
idly to the N.E. into the Vesle Aadal, which is bounded on the 
N. by the Ojendetunge, and follow the brook down to Lake Gjende. 
Here we turn to the N., pass round the Gjendetunge, and cross by 
a bridge to the — 

Gjendebod (about 20 beds ; good wine ; fixed tariff), a club-hut 



Jotunheim. LAKE GJENDE. 22. Route. 141 

at the entrance to the Store Aadal , and at the foot of the preci- 
pices of the Mernurutunge. The post-office delivers letters here. 
Guides, Erik Slaalien and Ole O. Kvitten. — Boat to the Memuru- 
bod with 1 rower for 1, 2, or 3 pers., 2 kr., 2 kr. 40, 3 kr. 20 »., 
with 2 rowers 3 kr. 60, 4 kr., 4 kr. 80 m. ; to Gjendesheim with 1 
rower 3 kr. 20, 4kr., 5kr. 20, with 2 rowers 6 kr., 6 kr. 80»., or 
(also for 4 pers.) 8 kr. A second rower is always advisable. 

*Lake Gjende(3210 ft.J, 18 Kil. long, 1-1 1/2 Kil. broad, and 
480 ft. deep at places, extends from W. to E., where the Sjoa, a 
tributary of the Laagen, issues from it. It presents a still more 
Alpine character than Lake Bygdin. On both sides it is enclosed 
by abrupt mountains, of which the Beshe (7585 ft.), on the N. or 
'Solside', and the Knutshulstind (7680 ft.) and Svartdalspig 
(7030 ft.), on the S. or 'Bagside', are the highest. These peaks are 
not seen from the Gjendebod, but become visible as we ascend the 
Store Aadal. There are few places on the banks of the lake where 
landing or walking for any distance is practicable. The colour of 
the water is green, especially when seen from a height. The lake is 
fed by several wild glacier- torrents. Storms often make boating 
impossible for days together, and the N. wind sometimes divides 
in the middle of the lake and blows E. and "W. at the same time. 

The Ascent of the Memubutunge takes about 4 hrs., there and back, 
or including the descent to the Memurubod 6 hrs. at least (guide 2 kr.). 
From the Gjendebod we may either make the very steep ascent to the E. 
by the Bukkelmger or the Hegsluelefte (dangerous without a guide), or fol- 
low the bridle-path through the Store Aadal for about l'/a hr., ascending 
the left bank of the stream, and then mount rapidly to the right (prac- 
ticable for riding ; see below). The 'Mernurutunge, a plateau about 5020 ft. 
in height, with snow-fields, small lakes, and interesting Alpine flora, forms 
a kind of mountain-peninsula, bounded on the W. by the Store Aadal, on 
the S. by the Gjende, and on the E. and N. by the Memuru-Elv. Farther 
N. it is encircled by lofty snow-mountains. 

The View embraces, to the S., the Knutshulstind with its deep 'Hul', 
the Svartdalspig, and between them the deep Svartdal ; then the Langedal 
and the Sletmarkpig; to the W. rise the pointed Melkedalstinder and 
Baudalstinder, prominent among which is the Skarvdalstind, all near the 
Eaudal. To the N.W. lies the Langevand with the Smtfrstabtinder, the 
Kirke, and the Uladalstinder. To the N. the Hinaatjernhjzr, Memurutinder, 
and Tjukningssuen. To the E. the Besbjzr. — Instead of returning the same 
way, it is far more interesting to traverse the Mernurutunge to its E. end 
and then make the steep descent to the Memurubod. In this case a boat 
must be ordered to meet the traveller there. 

The view from the "Gjendetunge (5095 ft.) is the same as from the 
Mernurutunge, with the addition of a survey of the whole lake. We cross 
the bridge to the W., follow the path on the W. bank of the river to the 
N. for about V2 nr i and then ascend steeply to the left. 

The ascent of the highest Knutshulstind (7680 ft.), first made by Hr. 
Th. J. Heftye in 1875 from the S. side, is not difficult from the Gjende- 
bod (8 hrs.). We cross the lake and ascend the Svartdalsglup (p. 138) to 
the Svartdal, whence we climb towards the E. to the summit. 

From the Gjendebod through the Eaudal to Skogadalsbjzten, 10-12 
hrs. (guide to the Guridals-Saeter 8kr. 80#., to Berge near Fortun 16-18 kr.). 
The route leads up the Store Aadal on the right bank to a (>/2 hr.) water- 
fall formed by a brook descending from the Grisletjsern. It then ascends 
rapidly to the left. Farther on, it crosses the brook and leads on the ~$. 
side of the Qrisletjcern (4590 ft.) and the following tarns to the Raudalshoug 



142 Route 22. GJENDESHEIM. Jotunheim. 

(3 hrs. from the Gjendebod), where the Raudal begins. This grand, but at 
first unpicturesque valley, with its almost unbroken series of lakes, lies to 
the N. of and parallel with the Melkedal (p. 150). The valley is nearly level, 
and there is no distinguishable watershed. Here and there are large 
boulders deposited by the glacier which once filled the valley. On reach- 
ing the 'Band', or culminating point we enjoy superb ''Views in both di- 
rections: to the right rise the Raudalstinder (7410 ft. ; first ascended by 
Hr. Carl Hall in 1890; not difficult; guide indispensable), to the left is 
the itelkedalstind with its sheer precipice, and between them peeps the 
Fanaraak (p. 149) in the distance ; looking back, we observe the Raudals- 
tind on the left, the Snehulstind (Grashorung) on the right, and between 
them the Sletniarkpig (p. 140) with a great amphitheatre of glaciers. It takes 
about l'/s hr. to cross the 'Band', from which a route leads to the W. 
round the Svartdalsegg to the Langvand and the Store Aadal (a round of 
10-12 hrs. from the Gjendebod). We next cross the Raudals-Elv by a 
snow-bridge and traverse toilsome 'Ur' and patches of snow on the S. side 
of the valley, skirting a long lake for the last l'/2hr. (patience very neces- 
sary). As we approach the "Raudalsmund, the precipice with which the 
Raudal terminates towards the Store Utladal, the scenery again becomes 
very grand. A view is obtained of the mountains of the Utladal and Grav- 
dal, including the curiously shaped Storebjjzrrn (p. 148), from which the 
Sjortningsbrw descends. To the E. we survey the whole of the Raudal, 
flanked by the Raudalstinder on theN. and the Melkedalstind (p. 150) on 
the S. The red ('raud') 'gabbro' rock here has given rise to the name of 
the valley. The route now descends on the S. side of the grand waterfall 
of the Raudalselv to the Store Utladal, about 3 /4 hr. above the Muradn- 
Bater; thence to Skogadalsbtfen, see p. 156. 

The *Row down Lake Gjende to Gjendeosen (3-4 hrs.) requires 
line weather (fares, p. 141). Soon after starting we obtain a view 
to the S. of the Svartdal (p. 138), at the entrance of which lies the 
cattle-shed of Vaageboden. To the N. rise the slopes of the Me- 
murutunge (p. 141). About halfway down the lake, at the mouth 
of the Memurudal , from which issues the muddy Memuru-Elv, 
crossed by a bridge, is the club-hut of Memurubod. To the N.W., 
at the head of the Memurudal, rises the Heilstuguha and Semmel- 
hullet. Towards the N.E. the Beshe is conspicuous during the 
greater part of the trip, and more to the E. the Veslefjeld descends 
abruptly to the lake. 

From the Memurubod or from the Gjendebod an interesting and easy 
glacier-pass, with which the ascent the Hejlstuguhe (p. 144) or one of the 
Memurutinder may be combined, leads across the Memurubrae to the Spiter- 
stul (11 hrs. ; p. 145). 

From the E. end of the lake, named Ojendeosen, issues the Sjoa. 
On the N. bank here lies the club-hut of Gjendesheim, the best of 
the kind in Jotunheim (R. 80, B. 70, D. 1-1 kr. 30, S. 70 ».), a 
good starting-point for the ascent of the Veslefjeld and the Besegg 
(7-8 hrs., there and back; guide advisable), and for that of the 
Besha (8-9 hrs. , with guide). 

A good bridle-path leads N. in 1 hr. to the Bessa, on the N. 
bank of which lie the Bes or Besse Scetre (good quarters at the S. 
sseter, owned by P. Tronhus). The route to the Veslefjeld follows 
;he S. bank. Guided by 'Varder', we ascend to the Besvand 
(4525 ft. ; 340 ft. deep), where the huge Beshe becomes conspicuous. 
Ascending to the left, in 1V2 _ 2 hrs. more we reach the summit of 
the barren and stony Veslefjeld (6675 ft.). The view embraces the 



Jotunheim. BESH0. 22. Route. 143 

whole of the dark-green Lake Gjende, with the Koldedalstinder and 
Stedsnaastind to the S.W., and above all the enormous Beshe 
quite near. — We may now follow, towards the W., the narrowing 
crest of the Veslefjeld, separating the Besvand from the Gjende, 
which lies 1200 ft. lower, and terminating in the *Besegg, a curious 
ridge or arete, descending precipitously to Lake Gjende. 

Travellers with steady heads may descend to the Eid separating the 
two lakes, and not rising much above the Besvand. It is also possible to 
descend to the Memurubod by skirting the base of the Besh0. It is safer, 
however, to return to theBes-Sseters, or to descend direct to Gjendesheim. 

The ascent of the *Besh«r (7585 ft. •, 8-9 hrs., there and back) 
coincides with that of the Veslefjeld as far as the Besvand; we then 
row across the lake and ascend by the Beshebra. The view from 
the summit embraces the whole of Jotunheim. Far below lie the 
Memurutunge, the Besvand, Lake Gjende, and the Rusvand. The 
slope towards the last is precipitous. 

From the Bes-Saeters we may follow the W. bank of the Upper 
Sjodalsvand (3255 ft.) to (l'/2 hr.) the Besstrands-Sceter, and go 
thence by a carriage-road, passing the Nedre Sjodalsvand (32&0it.^, 
traversing a spur of the B es strand s Rundhe (4910 ft.), and crossing 
the Russa-Etv, to (l^br-) the three — 

Ruslien or Rusli Satre (3125 ft. ; good quarters at all), where 
the road from Serum and Storvik ends (p. 61). 

Ascent of the Nautgaestind from the Roslien S^tee (3-4 hrs.). 
We ascend a cattle-track ('Koraak') to the Hindfly, turn to the left to the 
Svndre Tvceraa, and round the Russe Rundhe (6233 ft.), traversing 'TJr 1 . 
Fine view of the Tjukningssuen (see below). We now come in sight of 
the slightly flattened and snowless summit of the "Nautgarstind (7615 ft.), 
to which we have still a steep ascent of fully 1000 ft. on the N.E. side. 
On the W. side the Tind ends in a vast 'Botn' or basin, 1600 ft. in depth. 
Magnificent view. 

Feom the Ruslien S^tee to the Memueubod (p. 142), 9 hrs., rather 
fatiguing. We at first follow the left bank of the Russa-Elv, wade through 
the Smdre and Nordre Tveraa, and reach the (3 hrs.) Rusvasbod, at the E. 
end of the Rusvand (4085 ft.). Skirting the lake, we cross several torrents 
descending from the N. To the S. are the precipices of the huge Besh0. 
At the (3 hrs.) W. end of the lake we ascend the Iiusglop, between the Olop- 
tind on the E. and Tjukningssuen (7910 ft.) on the W., and then descend 
past the JJesttjwm, lying to the right. After following the height to the S. 
a little farther, we descend abruptly to the Memurubod. 

Feom Gjendesheim to the Gjendebod (p. 140) an interesting route (to 
which the difficulty of crossing the Lejrungs-Elv is a serious drawback) 
leads through the 0vre Leirungsdal between the Leirungtbrm and Knuts- 
hulstind to the Svartdal (p. 138), and thence past the Svartdalsaaksle. 
Guide necessary (5 kr. 20 0). 

Feom Gjendesheim to Lake Btgdin (6-8 hrs., not very attractive; 
guide 4 kr.). Passing the Leirungsvand, we then ascend the course of a 
brook to the S. to the Brurskarsknatie, avoiding the extensive marshes 
of the Lejrungs-Elv. Around the Leirungsdal rise the Kalvaahegda, Knuts- 
huletind (p. 141), Tjernhulstind (7655 ft.), and Hagdebraltet. After crossing 
the marshy plateau of Valdersfly (about 4600ft.), we descend to the Vinsteren 
or Stremvand, cross the Vinstra by a bridge, skirt a spur of the Bilihorn, 
which has been visible from the Valdersfly onwards, and reach Raufjord- 
heim (p. 137). In the reverse direction it is best to row from Itaufjordheim 
to the Sund-Sceter at the N.E. end of Lake Bygdin, and to ascend the 
bank of the Breilaupa (p. 137) towards the N.E. to the Valdersfly. 



144 Routed. ULADALSBAND. Jotunheim. 

d. From the Gjendebod to Rejshjem. 

i'/a Days. On the first day we walk in 8-10 hrs. to the Spiterstul; on 
the second in 5 hrs. to Rejshjem. Guide necessary, to the Spiterstul 4kr., 
to B,0jshjem 5 kr. 60 0. ; horse as far as the steep ascent to the Uledalsvand 
2 kr. 60 0., saving fatigue. 

A line, but very fatiguing route. We ascend the left bank of 
the Storaadals-Elv and pass through the defile of Heistulen, 
between the Memurutunge and the Gjendetunge. To the right the 
Olimsdalsfos. Splendid view of the Semmeltind to the N. (see be- 
low). In 1 hr. we reach the Vardesten, a large rock ; i/ 2 ar - beyond 
it the bridle-path to the Memurutunge diverges to the right 
(p. 141). "We next observe, to the left of the Semmeltind, the Hel- 
lerfos (see below), and to the left, above it, the imposing Uladals- 
tinder (7605 ft.; easy ascent, splendid view). Walkers will find the 
passage of the Semmelaa, which descends from the Semmelhul 
glacier, unpleasant. (The Semmelhul is also crossed by a route 
into the Visdal, no less unpleasant, but much grander.) Our path 
now ascends rapidly on the E. (right) side of the wild HeUerfos, 
the discharge of the Hellertjsern, and reaches the top of the hill 
in !/2 nr - (2 nxs> f rom th e Gjendebod). Behind us is a superb 
view of the Sletmarkpig and Svartdalspig. We traverse a weird 
wilderness, strewn with glacier-boulders, skirt the Hellertjcem 
(4300 ft.) in a N.W. direction, and then turn to the right into the 
insignificant valley which leads N., and afterwards more E., to the 
Uladalsband. The steeper ascent soon begins (2*/2 hrs. from the 
Gjendebod), and riders must dismount. 

Feom the Hellektj-brn to the Leikdal and Kjjjshjem, 3-4 hrs. longer 
than our present route, is much less toilsome ("guide, not indispensable, 
to Ytterdals-Sseter 5 kr. 60 0.; horse to Rtfjshjem, with side-saddle if re- 
quired, 8-10 kr.). From the Hellertj Bern we follow the main track, reach 
the Langvand, or Langvatn (4630 ft.), and skirt its N. bank (IV2 hr.). On 
the right rise the Ulaaalstinder ; to the S. Svavtdalseggen (7215 ft.). At 
the W. end of the lake we ascend past the two Hegvageltjwrne to the 
Hflgvagel ('Vagge 1 , a Lapp word, signifying 'mountain-valley'; 5430 ft.), the 
highest point of the route, which commands a grand view of the Horunger 
to the S.W. The path then descends to the Leirvand (p. 156). 

A steep ascent of V2 nr - brings us to the first of the four S. Ula- 
dal Lakes (about 5180 ft.). This and the second lie to our left, the 
third to our right, and the fourth to our left. The route, extremely 
toilsome here, keeps to the right below the slopes of the Semmel- 
tind (7480 ft. ; easily ascended from the N. side ;'Semmel', a female 
reindeer). After another hour it reaches the Uladalsband (5760 ft.), 
its highest point, where it joins the route across the Semmel Gla- 
cier. We now descend to the two IV. TJladal Lakes (5170 ft.). To 
the right rises the Hejlstuguh0t(7$lO ft. ; ascent not difficult ; splen- 
did view of the Ymesfjeld, p. 147). Following the E. bank of this 
lake over most trying 'Ur', we at length reach (2 hrs., or from the 
Gjendebod 6 hrs.) Uladalsmynnet, the junction of the Uladal with 
the Visdal. Splendid view up and down the latter valley. To the 
left towers the Kirke. Route to the Leirvand, see p. 156. 



Jotunheim. SPITERSTUL. 22. Route. 145 

The route down the *Visdal (to the Spiterstul H/j-^ hrs. more] 
follows the right (E.) bank of the Visa, at first traversing soft 
turf, a pleasant contrast to the 'Ur'. After 1 hr. we wade across 
the Heilstuguaa, which descends from the extensive Heilstugubra. 
The crossing is easy in the early morning only; later in the day 
we ascend a little in order to cross by a bridge (whence the 
Spiterstul is 1 hr. distant). Shortly before reaching the saeter, 
we observe to the left , through the Bukkehul , the Sveilnaasbr* 
and the Styggebrae (p. 147) , two glaciers with magnificent ice- 
falls, especially the latter. 

The Spiterstul (about 3710 ft.), the highest saeter in the Vis- 
dal, commanded by the Skauthe (6675 ft.) on the E., affords plain 
quarters for 8-10 persons and good food at moderate charges. 

With a guide, we may ascend the Leirhe (78S5 ft.) , the HeiUtugulw 
(p. 144), and one of the Memuruiinder (7965 ft.). 

The ascent of the Galdhtfpig (p. 147) is shorter from the Spiterstul 
than from lifljshjem. The route crosses the Visa by a bridge l fe hr. 
S. of the Spiterstul, ascends on the N. side of the Sveilnaasbrce, and 
traverses the three peaks of the Sveilnaasi. It is not easily mistaken 
by experts, but owing to the glacier-crevasses is not free from danger, 
and should not be attempted without a guide. 

From the Spiterstul to Rejshjem about 5 hrs. more (guide 
not indispensable). We soon reach the zone of birches (about 
3600 ft.) and (y 2 hi.) a rocky barrier through which the Visa has 
forced a passage. In another '/j ^ r - we come to a pine-wood, 
with picturesque trees ('Furuer') on the N. side, some of them 
quite bare. (The limit of pines is here about 3280 ft. above the 
sea-level.) Above us, to the left , is an offshoot of the Stygge- 
brae. We cross (^ hr.) the Skauta-Elv , which forms a waterfall 
above, by a curious bridge. To the S. we perceive the Uladals- 
tinder (p. 144) and the Styggelw (7315 ft.). On the other side 
of the Visa is the Nedre Sulheims-Sceter (3190 ft.), opposite which 
the Qlitra falls into the Visa. 

From the Spiterstul or the Nedre Sulheims-Sseter the ascent of the 
Glittertind (8385 ft.) takes 8-10 hrs., there and back (guide and ice-axe 
necessary). The route follows the top of the hill between the Glitra and 
the Skauta-Elv, running towards the E. The height first reached is the W. 
spur of the rocks which enclose the huge basin f'Botn 1 ) on the N. side. 

The Rfljshjem route continues to follow the E. bank of the 
Visa. In case of doubt observe the small 'Varder'. We cross the 
Grjota, the Smiugjela, and the Qokra. The Visa is lost to view 
in its deep channel, but we follow the margin of its ravine. A 
path ascending to the right for a .few hundred paces leads to the 
finely situated Visdals-Scetre (2960 ft. ; quarters for the night ob- 
tainable, best at the 0vrebe-8ctter). 

The Gokraskard, a fine point of view, may be ascended hence; it 
commands the TJladalstinder to the S., the Galdhjzrpig to the S.W., and 
the Hestbrsepigge to the W. — A still finer point is the Lauvhjer (6710 ft.), 
whence the Glittertind is also visible. 

From the Visdals-Ssetre we may also ascend the Gokkerdal, between 
the Lauvh0 on the N. and Gokkeraxelen on the S., to the pass of Finhals 
(3885 ft.). Following the Finhals-Elv thence and crossing the Smaadals- 

Baedekek' s Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 10 



146 Route 22. E0JSHJEM. Jotunheim. 

Elv in the Smaadal, we may turn to the right to the Smaadals ■ Scaler 
(3905 ft.) , from which the huge Kvitingskjelen (6975 ft.) to the N. may 
be ascended, and next reach the Smerlid'Sczter and the Naaver-Bceter on 
Lake Thessen. Thence across the lake and past the Oxefos to Storvik 
(p. 62; 1-11/2 day). 

Below the Visdal Sseters begins the magnificent descent to 
Rejshjem, skirting the profound Eavine of the Visa. The Lauva 
descends from the right. The saeter-path, which has now become 
a road , descends very rapidly, and in about l 1 ^ h r - reaches the 
first houses, where we cross the curious bridge to the left. 

Rejshjem, see below. 

e. Etfjshjem and Environs. The Galdh-epig. 

Feom Andvord (p. 62) to Rotshjem (14 Kil.). The road 
ascends on the left bank of the Bcevra, often close to the stream. 
At one point , the Staberg , where there is a mill , the ravine is 
very narrow, and huge blocks of rock have fallen into it from 
above. In the background rise the Oaldheer (7300 ft.), which 
conceal the Galdhepig, and the Juvbra? , with their imposing 
masses of ice and snow. We pass the gaard Sulheim, on the right, 
with a waterfall. On the opposite bank are the falls of the Glaama 
and the gaard of Glimsdal (see below). 

Eajshjem or Redsheim (1800 ft.; *Inn kept by Ole Halvorssen 
Rejshjem, who speaks English and knows the country thoroughly) 
lies at the junction of theBasverdal and the Visdal(see above), and 
is the best starting-point for the ascent of the Galdhapig and other 
fine excursions. By the upper bridge over the Baevra are several 
'giant-cauldrons', the largest being about 10 ft. in diameter. 

The following is a pleasant walk of 1-2 hours. We follow the 
Andvord road for 10 min., and cross the Bsevra. A rocky *Hill 
here commands a fine view of E»jshjem and the Galdheer. A 
pleasant meadow-path then leads to the left through a plantation 
of alders to (20 min.) the right side of the valley and to Glimsdal, 
a group of farms, where the Glaama descends in four falls. We 
may then ascend by the broad track on the left bank of the Glaama 
in 20 min. more to the gaard Engum, at the top of the fall. 

The Ascent of the Galdhotig (8-9 hrs. ; there and back, 
14-16 hrs.) is comparatively easy, especially if a night be spent on 
the way (at the Eaubergsstul or, better, in the Juvvashytte), and 
has frequently been accomplished by ladies. Guides , Knud Vole 
and his son (5 kr. ; horse 4-6 kr.). Provisions should be taken. 

We follow the Bseverdal road (p. 147) for 1/2 ^ r -> an< i at t ^ e 
Mongjel Bdegaard ascend to the left to (IV2 ^ r * ne Raubergs- 
Soetre, where we may sleep in a hut belonging to Ole E»jshjem. 
This point may also be reached by a direct footpath in l*/2 h r - 
(guide desirable). We next ascend to the S.W. to (1 hr.) the barren 
and stony Galdeshei (5240 ft.), which the bridle-path, however, 
avoids. In l J / 2 ^ r - more we reach the Tverbra> and the Juvvand 



Joturiheim. GALDHJ0TPIG. 22. Route. 147 

(about 6230 ft.), a small glacier-lake, with the Juvvashytte (several 
beds; beer and coffee; well spoken of). Above in the form of a 
bay rise the cliffs of Kjedelen (7300 ft.). "We now obtain our first 
view of the summit of the Galdhflpig and the Sveilnaasi, its dark 
rocky spur, with the Keilhaustop and Sveilnaaspig, looking almost 
black as they rise above the vast expanse of snow and above the 
Styggebrce or Vetljuvbra. Crossing snow and a stony tract, we reach 
the Varde (6365 ft.) on the Styggebwe in l-li/ 2 hr., and take 3 /4-l hr. 
more to cross the glacier. (Beware of the crevasses.) We next ascend 
a ridge of rock covered with loose stones. On the right a deep yawn- 
ing abyss; on the left the Styggebrae with its wide crevasses. 
Lastly we mount a toilsome snowy arete to the (V2 hr.) summit. 

The **Galdh.epig (8400 ft. ; accent on first syllable) is the 
highest peak of the Ymesfjeld, a peculiar mountain-plateau en- 
closed by the valleys of the Leira, Visa, and Bsevra, and connected 
with the other mountains of Jotunheim by the Hergvagel (p. 144) 
only. The slopes of the Ymesfjeld are abrupt on every side. 
Besides the Galdhepig there are few peaks rising above its vast 
sea of snow and ice. The Galdhepig , the top of which is almost 
always swept clear of snow by storms, is the highest mountain in 
Norway {Mont Blanc 15,784 ft., Monte Rosa 15,217 ft., the Ortler 
12,814 ft.). A tall 'Varde' of stone affords some shelter. 

The View embraces the almost equally lofty Glittertind (p. 145) and 
the Rondane to the E.; the whole of Jotunheim to the S.; the Sm0r- 
stabtinder, the Horunger, the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbrse, and the Nord- 
fjord mountain-chain to theW.; lastly the Snehpetta group to theS. No 
inhabited valleys are visible. The distant dark-blue Sognefjord alone 
relieves the weird and solemn scene. — Descent to the Spiterstul, not 
without danger, see p. 145. 

The Xomsegg (P 885 ft.) , to the N. of R0jsbjem, may be ascended by 
the gaard Sulheim fp. 146) on horseback in 5-6 hours. Imposing view of the 
Glittertind and 6aldh0pig, and of the Smtfrstabtinder and the Fanaraak 
to the S.W. , which, however, seem a long way off. 

The best survey of the whole chain ii obtained from the Hestbrae- 
pigge (6095 ft). Riding practicable part of the way. The latter part of 
the ascent over snow and ice is nearly level. 

From Rerjshjem through the Visdal or the Leirdal to Lake Gjende, 
see pp. 146-144. 

f. From Rejshjem over the D«lefjeld to Fortun. 

66 Kil. (I1/2 day). Road to the church of Bieverdal (4V2 Kil.). Bkidle 
Path thence to Fortun. Guide and horse to Fortun 16 kr. — Walkers 
usually sleep at the (7 hrs.) Bceverlun- Sceter, and next day cross the 
Pulefjeld to Tvrtegre, the first inhabited place on the other side (7-8 hrs.). 
Thence to Fortun about 2 hrs. more. 

Reijshjem, see p. 146. A carriage-road leads us to (4 1 /"* Kil-) 
Bceverdals Kirke. On the W. side of the valley is Bakkeberg, with 
large farm -buildings amid smiling corn-fields. The road ascends 
steeply through the grand gorge of *6alderne, with its overhanging 
rocks. To the right we have a view of the Juvtind, to the left we 
see the Hestbrfe. The road soon divides. That to the right follows 
the course of the Bcevra, passing the saeters oiRusten, Flekken 

10* 



1 48 Route 2-2. BJ3VERDAL. Jotunheim. 

(driving practicable to this point) , Netto , and Preste (good quar- 
ters), to trie Heidalsvand (2155 ft.), from 'which the Baevra issues 
in a fine waterfall called the Heifos. — The route to the left 
(preferable; bridle-path only) turns into the Leirdal. Avoiding 
the first bridge to the right, we cross the Leira by the second 
bridge, at the gaard of Aamot, and follow the left (W.) bank. To 
the left are the slopes of the Store Juvbra and the Store Orovbra. 
Farther on is a grand gorge , through which , however , our route 
does not lead. On the left descends the Ilfos; facing us is 
Loftet(j>. 156), with its extensive glaciers; nearer, on the left, 
is the Dumhe, with the high fall of the Duma, below which lie 
the Ytterdals-Saetre. 

About 3 hrs. from Rejshjem we leave the Leirdal (through 
which a path leads past the Ytterdals-Saetre to the Leirvand; see 
p. 156) and ascend the Baverkjarn-Hals (about 3600 ft. ; 'Hals', 
a pass). We here obtain a fine *View of the flat upper basin of 
the Leirdal, set in snow-mountains and glaciers, and farther on 
we enjoy a splendid panorama of the W. spurs of Galdh»piggen, 
Loftet, the Hestbraspigge , the Hedfos , and the Baeverkjaern in the 
upper Bseverdal. At a large 'Varde' our path turns to the left and 
descends to the Baverkjcem (about l 1 /^ nr - from the Lejrdal), 
with its numerous promontories. We follow the S. bank of the 
lake, which is about 1 M. long, and after 2:3 min., near the Rusten- 
Sceter, cross a bridge over the Baevra. We then for 3 /4hr. skirt the 
N. bank of the Bmvertunvand (3045 ft.), to the W. of which rises 
the Dumher. The scene is grand but desolate. At the W. end of 
the lake we at length reach (6 hrs. from Rajshjem) the — 

Baevertun-Seeter (3050 ft. ; two houses ; good, quarters for 10-12 
persons). About 1/4 hr. from Basvertun we cross the Dommabro or 
Dombrui, where the Domma, shortly before its junction with the 
Baevra, flows underground, and then ascend for l^-l^hr. through 
the monotonous valley of the Baevra to the Nupshaug, a curious 
rocky knoll in the middle of the valley. Adjoining it is a fall of 
the Baevra ; to the left are two other waterfalls, all of which unite 
here. We now ascend to a higher region of the valley, pass (25- 
30 min.) the ruined stone hut of Krosboden, and see to the left 
the *Sm«rstabbrse, one of the grandest glaciers in Norway, over- 
topped by the Smerstabtinder. One of these peaks , the Saksa, 
may be ascended from the Baevertun-Saeter with a good guide in 
12-14 hrs. (there and back); the highest peak, the Storebjern 
('Big Bear' ; 7510 ft.; ascended for the first time by Hr. Carl Hall 
in 1885), to the S., is more difficult and takes longer. The Baevra 
issues from the Smerstabbrae , at the end of which there is a fine 
ice-cavern (digression of Y2 hr.). 

In 1/4 hr. from Krosboden we come to a stone 'Varde' with a 
wooden figure, bearing the inscription (of which only a few letters 
are now legible) : — 



Jotunheim. OSCARSHOUG. 22. Route. 149 

'Vaer rask som en L«rve, og skynd dig som en Hind! 
See Veiret det gryner i Fanaraak Tind!' 
'Be quick as a lion, haste thee like a hind; see how the storms lower 
over the Fanaraak Peak !' 

In Y2 h r - more we reach the actual Fjeld, whence we enjoy a 
superb view of the Smerstabbne, and of the Fanaraak farther W., 
and then (Y4 hr.) the Krosheer (4630 ft.) , the highest point of 
our route , where we cross the boundary of Bergens-Stift. To the 
left lies the Rauskjeldvand, and afterwards the Prastesteinvand, 
to which the Fanaraakbrae nearly reaches. We take two hours to 
pass this series of almost contiguous lakes and glaciers. The route 
is marked by large 'Varder', but as fog frequently sets in it is 
always safer to have a guide. 

About V4 hr. from Krosheden is a curious Varde called the 
'Kammerherre\ a high mass of rock with a pointed stone on the 
top. The route soon descends steeply to the Herrevand, the stream 
flowing out of which we cross by the Hervasbrui ('Brui', bridge; 
4305 ft.), IY2 nr - from the Kammerherre. It is usual to rest at a 
stone hut here. The route next rourfds a buttress of the Fanaraak 
(6690 ft.), an important member of the Jotunheim group , and 
passes the (35 min.) Oaldebergsuand, and afterwards the Juvvand 
(4115 ft.), fed by the glacier-stream Juvvandsaa. On our left now 
rises the W. side of the Fanaraak, and we soon survey the whole 
range of the Hortinger (p. 158) beyond the deep Helgedal , the 
best point of view being the *Oscarshoug (3730 ft.), a slight emi- 
nence to the left of the path, li/ 2 -l 3 /4 hr. from the Hervasbrui. 
A memorial-stone records a visit paid to this spot by King Oscar II. 
in 1860, when crown-prince. 

"We now descend by a good path to (V2 hr.) the inns at the 
Turtegre-Satre (2790 ft.), in the Helgedal, a little to the right of 
the main path, and the sseters of Qjessingen (see p. 158). 

From Turtegiie to Fortun, through the Ooabergsdal, the con- 
tinuation of the Helgedal, is a walk of scarcely 2 hrs. more ; comp. 
pp. 158, 157. 

g. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to Skogadals- 
heren, and across the Keiser to Fortun. 

2 Days: 1st, to Skogadalsbeien 8-10 hrs.; 2nd, to Fortun 8-9 hrs.; a 
grand route throughout, but toilsome at places. Best to take a guide the 
whole way: to Skogadalsb0en 4 kr., to Berge (','2 hr. from Fortun; p. 157) 
8kr. 40 0. (to the Vettisfos, p. 153, 7 kr.) 

As the guides of Eidsbugarden , Vetti, etc., are seldom well ac- 
quainted with the Horunger , the traveller who intends to explore these 
mountains should dismiss his guide at the Helgedals-Saeter. As to a new 
guide, see p. 157. 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 139. — To the mouth of the turbid Melke- 
dela , and across that river, see p. 140. — Quitting the lake , we 
gradually ascend the *Melkedal. After 3/ 4 hr. the valley divides. 
The branch to the left ascends to the Langeskavl and the Uranaas- 
tind (p. 140) ; that to the right is still called the Melkedal. Steep 



150 Route 22. MELKEDAL. Jotunheim. 

ascent through the latter, passing several waterfalls. As is so often 
the case in Norway, the valley has no level floor, hut consists of 
a chaos of heights and hollows. At places the rock, polished 
smooth by glacier-friction , is exposed, and at others is covered 
with loose boulders. Vegetation ceases, and the only sign of life 
consists in the 'Koraak', or cattle-tracks, in the snow. At places, 
however, the ground is thickly strewn for a long distance with 
the droppings of the Lemming ('Lemsen', Lemus Norvegicus , a 
rodent, not unlike a rat), a hardy little nomad which often swims 
across Lakes Bygdin and Gjende. The reindeer kills the lemming 
with a stroke of its hoof and eats the stomach for the sake of its 
vegetable contents. About 20 min. above the bifurcation of the 
valley we ascend a steep snow-slope to the plateau of Melkehullerne, 
with several ponds. 

In 20 min. more (about lt^hr. fromEidsbugarden)we reach the 
**Store Melkedalsvand (4345 ft.), in a strikingly grand situation, 
the finest point on the route, and worthy of a visit for its own sake 
from Eidsbugarden (best time in the forenoon, 4-5 hrs. there and 
back). Even in July miniature icebergs (of 'aarsgammells', year- 
old ice , i.e. winter-ice) are seen floating in the lake (fresh ice 
being called 'natgammel Is', night-ice). To the W. rises the 
Langeskavl; then the Uianaastind; on this side of the latter is 
the Radberg ; next , the Melkedalsbrse , descending to the lake, 
and the Melkedalstinder , all reflected in the dark-blue water. 

A walk of another hour over 'Ur' and snow brings us to an 
ice-pond at the foot of the first Melkedalstind, whence we ascend 
a steep slope of snow in 20 min. more to the Melkedalsband , the 
watershed ('Vandskjelet'). To the "W. a view is obtained of the 
Second Melkedalsvand, a much larger lake than the first, and 
generally covered with winter-ice down to July. To the left rises 
the first, and to the right the second Melkedalstind (7110 ft.; 
ascended either from the Raudal or the Melkedal), and to the N.W. 
the Raudalstind (p. 142). Scenery still imposing. The route 
skirts the N. side of the second Melkedalsvand and (*/2 hi'-) crosses 
the Btream. Rough walking. A view of the Horunger is now dis- 
closed (p. 158). The striation of the rocks by glacier-action 
('Skurings-Striber') is frequently seen. The torrent is again crossed 
by a snow-bridge (caution necessary) , or we may wade through 
it knee-deep a little lower down. The Melkedal now ends in a 
barrier of rock ('Baelte', girdle) , over which the river falls about 
590 ft. To this point also descends from the left the W. arm of 
the Melkedalsbrse , by which the descent from the Uranaastind 
may be made (see above). The lower region of the valley which 
we now enter is the *Skogadal, a broad basin. Above it tower the 
majestic Horunger, the Skagasttflstinder, and the Styggedalstind. 
The Maradalsbra descending from the Skagastelstinder is parti- 
cularly striking. — The Skogadal is at first a little monotonous, 



Jotunheim. REISER PASS. 22. Route. 151 

but with the rising temperature the vegetation improves, and the 
scanty 'Rab' or scrub is soon replaced by fine birches (whence the 
name, 'forest valley'). A walk of 2 hrs. from the 'Bselte', without 
defined path, brings us to the tourist-hut of — 

Skogadalsbeen in the Utladal, see p. 155. For the rest of the 
route, which is practicable for riding for 2-3 hrs. farther, a guide 
may be dispensed with, except for crossing the Keiser Pass, espe- 
cially if still covered with snow. After 25 min. the Muradn route 
leads to the right (p. 155). We turn to the left and cross the Vila 
by a bridge. Beyond it the path to the right leads to the (25 min.) 
Guridals-Ssetre , while we follow the good saeter-track to the W., 
on the N. bank of the Ojertvas-Elv or Styggedals- Elv , which 
descends from the Gjertvasbraa and the Keiser. The retrospect 
becomes grander and more open as we advance: to the left is the 
Smflrstabbrse ; at the end of the Store Utladal is the Kirke ; more 
to the right are the Raudalstinder ; in front of us is the Skoga- 
dalsnaasi ; further to the right are the Melkedalstind, the Uranaas- 
tind, and, to the extreme right, the Falketind. After 40 min. the 
stream forms a small waterfall. To the left, at the base of the 
Styggedalstind (7710 ft.), which can be ascended from this side, 
extends the large Gjertvasbrce, opposite which we pass'-Ahr. later. 

A grand route, only about 1 hr. longer, taken for the first time by 
Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby in 1876, and not difficult for good walkers, leads 
past the N. side of the Gjertvasbrce to a low pass, and descends to the 
Styggedalshrce and thence to the Helgedals-Sseter (see below). 

The path, now good, next leads to the (}/i hr.) Ojertvand, passes 
to the left of this lake, and ascends steeply, over debris and snow, 
to the 'Skar', and then, between the Styggedalsnaasi on the left and 
the Ilvasnaasi to the right, to the (1/2 hr.) Keiser Pass (4920 ft.; 
Lapp 'Gaisa', mountain), on which lie the Jlvand and the snows of 
the Storfond. To the S.E., above the snow of the Styggedalstind, 
rises the Koldedalstind , to the N. the Fanaraak, to the "W. the 
huge Jostedalsbrse rising above the mountains on the Lysterfjord. 

The path now leads along the top of the hill, passing the pond 
of Skauta. The Horunger, especially the mountains round the 
Styggedalsbotn , become conspicuous to the left. After 35 min. 
we cross the Helgedals-Elv , which flows towards the W., some- 
times scarcely fordable, and in 10 min. more reach a bare rocky 
height commanding the * 'Styggedalsbotn (p. 158), a huge basin of 
snow and ice. After 25 min. we see in the 'Botn' to the left the 
outflow of the Styggedal glacier, and to the right the Steindals-Elv 
coming from the Fanaraak. In front of us, about 660 ft. below, ex- 
tends the broad Helgedal, to which the path now rapidly descends. 

In l /4 hr. we pass, on the left, the fine Skautefos, formed by 
the confluence of the Helgedals-Elv and the Styggedals-Elv. The 
path then crosses the Steindals-Elv , usually not difficult , and 
leads through the wide valley to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) Helgedals-Sater, and 
past the Turtegrer Saeters (p. 158) to (272 hrs.) Fortun (see p. 157). 



1 52 Route n. AARDALSVAND. Jotunheim. 

h. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Vettisfos. 

To Vetti about 5 hrs., viz. l'^-l'/s nr - by rowing-boat; l'/4 hr. by 
carriole, on horseback, or on foot; the rest on foot, the path being almost 
too bad for riding. As the Sognefjord steamers to Aardal are not timed 
very conveniently, and the quarters at Aardal are unpretending, this route 
is a little uncomfortable. It is recommended only to those who are going 
on to Jotunheim or who intend making the circuit of the Horunger, but 
hardly repays visitors to the Vettisfos only. Guide to Vetti unnecessary, 
but required for the excursions beyond it. Peter Jergen Melheim and Jens 
Ornws are commended (4 kr. per day). 

Aardal, see p. 130. Having engaged two rowers, we walk up 
the Aardalselv, on the right bank of which we observe the gaard 
Hereid, to the (}/i hr.) Aardalsvaud (13 ft. above the sea), a lake 
14 Kil. long, surrounded by abrupt cliffs and deep ravines. A boat 
on the lake carries us in li/ 2 hr. t0 *h e upper end. To the right we 
see the Stegafjeld, with the precipice of Opstegene on its E. side ; 
beyond lies the Fosdal with the Eldegaard, to which a zigzag path 
ascends past a waterfall. Farther on, high up to the right, is the 
Lestsater; then the Midnceshamer, with the Eldeholt. To the left 
rises the Bottnjuvkamb with its huge precipice ; to the right are 
the 'Plads' or clearing of Gjeithus and the Raudnces. Then , to 
the left, the Nondal, with several farms and the Nondalsfos. On 
rounding the Raudnaes we see — 

Farn&s, at the N.E. end of the lake, where we land. Bargaining 
advisable in hiring horse or vehicle. 

From Faunas to Foktun (8-10 hrs.; with guide, 4 kr.). A bridle- 
path ascends N.W. through the Fardal or Langedal , passing the Aare 
and Stokke sffiters, to the Muradn-Sceter, whence a path leads through the 
Lovardalsskard (4700 ft.), a narrow 'gap' or pass, into the Berdal, where 
a refuge-hut has been built by Kristoffer Foraas, a good guide for the 
Amtabottind (7224 ft.) and Soleitind (6824 ft.), two beautiful peaks, the 
former difficult, the latter easy. Thence to the gaard of Fuglesteg (2495 ft.) 
and by an excessively steep descent (whence probably the name of 'Fug- 
lesteg', or 'bird-path') to Fortun (p. 157). 

The road from Farn;es to Gjelle (7 Kil. J ascends the right (W.) 
bank of the Vtla. In i / i hr. we see on the right the mouth of the 
Aardela ; then the gaard of Moen (poor quarters). 

Fkom Moen to Eidsbugarden , 10 hrs., unattractive. A sseter-track 
ascends past the numerous falls of the Aardela to the (272-3 hrs.) fisher- 
man's hut of Sletterust , where the route to Nystuen mentioned at p. 51 
turns to theS., while another path leads to the N. of the Tortiolmenvand, 
past the S. base of the Mansberg, to (2-2>/2 hrs.) the 'Faelseger' of Breikvam 
on Lake Tyin. If a boat can be obtained we cross to Tvindehuugen and 
reach the route to Eidsbugarden mentioned at p. 139 ; if not , we must 
walk round the If. end of the lake, fording the Koldedela. 

About 5 Kil. from Farnaes the road crosses the Utla, and ends 
at Ojelle, 2 Kil. farther. To the right is the fine *6jellefos. 

From Gjelle a bad bridle-path (best on foot for the suitably 
shod) ascends the Vettisgjel, a ravine 4-5 Kil. long. The path 
first descends to the left, crosses the river, and reaches the gaard 
Skaaren, just beyond which it crosses another bridge ('Johannebro, 
1880'). Farther on we thread our way through a chaos of stones 
above the wild Utla. After 1/2 nT - we reach the *Afdnlsfos, f)30 ft. 



Jotunheim. .VETTISFOS. 22. Route. 153 

high. Scenery very imposing. The ravine ends, 3/ 4 hr. farther on, 
at the Heljabakfos, a fall of the Utla. Steep ascent to the Helja- 
bakken, from -which we have a view of the 'Plads' below, Gaard 
Vetti above , and of three small waterfalls to the left. Then a 
steep climb of 1/2 hr. more to — 

Gaard Vetti (1090 ft.; quarters at Anfind Vetti' s; horses to be 
had for returning to Farn£es). 

A disagreeable path (guide unnecessary) leads hence , at first 
up and then down hill, to (^ hr.) the *Vettisfos, or Vettismor- 
kafos, 850 ft. in height, a fall of the Morkadela, which joins the 
Utla a little lower down. A height near the fall commands an ad- 
mirable view of it, but a closer approach may be made by crossing a 
small bridge to the other bank. — Those who have 3-4 hrs. more to 
spare may ascend for H/4 hr. the path leading to the Vettismorka- 
Saeter, in order to enjoy the fine view of the fall from above. 

The difficult ascent of the Store Skagastjalstind (7S75 ft.), once thought 
impossible like that of the Matterhorn , was first accomplished by Mr. 
Wm. C. Slingsby in 1876. The best starting-point is Vormelid or Skagastel 
(guide, p. 157), whence we ascend to the Midt Maradalsskar (refuge -hut, 
destroyed in July, 1891) and thence to the top, either direct, or via the 
Slingsbybrw and the Mohnskar, and lastly up 500 ft. of rock. — The Mell- 
emste Skagastelstind, first ascended by Hr. Carl Hall in 1884, is another 
formidable rocky peak. 

'Circuit op the Hokungek (with guide; a horse must be obtained at 
Karnfes or Gjelle, and provisions brought from Aardal). 1st Day: From 
Gaard Vetti, by the Vettismorka-Sceter and the Fleskedals-Scetre (p. 154), 
to Skogadalsbeen (p. 155) in 7-8 hrs., or in 3 / 4 hr. more to the highest 
Guridals- Salter (p. 155). 2nd Day: Across the Reiser Pass (p. 151) to the 
Skagatels - Swtre (p. 158), and ascent of the Dyrliaugstind (p. 158). 3rd 
Day. Via Fortun to Skjolden, 4'/2-5 hrs. 

i. From Vetti to Tvindehaugen and Eidsbugarden. 

8-10 hrs. A grand expedition (guide advisable, 5'/2 kr.). In the re- 
verse direction a saving is effected by rowing across Lake Tyin (with 
one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80 0., 1 kr., 1 kr. 20 0.). In this case a 
guide should be taken at least as far as Sniaaget. 

[More fatiguing than the route described below, and not free from 
risk, is that through the Morka-Koldedal, whence the KoldedjJla, forming 
the Vettisfos, descends. It crosses two frozen lakes and may be imprac- 
ticable in the height of summer.] 

Oaard Vetti and the Vettisfos, see above. From Vetti we ascend 
the Vettisgalder towards the N.E., and in Y2 nr - reach a plateau 
commanding a view of the Utladal to the N., with the Maradalsfcs 
on the left. In another !/ 2 hr. we reach the top of the hill, where 
there are a few sickly pines and others overthrown by the wind. To 
the right rises the Stelsnaastind. Just beyond the first fence we 
descend to the left through scrub to the Morkedela and cross it by 
a plank. About 100 paces farther, quite to the left, above the abyss 
into which the river plunges, is a dead tree which affords handhold 
to those who care to look down into the huge ravine of the Vettis- 
fos (see above ; l^hr. from the gaard). We return to the left bank 
of the Morkedtfla, ascend its course, and (20min.) cross it to the — 



154 Route 22. FLESKEDAL. Jotunheim. 

Vettismorka-Sceter (2190 ft.). To the W., at the head of the 
iSteds-Maradal, rises the Riingstind with the Riingsbrae ; below is 
the Maradalsfos ; to the right, the Maradalsnaasi. The view of the 
Horunger increases in grandeur. 

From the upper valley of the Morkedpla, on the S. side, rises the 
Gjeldedalstind (7100 ft. ; first ascended by Hr. Carl Hall in 1884), and on 
the N. side the Sfcalsnaastind (6790 ft. ; first ascended by Mr. Slingsby in 
1875), both of which may be ascended without serious difficulty. Grand 
views. Guide, Mis Vetti, son of Anfind. 

Our route now leads through pines and birches and (t/ 2 hr.) 
crosses the Fleshed als-Elv. It then ascends through wood to an open 
space where we enjoy a *view of the Skagastalstinder (p. 158) to 
the left. We then descend slightly and cross the river again to the 
(72 hr.) four Fleskedals-Saetre, the middle one of which, owned by 
Anfind Vetti, affords clean quarters (if open : enquire at Vetti). 
Route to Skogadalsbeen, see below. 

Striking retrospective view of the Horunger, and particularly of 
the Riingsbrae. To the N. we first observe Friken (see below), and 
afterwards the precipices of the 'Naes' which separates the Fles- 
kedal from the Uradal. (The latter, one of the most sequestered 
valleys in Jotunheim, is little known ; at the E. end of it rises the 
Uranaastind, p. 140 ; at the W. end it opens into the Utladal, i/ 2 h r - 
S. of Skogadalsbtfen, p. 155.) 

We now ascend the Fleskedal and (8/4 hr.) recross the river by 
a bridge. To the right rise the Stelsnaastinder with a large glacier. 
Further on we ascend to (IV2 hr.) the defile of Smaaget, where we 
have another striking *view of the Horunger behind us. We pass 
the Fleskedalsvand, ascend to (^hr-) the 'Band' or watershed, and 
descend rapidly towards the Uradalsvand, with the Uranaastind to 
the left. Following the painted ' Varder', and passing the mouth of 
the Morka-Koldedal on the right, we cross (iy2hr.) the Uradela, 
which descends from the Uradalsvand. View of the Koldedalstinder 
and several glaciers to the right. We now skirt the E. bank of the 
Koldedalsvand and the Koldedela, descend to the Tyinstrand on 
Lake Tyin, and skirt its bank to the left (E.) to the N.E. angle of 
the lake (about 2 hrs. from the Urade<la bridge). The route divides 
here. To the left a new road leads across the Eid to (3 Kil.) Eids- 
bugarden (p. 139); to the right a path marked by 'Varder' leads to 
(1 hr.) Tvindehaugen on the E. bank of Lake Tyin (p. 139). 

k. From Vetti through the Utladal, Gravdal, and Lejrdal to 
Retjshjem. 

272 Days : — 1st. From Gaard Vetti to the tourist-hut of Skogadals- 
been, (6-7 hrs.), whence the Skogadalsnaasi may be ascended. — 2nd. From 
Skogadalsbeen to the refuge-hut of Slethavn (8-9 hrs.). — 3rd. To Rejshjem 
(6-7 hrs.). 

From Vetti to the Fleskedals-Scetre, 'l 1 /^ hrs., see above. Our 
route ascends Friken (4630 ft.), following the 'Varder', descends 
after 3 /4hr., and then skirts the slope high above the Utladal, 



Jotunheim. UTLADAL. 22. Route. 155 

affording a superb *View of the Hor&nger, whose sharp peaks tower 
above a vast expanse of snow : to the left the Skagastelstinder 
rising above the Midtmaradal , then the Styggedalstind, the E, 
buttress of the group, descending into the Maradal, with the exten- 
sive Maradalsbrse (p. 150). To the S. , in the prolongation of the 
Utladal, we see the Blejan and the Fresviksfjeld (p. 126); to the 
S.E., the Stelsnaastind ; to the E. the sharp pyramid of the Ura- 
naastind ; to the N. the mountains of the Skogadal and Utladal. 

In 3 / 4 hr. more we see below us, to the left, the Vormelid 
Sseters, and in front of us Skogadalsbeen and the Guridals-Sseters 
(p. 153). The path descends rapidly through fatiguing underwood 
('Vir') to (8/4 hr.) a small birch-wood. In lOmin. more the lonely 
Vradal opens on the right, with an immense mass of 'Ur', fallen 
from the S. slopes. At the E. end of the Uradal rises the Uranaas- 
tind (p. 140). We cross the Uradeila by a small bridge ('Klop'). 
The mountains are now concealed by numerous abrupt 'noses'. We 
then follow a cattle-track ('Koraak') through sparse birch-wood at 
the foot of the Vrabjerg, cross a bridge, and (^2 hr. ) reach — 

Skogadalsb«eii l (2915ft. ; *ClubHut), consisting of two saeters, 
always inhabited in summer (from 24th June till the beginning of 
September). The cattle come from the Lysterfjord (branch of Sogne- 
fjord, p. 130), and have therefore to be driven across the snow- 
clad Keiser Pass (p. 151). 

From Skogadalsbtfen we may scale the Skogadalsnaasi (6080 ft. ; 3-4 
hrs., there and back), without a guide, by ascending the valley to the 
O/2 hr.) Lusahouge (see below) and then climbing to the right. The direct 
ascent from the sseters is very steep. Grand mountain-view. 

From Skogadalsb0en we may also ascend the Uranaaslind (p. 140). — 
The ascent of the Gjertvastind (7710 ft.), one of the Styggedalstinder, the 
E. peaks of the Horunger, takes 8-10 hrs. from Skogadalsb0en, there and 
back. We cross the TJ tla-Bridge (2790 ft.), turn to the S., and cross the 
Gjertvas-Elv, which descends from the Keiser (p. 151), on the S. bank of 
which is the deserted Gjertvasbeen sseter (2950 ft.). The ascent of the 
Gjertvasnaa&i now begins. In 1-1 V2 hr. we reach the first plateau (4265 ft.), 
and in 3 hrs. more the Gjertvastop (4685 ft.). About 500 ft. higher we reach 
the base of the peak, then ascend a slope of snow, and partly over rock, 
and lastly by a broad crest to the summit. Seen from here, the Store 
Styggedalstind (p. 159) seems inaccessible. 

We continue our journey through the Utladal. Horses may be 
obtained at Skogadalsbcen to carry us to a point beyond Muradn 
(1 kr. ; but no saddles). We pass a bridge, crossed by the path 
to the Keiser (p. 151), follow the E. bank of the Utla, pass the 
debris of the Lusahouge, and ( 3 /4 hr.) reach the confluence of the 
Store and Vetle Utla. The latter descends on the left from the Vetle 
('little') Utladal, and forms several falls over the rocky barrier of 
the Tunghoug. The Store Utla, along which the steep path ascends, 
has forced its passage through the rocks and dashes through its 
channel far below. On the left rises the Hillerhei (5260 ft.). Fine 
view behind us of the Styggedalstinder with the hugeGjertvasbrae. 
Grand scenery. 



156 Routed. LEIRVAND. Jotunhelm. 

Through the Vetle Utladal a little-frequented path lead8 between 
the Fanaraak on the left and the Sni0rstabbree on the right to the impor- 
tant mountain-route across the Dplefjeld to Fortun (pp. 147-149). 

We next reach a higher region of the Store Utladal and (IY2 hr. 
from Skogadalsberen) the Muradn or Muran Saeter (3325 ft. ; tolerable 
quarters, if open), on the opposite (right) bank of the river. Grand 
view of the Styggedalstinder to the W. , the Kirke to the N.E. , and the 
Raudalstind to the E. "Walkers must call to the people at the saeter 
for a horse, unless they prefer wading through the icy stream, 
which, however, at an early hour is usually shallow. (The route 
through the Raudal to the Gjendebod follows the left bank of the 
Utla , see p. 142.) 

We now follow the N. bank of the Utla. On the S. side we ob- 
serve the Skogadalsnaasi, the second Melkedalstind; then a large 
waterfall descending from the Raudalsmund, adjoining which on 
the N. rise the Raudalstinder. Nearly opposite the Raudal is the 
stone hut of Stor Halleren, used by reindeer-stalkers. In ascend- 
ing we look back at intervals to see the impressive view of the 
Horunger. The valley now takes the name of Gravdal. We next 
have to wade (best near the Utla) through the Sand-Elv, descend- 
ing on the left from the Sjortningsbrse, an offshoot of the Sm0rstab- 
brae, above which towers the curiously shaped Storebjem (p. 148). 

The path ascends and the flora becomes Alpine. We at length 
come to the stone refuge-hut on the Leirvand (4930 ft.), 5-6 hrs. 
from Skogadalsbtfen, where the routes from the Gravdal, from the 
Leirdal, from the Visdal, and from the H»gvagel (p. 144) converge. 
To the E. towers the curiously shaped Kirke (7070 ft. ; difficult to 
ascend); to the N.E. the Tvarbottenhom (about 6890 ft.). 

The route through the Visdal goes round the N. side of the Leirvand 
and ascends through the Kirkeglup, between the Kirke on the right and 
the TvsE'rbottenhorn on the left, to the Kirietjcevne, a series of tarns. Pass- 
ing these it then descends to the E. into the Upper Visdal. On the right 
the TJladalstinder with a great glacier. The route, which cannot be 
mistaken, unites at TJladalsmvnnet with that coming from Lake Gjende 
(p. 144). 

Descending the Leirdal, we skirt the imposing Ymesfjeld (p. 147) 
on the right, but the curious-looking Skarstind (7885 ft.) is the 
only one of its peaks visible. To the left are the grand glacier- 
tongues of the Smerstabbrae and several of the Smerstabtinder. To 
the N. of the Storebrse rises the Storebratind (7306 ft.). In 2 hrs. 
from the Leirvand we reach the saeter of — 

Slethavn (owned by Amund Elvesceter; good quarters). To the 
W. tower the Stetind and the Slcagsnmb (6560 ft.), both of which 
maybe ascended with good guides(each 10-11 hrs., there and back). 

To the left, farther on, appears Loftet (7315 ft.), with its 
glaciers. In 2 hrs. more we pass the prettily situated Ytterdals- 
Scetre (3085 ft. ; quarters), near the lofty fall of the Duma. We 
cross the Leira by a bridge and descend by the route already de- 
scribed (p. 148) to (4-5 hrs.) Rejshjem (p. 146). 



Jotunheim. FORTUN. 22. Route. 157 

1. From Skjolden on the Sognefjord to Fortun and the Horunger. 

Road from Skjolden to Fortun (6 Kil.). Bridle Path thence to the 
Turtegre Sasters (3 hrs.). Those who visit the Klypenaasi only may re- 
gain Fortun within 8 hrs. ; but, if possible, the SkagasteUbotn should also 
be visited and the Dyrhaug&tind ascended, in which case we spend a night 
at the Turtegr0 Seeters. 

Good Guides for the Horunger region : Thorgeir SuOieim of Eide (the 
best) K. Furaas of Fortundal, Halvar Halvarsen of Skjolden, Ola Berge 
of Turtegra, Ole 0iene of Fortun, and Iver 0iene "f Turtegrizr (the two 
last, younger men. well spoken of). 

Skjolden(j>. 132), a steamboat-station at the head of the Lyster- 
fjord, an arm of the Sognefjord, lies near the mouth of the pretty 
*Fortundal, with its fertile floor and wooded slopes. 

The skyds-station (fast ; tariff III) lies on the S. bank of the 
Fortun-Elv, near the steamboat-pier, at the gaard ofEide(*Inn, 
about 4 kr. per day ; the landlord Thorgeir Sulheim is thoroughly 
acquainted with the Horunger region). The road crosses the Eid, an 
old moraine, and reaches the milk-coloured Eidsvand, a pictur- 
esque lake, on the N. side of which rises the huge precipice of the 
Jersingna'asi (3088 ft.). To the N.E. we see the Fanaraak (p. 149). 
We skirt the S. bank of the lake and then ascend the left bank of 
the Fortun-Elv, passing the Lingsfos on the right. The road skirts 
the overhanging rocks of the Smalaberg. On the right is the Kvat- 
fos. Also on the right, high above us, is Gaard Fuglesteg (p. 152). 

6 Kil. Fortun i Lyster (150 ft. ; *Inn kept by 0iene, the guide 
andLandhandler, moderate ; fast station, tariff II ; horse across the 
fjeld, 16 kr., see p. 147), a group of gaards with a new church. 

Walk up the Fortundal, with a fine view of the Jersingnaasi (see 
above) on the left, to the 0/4 hr.) "Skagagjel, a gorge from which the 
Ovabergs-Elv rushes down to the Fortundal. Crossing both bridges, and 
ascending a rough path to the right, we reach a height immediately above 
the fall, in which a fine rainbow is formed by the morning sun. — We may 
then go on, in 5 min. more, to a bridge over the Fortundals-Elv and 
(without crossing it) to a small rocky "Hill by the Havshelfos (where a 
ladder descends to the salmon-fishing apparatus), and thus obtain a view 
of the beautiful valley in both directions, and of the upper part of the 
Lingsfos to the S. 

The Upper Foetundal is about 30 Kil. long. Flanked by Tufsen and 
the Delefjeld on left and right, and then by the Svajdalsbrce and Steneg- 
brce on the left and the Liabros (6100 ft.) and the Midtdalslei/ti on the right, 
it extends to the ll-Vand (4305 ft.), at the E. base of the huge Tundre- 
dalskirke (6590 ft.). The last saeter, that of Nerstedal, from which an ex- 
cursion may be made to the Hvand, lies about 20 Kil. above Fortun. 

A good bridle-path, turning to the right 5 min. beyond the 
church, ascends the steep Fortungalder in windings to (1 hr.) 
Berge (1085 ft.), a gaard which has given the name of Bergsdalen 
to the corn and fruit growing valley that here opens to the E. We 
cross the Ovabergs-Elv, skirt the gaard of Sevde, and ascend on the 
N. side of the valley. Beyond the gaard of Optun (1350 ft.), with 
the Optunsfos, begins another steep ascent, at the top of which the 
Horunger become conspicuous. The stream forms several falls; one 
of the finest is the Dokkafos near the sseter of Dokka, Further on, 
the path to the left leads to the Klypenaasi, 3-3y2hrs. from Fortun, 



158 Route 22. DYRHAUGSTIND. 

The *Klypenaasi (3757 ft.), a point of view which has come 
into notice of late years, affords the best general survey of the wild 
mountain-group of the Horunger, with their sheer precipices and 
jagged peaks, whence many glaciers descend to the fertile and 
smiling valley below. The highest peaks from W. to E. are the 
Austabottind (7224 ft.), the Soleilind (6824 ft.), the Riingstinder 
(6910ft., 6555 ft., 6621 ft., 6650ft.), the Dyrhaugstinder (7031 ft, 
6810 ft.), the Store Skagastelstind (7875 ft.), and the Styggedals- 
tinder (7804 ft., 7700 ft.). 

A closer view of these mountains is afforded by the Riinggadn 
Saeters and the Skagast»le, on the S. side of the valley. They are 
reached by a path diverging to the right, beyond the point where 
the Klypenaasi path diverges, and crossing the river by a bridge 
near the Simogalfos. To reach the Riinggadn Scetre we ascend di- 
rectly to the right in 20 min., or ascend the stream for 6min. and 
then follow the saeter-path to the right (20 min.). The lowest of 
the five saeters is the best. — The way to the Skagastele turns to the 
left 6 min. beyond the bridge, crosses the Riings-Elv by another 
bridge, ad in 40 min. (about 3 hrs. from Fortun) reaches the two 
saeters, of which the upper one is the better. To the E., on the 
opposite side of the Skagast»lsdal,is the Meinsater (3025 ft; praised). 

On the side next the Riinggadn opens the "Riingsbotn, or Riiensbetn, 
a huge basin containing a large glacier, behind which towers the Riings- 
tind. On the E. is the Dyrhaugsfjeld, on the W. the Levnaasi or Nonhcmgen, 
prolonged towards the S. by the Soleitinder and the Austabottinder. We 
get a good survey of the Riingsbotn by ascending the Riings-Elv for 3 /i- 
1 hr. beyond Eiinggadn. A walk of l l /i hr. more brings us to the glacier. 

The grand and wild "Skagastalsbotn lies between the Dyrhaugsfjeld 
on the W. and the Kolnaati (5414 ft.) on the E. Its floor is covered by 
the Skagasteilsbrce (4430 ft.), which projects its icy foot into a weird lake, 
where the formation and birth of icebergs may be studied most profitably. 
According to Mr. Slingsby, there is perhaps no wilder or more interesting 
mountain scene in Norway than this 'botn' (or cirque) which is headed 
by Norway's finest mountain Skagast0lstind (7875 ft.). A hut for the use 
of climbers has been erected on rocks at the top of the 'skar' or col which 
heads the botn. 

; p -| On the N. bank of the river the main route next leads past the 
saeter of Gjessingen to the (about 3 hrs. from Fortun) two Turtegr#- 
Seetre (2790 ft. ; both fitted up as tourist-stations , D . 1 kr. 30, R. 70, 
S. 70 ».), the best headquarters for mountaineering in the Horunger 
region. 

Besides the Riingsbotn and the Skagast0lsbotn, we may also visit the 
"Styggedalsbotn, the easternmost in the Horunger group, with the magni- 
ficent Styggedalsbrce. bounded on the W. by the Kolnaasi, on the E. by 
the Simlenaasi, and on the S. by the Styggedalstinder. 

One of the finest easier ascents from Turtegr0 is that of the N. Dyr- 
haugstind (6810 ft.), the nearest of several peaks of the Dyrhaugsfjeld 
(with guide, about 4 kr.). We) ascend rapidly past the Skagast0le to the 
top of the Dyrhaug, and follow its crest, partly over 'Ur\ to the summit. 
The View embraces towards the E. the Skagast0lstinder and to the right 
of them the wild Maradalstinder ; to the W. the Soleitinder, Austabot- 
tinder, and Riingstinder; due S. the other Dyrhaugstinder. Lower down, 
on the left, lies the Skagast0lsbrse, on the right the Riingsbrse. Between 
the Skagast0lstinder and the Dyrhaugstinder we see the snow-mountains 



FLOR0. 23. Route. 159 

on Lakes Bygdin and Tyin; to the N. tlie Fanaraak and the Sm0rstab- 
tinder ; to the W. the vast Jostedalsbrse as far as the Lodalskaupe (p. 134). 

Comparatively easy ascents are also that of the Northern Skagastelslind 
(about 7000 ft.; Keilhau andBoeck, 1820); the Soleitind (6824 ft.), the N.W. 
peak of the Horiinger, and the Fanaraak (p. 149). 

Suitable for experts only, with able guides, are the Store Riingstind 
(6910 ft.; first ascended by Hr. C. Hall in 1890; the lower Riingstinder 
being 6650 ft. and 6621ft.); the Mellemsle Skagastelslind (7565 ft.; Hall, 
1884) ; the Store Styggedalstind (7804 ft. ; Hall, 1883) ; the Store Austabottind 
(7224 ft.; Hall, 1883): all requiring 12-16 hrs. 

Difficult Ascents : the Store Skagastelstind (7875 ft. ; Slingsby, 1876) ; 
the Vesle Skagastelstind (7710 ft.; Hall, 1885); the Centraltind (7756 ft.; 
Hall, 1885); and the N. Maradalstinder (about 7200 ft. ; Hall, 1887). These 
ascents will be facilitated by the hut on the 'Skar' above the Skagast0ls- 
botn, which is to be erected in 1892 (about 4 hrs. from Turtegrja). 

An interesting Glacier Walk of 12-14hrs., which the hut just mentioned 
will also shorten, is the passage of the Skagastelstindskar or Midtmara- 
dalsskar (5758 ft.), between the Skagastelstind and the Dyrhaugstinder, 
over the Midtmaradalsbrse to the Midtmaradal and the Utladal (p. 155), 
and down the latter to Vetti (p. 153). 

Near Turtegre the mountain- route to Reyshjem over the Dele- 
fjeld past Oscarshoug (p. 149) diverges. — Our route ascends the 
valley for 25-30 min. more, and crosses the rocky barrier ('Bielte') 
through which the river has forced its way, to the Helgedals-Sceter 
(3088 ft.], and goes on thence to the Keiser Pass (see p. 151). 

23. From Bergen by Sea to Aalesund and Molde. 

42 S.M. (168 Engl. M.) to Aalesund, 51 S.M. (204 Engl. M.) to Molde. 
These are the distances as officially reckoned, but they are greatly in- 
creased by the sinuosities of bays and straits through which the steamers 
thread their course. The distances given in this route in Norwegian 
nautical or sea-miles are those from station to station. 

Steamers (Com. 75, 76, 201, 203, 205, etc.) almost daily to Aalesund 
in 15-18 hrs. (fares 16 kr. 80, 10 kr. 50 0.), to Molde in 20-24 hrs. (fares 20 kr. 
40 0., 12 kr. 75 0.). Some of the steamers touch at Aalesund only, going 
thence direct to Molde or to Trondhjem; others call also at Flore and 
Molde; and others again at a number of minor intermediate stations. 

Bergen, p. 108. Voyage to the mouth of the Sognefjord,p. 121. 

To the N. of the Sognefjord the steamer skirts the district of 
Sendfjord, which with that of Nordfjord (p. 167) formed the an- 
cient Firdafylke. We steer past the E. side of the Sulen-0er, past 
the Aafjord, and then the Balsfjord (p. 162). To the W. lie the 
Vare and the lofty island of Alden (1550 ft.), known as the 'Norske 
Hest\ which pastures upwards of 1000 sheep. The vessel next 
usually passes to the W. of the high Atlee (2283 ft.), and steers 
across the Stangfjord, passing the promontory of Stavncss and the 
Stavfjord, the entrance to the Ferdefjord (p. 163). 

20 S.M. Flor« (Hilmers Hotel) is a station of some impor- 
tance, being touched at by most of the steamers. The little town 
is the commercial centre of the Nordals, Eike, and Hedals fjords. 
On a solitary rock to the W. is the Stabbensfyr lighthouse. 

A local steamer usually plies once weekly froni Florjzf up the small 
Eikefjord to the station of that name , whence we may ascend towards 



1 60 Route 23. MOLD0. 

the N. to the great glacier-region of the Kjeipen (4460 ft.) recently ex- 
plored by Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby. 

The steamer plying from Bergen to the Nordfjord also steers from 
Flor0 to Moldjj by a route similar to that described below , but calls at 
more stations. It enters the OuUnfjord, which opens to the E. of Bre- 
inanger, and calls at Kjelkences. From Kjelkenses we may row to Rise 
(quarters) and walk thence by a wild path to the N.W. of the Kjeipen 
(see above) to the Aalfotenfjord (p. 168). 

We steer to the N. To the left lie the islands of Skorpe and 
Aralden; then the Frej-0, on which lies Kalvaag or Kallevaag, a 
station of the Nordfjord steamers (p. 167). To the N.E. we enter 
the Frej fjord, as the strait between the mainland and the large 
island of Bremanger is called. On the latter is Berdle or Berk, 
another station of the Nordfjord steamers. At the N.E. angle of 
Bremanger towers the huge Hornelen (2940 ft.), with its almost 
sheer, and apparently overhanging cliff, visited in 1000 by King 
Olaf Tryggvason. The Skatestrem, a strait to the N. of Hornelen, 
between Bremanger and the Rugsunda, is noted for the rapidity of 
The tide ebbing and flowing through it. The steamer crosses the 
mouth of the Nordfjord and (3 his. from Flora) reaches — 

7 S.M. Mold* (Inn of H. Friis), a small island between the 
mainland and the hilly Vaagse, 

We next steer N. through the Vlvesund, a strait between the 
Vaagsa and the mainland , and then across the bay of Sildegabet 
('herring's mouth') and past the islands Barme and Seljee. On 
the latter are the ruins of a Benedictine monastery and of the 
shrine of the Irish St. Sunniva, the tutelary saint of Bergen. 

The peninsula of Stadtland, round which we next steer, is a 
hilly plateau 28 Kil. long and 4-13 Kil. broad, stretching far into 
the sea like the back of a huge right hand with a long wrist. The 
highest point is the Skrcetna, rising above Drage, at the end of the 
'wrist'. More conspicuous, however, is the Kjoerring (1683 ft.), 
near the tip of the middle finger. The N. promontory is called 
Staalet. On the N.E. side rises the Bevikhom (1410 ft.). Stadt- 
landet is noted for the storms to which it is exposed. Even in 
summer the sea here is often very rough. 

On the Stadtland, opposite the Seljep, is the steamboat-station of Selje 
(Com. 252 D), near the church and parsonage of Hove, whence we may 
row up the little Moldefjord in 1 hr. to the gaard Eide. A rather steep 
bridle-path leads thence in s/ 4 hr. (pay for 7 Kil.) over the Mandseid 
(about 500 ft.) to Enerhaug on the Kjerdepollen. Then by boat in 1 hr. 
tu (4 Kil.) — 

Aahjem (good quarters at RavrCs, the Landhandler), situated near the 
church and parsonage of Vanelven at the S.W. end of the Vanelvsfjord. 
Steamboat to Aalesund, by Volden , once weekly (Com. 260; p. 181). 
Carriage-road to Bryggen on the Nordfjord, see p. 167. 

Feom Aahjem to Volden (p. 182), 2 days (guide and provisions 
necessary). We ascend the road in the Almklovdal for about 8 Kil. 
(3 Kil. short of the gaard AlinUov), diverge to the left, and ascend past 
the little lake Storlivatn. Fine view of the S0vdefjord from the top of 
the hill. We then descend past the Kilebrekvcmd to (2 hrs.) j0vre-Berg, 
the highest gaard in the Saurdal (820 ft.). Then down a steep road to 
('/« hr.) Nedre-Berg and the Sawdalsgaarde on the Saurdalsvatn , where 
a vehicle may be obtained. We drive in i/a nr - t0 — 



SAND0. 23. Route. 161 

Vik and the church of Sevde on the Sjgvdefjord, the E. bank of which 
is very abrupt and picturesque, while on the more level W. bank lie 
Eidsaa (Com. 260) and several other gaards. From Vik we drive up the 
Norddal, past the waterfall of Sarpen., to Tverberg, the highest gaard in 
the valley. Then a walk , with guide , past several small lakes , up a 
steep hill, and down, with splendid view, to (3 hrs.) — 

Indselsmter on the Dalsfjord (good quarters). Opposite lies Dale (p. 168). 
From Indselseeter by water to Volden about 14 Kil. 

The bay to the N.E. of Stadtland is called Vanelvsgabet, ad- 
joining which on the S.E. is the Vanelvsfjord (p. 182). The 
steamer passes the Sandei , in which is the Dolstenshul , a cavern 
about 200 ft. above the sea-level , and the large islands Ourske 
and Hareidland, and sometimes calls at Hereen, to the N. of the 
Ghirske, at Volden (p. 182), and at 0rstenvik (p. 181). In 6-9 hrs. 
from Molde we reach — 

15 S.M. Aalesund, see p. 181. 

Farther on we pass the Lepsei , -with the Renstadhul , on the 
left. Our course is new within the islands ('indenikjaers'). To Molde 
the large steamers take 4 hrs., the local steamers much longer, as 
they touch at many intermediate stations. 

9 S.M. Molde, see p. 182. — Thence to Christiansund and 
Trondhjem, see p. 191. 

24. From Vadheim on the Sognefjord overland 
to Aalesund and Molde. 

This route is far preferable to the sea-voyage described in 
R. 23 , as it carries the traveller through some of the grandest 
scenery in Norway , which is chiefly to be sought for in the upper 
ramifications of the fjords. The route traverses the districts of the 
Sendfjord, the Nordfjord , and Sendmere , where the fjord and 
fjeld scenery, in the two last more particularly, is strikingly 
beautiful. The first part of the route, as far as Feirde, is the least 
interesting; the Sendfjord steamer (Com. 252, D, E, F) may be 
taken thither, but offers no advantage except a slight saving of 
time. The finest points are the E. recesses and valleys of the 
Nordfjord, the Loendal and the Oldendal (pp. 170, 171), the 
Qeirangerfjord (p. 175), and the Jerundfjord (p. 180). 

The Travelling Plan must partly depend on the steamboat-arrange- 
ments , which should therefore be carefully studied in the time-tables. 
The journey may he accomplished in 5 days , but only by omitting the 
Oldendal and the Loendal, two of the finest points. About 8-10 days 
should if possible be devoted to it : 2 days from Vadheim to the Nord- 
fjord (good quarters at Sande, Ferde, Nedre Vasenden, Skej, Egge, and Red) ; 
3-4 days on the Nordfjord (good quarters at Utviken, Faleide, Visnces, Loen, 
and Olderen); 2-3 days for the rest of the journey (good quarters at 
Grodaas, Marok , Sjeholt, and Vestnces, or, if we go from Hellesylt to 
the Jjzrrundfjord and Aalesund, at Fibelstadhaugen, 0je, and 0rslenvik. 

a. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord. 

Road (about 120 Kil.). Stations partly slow (tariff I) , partly fast 
(tariff II). From Nedre Vasenden onwards, tariff III. Even for the slow 
Baf"»'""~''> w "-- -~ J "—--■— •=■■ "'•(;. 11 



162 Route 24. SANDE. From the Sognefjord 

stations 'Forbud' (p. xviii) is hardly necessary (see below). On the Jtflster- 
vand the steamer will probably be preferred. If the Bredheimsvand (p. 165) 
be taken on the way, it is traversed by 'boat-skyds\ 

Vadheim (p. 122; by steamer from Bergen in 8-10 hrs., from 
Laerdalsaren in IOY2-I8 hrs.) is a slow skyds-station , but con- 
veyances usually await the arrival of the steamer (tariff I , with 
the addition for 'Tilsigelse'). 

The road gradually ascends the Vadheimsdal, the westernmost 
of the two valleys which open here, enclosed by rocks 1500-2000 ft. 
in height. The first gaard is Ytre Dalen , on the left , somewhat 
exposed to avalanches. In winter the sun is visible here for a very 
short time only. The road crosses the river and ascends between 
the Dregebenip on the right and the Fagersletnip (2995 ft.) on 
the left. On a rocky height to the left lie the gaards of Dregebe, 
beyond which the road recrosses the river. It then skirts the Lower 
Yxlandsvand, and again crosses the river before reaching the dark 
Upper Yxlandsvand (430 ft.) The watershed is crossed near the 
gaards of Aareberge (535 ft.), lying in a basin to the right , on a 
small lake. To the N. rises the imposing Kvamshest (see below). 
Passing the gaard of Lofald on the right , we cross the Gula or 
Holmedals-Elv , and reach — 

15 Kil. Sande (*Sivertsens Hotel, D. 2 kr.; landlord speaks 
English) , a slow station, prettily situated in the Indre Holmedal, 
with a church and several gaards. To the S. rises the Dregeb»nip 
(see above), then the Hegehei (2850 ft.), to the right the Stemcet- 
fjeld (2470 ft.), and to the N.W. the lofty Kvandalsfjeld (3325 ft.). 

From Sande a good road leads W., down the left bank of the Hol- 
medals-Elv, to (14 Kil.) the plow station of Eidevik , near Sveen (good 
quarters) on the Dalsfjord, at which a steamer calls twice weekly 
(I2V2-IB hrs. from Bergen). The finest point on the Dalsfjord is Dale, on 
the S. bank, where the Dalshest (2333 ft.), the dome-shaped KringUn 
(2435 ft.), and other mountains present a grand picture. — From Sveen to 
Langeland (p. 163) 11 Kil. 

From Sande a road leads E., up the valley of the Holmedals-Elv, to 
(7 Kil.) the slow station of Horsevik on the pretty Viksvand (525 ft.), 
which is worthy of a visit. On an island near the N. bank is the church 
of Hastad. From Horsevik to Vik, at the N.E. end of the lake, 14 Kil. 
(by boat). Xear Vik we pass the mouth of the Eldal (p. 124) on the 
right. — From Vik a road leads through the Haukedal to (T Kil.) Mostad- 
haugen on the Haukedalsvand, whence we row to R#rvik (p. 164). 

The traveller should secure a vehicle at Sande to take him to 
Ferde, as he would otherwise be kept waiting a long time at 
Langeland, unless he has sent 'Forbud'. Travellers in the opposite 
direction are generally allowed by the station-master at F«rde to 
go on to Sande without changing horses. 

Beyond Sande we pass the church on the left, and ascend 
rapidly to the right to the gaard of Tunvald at the base of the 
Tunvaldfjeld. Fine retrospect. The hilly road then leads past the 
Lundsgrein on the right to a height overlooking the mountains 
of the Dalsfjord (in Sendfjord) ; in the distance the Lekelandshest 
(2625 ft.) ; nearer the Kmvmshest or Store Hest (4065 ft.), which 



to the Moldefjord. F0RDE. 24. Route. 163 

farther on, resembles a huge horse's head ; and the wooded basin 
of Lundebygd at our feet. We next reach the gaards of Skilbred, 
on the peaty Skilbredsvand, whence we have an unimpeded view 
of the Kvamshest and the Lillehest (2985 ft. ) to the N.E. of it, 
with snow between. In clear weather these mountains are reflected 
in the lake. We then pass several pleasant gaards. 

11 Kil. (pay for 14 in this direction) Langeland (slow station ; 
poor) lies high above the S. end of the Langelandsvand, life Kil. 
long, the hilly W. bank of which our road skirts, after the road to 
Sveen (p. 162) has diverged to the left. Our road passes the saeters 
of Espeland and Hafstad, at the N. end of the lake, and reaches 
its highest point (about 1150 ft.), commanding the valley of Ferde 
and the mountains at the head of the Angedal (to the N.). Of the 
Ferdefjord a little triangle only is seen. The road descends, at 
places ascending again, past the saeters of Prcestegaard and Hal- 
brand, and skirting the Solheimsheia (1265 ft.). Further on, with 
a fine view of the Halbrandsfos on the right, it descends rapidly. 

On arriving in the valley below, our route joins a road which 
leads to the left to the Ferdefjord, of which the upper bay only is 
visible. We turn to the right and ascend the course of the broad 
Jelsterelv to (about 1 Kil.) — 

11 Kil. (pay in the opposite direction for 14) *Hafstads- Hotel. 
A few minutes later a long bridge on the left crosses to the right 
bank of the river. Here, on the right, is *Sivertsen's Hotel (R., B., 
S., each 1 kr. 40 e.). Then, on the left, the telegraph-office; and, 
on a moraine-hill to the right, the church of F-erde. The broad and 
smiling valley is enclosed by high hills : on the N. the Ferdenip 
(2825 ft.), on the E. the Viefjeld (see below), and on the S.W. the 
Solheimsheia (see above). Ferde is the capital of the district of 
Sendfjord. The horses bred here and on other parts of the Nord- 
fjord are said to belong to the original Norwegian 'fjord race'. 
The steamboat-pier is about 20 min. walk down the river. 

On the Fjefrdefjord, into which the Jtflsterelv falls about IV2 Kil. below 
the village, a steamer plies three or four times weekly each way (Com. 
252, D, E, F): to Naustdal on the N. hank in 3/ 4 -l hr., to Flora (p. 159) 
in 4 ] /2-9 hrs., to Bergen in ll 1 /2-15 1 /2 hrs. 

To the N.E. (left) branches off the Angedal, with the Sand- 
fjeld (4100 ft.) and the Kupefjelde (4190 ft.) rising in the back- 
ground. The Nordfjord road, which we follow, ascends the well 
cultivated valley of the Jelsterelv on its left bank and passes num- 
erous gaards. On the opposite bank rises the Viefjeld (2210 ft.). 
About 6 Kil. from Ferde the long Farsundebro carries us across 
the lower end of the Movatten (75 ft.), a small lake through which 
the Jelsterelv flows. The road then skirts the N. bank of this lake, 
at the foot of the Viefjeld. On the S. bank lie several gaards. At 
the head of the lake, on the right, is the agricultural school ('Land- 
brugsskole') of Mo, beyond which is seen the fine Huldrefos. 

11* 



164 Route 24. NEDRE VASENDEN. From the So gne fjord 

Beautiful pine-wood. About 5 Kil. from the Farsundebro a road 
diverges to the right to Holsen. 

The road to Holsen (no skyds) crosses the Jalsterelv and leads a little 
to the N. of the Aasenvand and along the N. bank of the Holsenvand 
(410 ft.)- To the church of Holsen about 9 Kil. — The road goes on, over 
the Rervikfjeld and past the Rervik Swire, to the gaard Rervik on the 
Haukedalsvand (852 ft.), at the N.E. end of which, about 15 Kil. from 
Holsen, is the church of Haukedal. The road ends at the gaard Grgning 
(1090 ft. ; quarters), 4-5 Kil. farther up the valley. Thence to Balholm 
on the Sognefjord, see p. 124. — A grand but rough route, fording several 
brooks, ascends the Orendal, with a view of the Groveoroe on the left 
and the Joitedalsbrce on the right, to the Seknesandsskar, and descends to 
Stfknesand (see below). 

Beautiful scenery. The green wooded valley is backed by fjelds 
to the E. and N.E. The rapid stream affords trout-fishing. 

19 Kil. Nedre Vasenden (Nielsen's Hotel, food well spoken of, 
lies at the W. end of the J»lstervand , out of which the Jelsterelv 
flows in a series of rapids (seen from the bridge close to the station). 

The pretty *Xelstervand (670 ft.) , 22 Kil. long from S.W. 
to N.E., is traversed several times daily by a small steamer (2 hrs., 
fare 2 kr.), owned by the innkeeper at Skej. Both banks are 
studded with gaards, most of them on the 'Solside', or N. side. 
The lake contains excellent trout. The road on the N. bank skirts 
the base of iheJygrafjeld, passes the gaards olSviddal at the mouth 
of the little Bergsdal, and leads through the fertile Aalhusbygd, 
with the church of Aalhus or Jelster. 

On the S. side of the lake, called 'Nordside' by the natives 
because facing the N., rise the Sanddalsfjeld, the Klana, the 
Orken, and the Sadelegg. Above these peep at intervals the Grove- 
bra and the Jostedalsbrse. By the gaards of Myklebostad are several 
pretty waterfalls. 

To the left, at the E. base of the Bjersatfjeld (3314 ft.), which 
the road skirts, lies the skyds-station of Aardal or Ordal (good 
quarters; 15 Kil. from Nedre Vasenden). Farther on is the church 
of Helgheim. 

On the right opens a bay called the Kjesncesfjord (10 Kil. 
long), backed by the blue-green Glacier of Lunde. To the N. of 
the Kjasnaesfjord rises the Bjerga (5510 ft.), and to the S. the 
Seknesandnipa (4965 ft.). 

At the E. end of the Kjcrsnsesfjord lie the gaards of Seiknesand and 
Lunde (poor quarters at both), whence, with a guide, we may cross to 
the Grtfndal to the S. and go on to Svseren (p. 123), or we may cross the 
Jostedalsbrse to the S.E. to Fjserland (p. 124). 

At the head of the Jelstervand lies — 

Skej (*Hotel Skej , owned by O. Andersen and T. Gabrielsen, 
D. 1 kr. 80 0.), and 5 min. to the W. of it is Fegle or Fuglehaug 
(*Hotel Stanley , kept by J. N. Hammer). Skej is not a skyds- 
station, but conveyances are always to be had. 

Two routes lead hence to the Nordfjord : one by the Bredheims- 
vand to Sandene on the Gloppenfjord (35 Kil.), the other by Egge 
to Utviken (40 Kil.). Or we may go by Egge to Sandene, or by 



to the Molde fjord. BREDHEIMSVAND. 24. Route. 165 

Red to Utviken (about 40 Kil. in each case). Both routes are 
picturesque. The road to Utviken is extremely hilly. 

From Skej to Sandene (35 Kil.). Just beyond Skej the road 
crosses a hill , the watershed between the Jedstervand and the 
Bredheimsvand , and passes the small Feglevand and Skredevand. 
Between these, on the right, is the Fosheimsfos, descending from 
the Bjerrga. 

At the S. end of the Bolsmtvand, a little more than 3 Kil. from 
Skej, the road divides. The branch to the left leads past the W. 
bank of the Bolsaetvand to the Bredheimsvand , that to the right 
(see below) leads past the E. bank to Egge. Taking the former 
road , we descend by the Storelv, through picturesque , hilly sce- 
nery , and cross the stream on this side of and beyond the little 
Paulsvand. On the W. the Skjorta ('shirt' ; 5663 ft.) is conspic- 
uous. Later , on the right , is the precipice of Kupenaava , with 
its stony debris. 

9 Kil. (from Skej; 16 Kil. from Aardal, pay for 19) Ferde i 
Bredheim (fast station, poor) lies near the Ferdefjord , the S. bay 
of the *Bredheimsvand, or Breumsvand (207 ft. ; 896 ft. deep), 
a grand and sombre Alpine lake, about 16 Kil. long, enclosed by 
imposing mountains. The road ends here, by a lofty old moraine. 
From this point we go on by rowing-boat ('boat-skyds', tariff 0). 
On the left rises the rocky Skjorta, with the Gamledalsfos; on the 
right is the precipice of the Svenskenipa (4770 ft.). Beyond the 
Myklandsdal (left) and the Ordal (right) the view becomes more 
open. To the N., in the background, rises the Dunegg (3650 ft.). 
Farther on we skirt the rocks on the right, while the Skarstenfjeld 
rises to the left. Then the Nasdal, on the left, with several gaards. 
Nearing Bed , we pass the mouth of the Vaatedals-Elv , and see 
four offshoots of the Jostedalsbrse at the head of the Bredheimsdal. 

12 Kil. Ked or Re (Hotel Gordon, well spoken of; English 
landlord, Mr. E. J. Beed), a slow station both for boats and horses, 
lies picturesquely on the E. bank of the Bredhejmsvand, near the 
church of Bredheim. We disembark here. 

A road leads from Red up the fertile Bredheimsdal to Afoldestad 
(p. 166; about 5 Kil.), on the road to Utviken. 

The lower part of the Bredheimsvand is less interesting. We 
now drive on the E. bank to (6 Kil.) Vasenden, the 'end of the 
water', and cross the 'Eid' or isthmus (256 ft.), through a pretty 
wooded valley, passing the Eidsfos, to (6 Kil.) — 

12 Kil. Sandene, on the Gloppen fjord (p. 168), a station of 
the Nordfjord steamers (Com. 252, D ; to Faleide Sife-A hrs.). 

From Skej to Utviken (40 Kil.). To the Bolscetvand (Bi/ i Kil.') 
see above. The road ascends on the E. bank of the small lake 
and crosses a hill to the Stardal, at the head of which appears the 
huge Jostedalsbrse. 

5 Kil. (from Skej, 13 from Aardal) Klagegg (741 ft.; fast sta- 



166 Route 24. EGGE. From the Sognefjord 

tion , but no quarters) lies near the point where a road diverges 
to the right to Aamot in the Stardal. Travellers usually drive on 
without stopping here. 

From Klagegg about 10 Kil. to Aamot (tolerable quarters at Tolleif 
AamoCs), the starting-point of several grand passes across the JosTftDALSBit^; 
(guides here, Ole Tolleifsen Aamot, EUing 8. Aamot, Peder K. Navnles; rope 
necessary) : — (1) Over the Oldenskar (6133 ft.) to Rustven on the Olden- 
vand (p. 170), 6 hrs. (2 to the foot of the Aamot Glacier, 2 to the 'Skar', 
and a very steep and fatiguing descent of 2 more). — (2) To the Langedal, 
10 hrs. (3 on the glacier, not difficult), where quarters are to be had at 
Nordre Nais; thence to Solvorn (p. 130). — (3) Over the Befringskar to 
the Btfiumsbrce and Fjaerland (14 hrs.; p. 124). 

The road to Egge turns to the left into the narrow Vaatedal, 
flanked with high mountains , and descends the valley. On the 
right rises the Hagheimsfjeld, on the left the Svenskenipa (p. 165). 
The road crosses to the right bank. The valley expands. On the right 
towers the conical Eggenibba (5250 ft.), which may he ascended 
from Egge (6-7 hrs.; bridle-path to the Eggesaeter, halfway). 

9 Kil. Egge i Vaatedalen (558 ft.; *Hotel Germania, R. 1 kr. 
to 1 kr. 40, D. 2, B. or S. 1 kr. 50 0.; the landlord, G. Kristensen, 
speaks English). 

"We now skirt the E. side of the Bergemsvand (470 ft.). On the 
left rises the Raadfjeld, on the right the Vora. Beyond the gaards of 
Bergem the road crosses a brook issuing from the Sanddalsvand 
on the right and divides : to the left it descends to Red (11 Kil. 
from Egge ; p. 165) ; to the right it ascends to — 

Moldestad (about 7 Kil. from Egge), where another road comes 
up from Red on the left, and whence a road leads to the E. to 
Fosheim and Myklebostad. 

To Fosheim 5 Kil., and thence past the Sanddalsvand to Myklebostad 
nearly 4 Kil. more. From Fosheim a fine glacier pass leads past the 
Store Ceciliekrona to Olden (p. 170). From Myklebostad we may ascend 
the Snenipa (6063 ft.). 

The road to Utviken now crosses a high hill which separates the 
Bredhejmsvand from the Indviksfjord, and first ascends and then 
descends so steeply that driving is out of the question for a great 
part of the way. Good walkers will therefore probably prefer to 
walk from Egge to Utviken (or the reverse) and to hire a vehicle 
for their luggage only. The same remark applies to the route from 
Red to Utviken. Observe that Moldestad is not a station. 

The road ascends between the Skavlevcegge on the right and 
the Fcellefjeld on the left. As we ascend , a view to the right is 
gradually disclosed of the vast snow - expanses of the Ojetenyk 
(5823 ft.). At the top of the ascent we reach a plateau of moor 
(2074 ft.), where the road undulates considerably, passing numer- 
ous boggy ponds and glacier-blocks. To the S.W. we have a final 
look ba k at the Skarstenfjeld (p. 165) , with its sharply defined 
outline. On the N. margin of the plateau we at last come in sight 
of the Indviksfjord far below, commanded on the N. by the Lau- 
dalstinder, the Storhorn with its large glacier, and the Hornindals- 



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to the Molde fjord. NORDFJORD. 24. Route. 167 

rokken. The descent is rapid at first and afterwards in gradual 
windings. TheStor-Elv, which descends in numerous falls on 
the right, turns several mills at Utviken. 

26 Kil. (from Egge, 19 from Moldestad) Verio i Utviken (p. 168), 
whence a ferry-boat plies to Faleide twice daily. 

b. The Nordfjord. 

Steamboat (Com. 252, D) from Bergen to Faleide 3 times a week in 
26-291/2 hrs. (fares 14 kr. 80, 7 kr. 40 0.); Ihence to Loen l-l'/i hr., to 
Olden l'hr. more. These boats are not very comfortable at night as they 
have no separate cabins. 

The Overland Rodte (p. 161) may be combined with a visit to the 
Nordfjord as follows: from Sandene (p. 165, 168) or from Utviken (p. 168) 
steam direct to Visnoss, Loen or to Olden (pp. 170, 171) ; excursions in the 
Loendal and the Oldendal, ODe day each; continue overland route from 
Faleide onwards (or from Visnses up the Strynsdal when the new road is 
finished; see p. 172). 

The Nordfjord , running parallel with the Sognefjord , one 
degree of latitude further N., but scarcely half the length, extends 
inland to the N.W. slope of the Jostedalsbrce (p. 120). In this 
case also the finest scenery is to be found in the inmost recesses 
of the fjord, in grandeur and picturesqueness surpassing that of 
the Sognefjord. Different parts of the fjord have different names. 
The name 'Nordfjord' formerly applied to the N. part of the Nordre 
Bergenhus Amt, but is now generally given to the fjord also. — The 
long sea-voyage from Bergen to the Nordfjord can hardly be recom- 
mended. Most travellers combine it with the overland route to 
or from Molde in the way above indicated. 

Steamer from Bergen to Molde (1372-15 hrs.), see p. 159, 160. 
The steamer then retraces its course and steers E. between Ve- 
melsvik and Qangse into the Nordfjord. The first station is Rug- 
sund, on the S. side, opposite the Rugsundse. 

From the next station Bryggen , on the N. bank, a new road 
leads over the Maurstadeid (2080 ft.) to Aahjem on the Vanelvs- 
fjord (20 Kil.; p. 160). — We next call at Haugs or Haus in the 
Daviksfjord, also on the N. bank ; at — 

Daviken, in a pretty bay of the S. bank, once the residence of 
the poet Claus Frimann (d. 1829), and at Domsten or Dommesten. 

The fjord now forks into the Isfjord to the S.E. (p. 168) and 
the Eidsfjord to the N.E., where the steamer touches at Starheim, 
Naustdal or Nestdal, and — 

Nordfjordeid (*P. Boalths Enke's Hotel; Hindnes' Hotel), which 
we reach in 4-7 hrs. from Molde. ■ — From Nordfjordeid a road 
ascends the valley to Nor or Nord (7 Kil.; skyds-tariff II), on the 
Hornindalsvand, the geological continuation of the Eidsfjord, and 
184 ft. higher , while its depth extends to 1310 ft. below the sea- 
level. Its lofty banks are partly wooded. From Nor a steamer 
(Com. 360) plies three times weekly in 3 l /<i-& hrs. to Sanden or 
Qrodaas (p. 173). 



168 Route 24. NORDFJORD. From the Sognefjord 

Fkom Nordfjobdeid to Volden (p. 182), 46 Kil., a road (skyds- 
tariff II) leads E. along the Eidsfjord to a bifurcation, whence the road 
to the left leads to Naustdal (p. 167) , and that to the right to ("15 Kil.) 
the slow station of Smerdal. Fine view of the Gjegnalundsbrse (see 
below) behind us. The road crosses the pass (1640 ft.) and descends rapidly 
to (11 Kil., pay for 13) the slow station of Sendre Birkedal, on the lake 
of that name, with picturesque rocky environs. Then , past Kile, to the 
(10 Kil.) slow station of Stremshavn, on the Kilefjord , the S.W. hay of 
the Voldenfjord, and by boat across the fjord to (10 Kil.) Volden. 

From S0ndre Birkedal an interesting path ascends the Laurdal and 
crosses the fjeld to the Dalsfjord. On the way we may ascend the :: Felden 
(4293 ft.) for the sake of a grand mountain and glacier view, in which 
case the whole route takes 8-10 hrs. (with guide). We descend to Indre 
Dale, opposite the Indsel-Sseter (p. 161), on the Dalsfjord, an arm of the 
Voldenfjord. Thence to Volden by boat about 14 Kil. 

Returning to the entrance of the Eidsfjord, the steamer rounds 
the promontory of Havnnms and enters the Isfjord. The scenery be- 
comes grander. Beyond the promontory of Jelsncts we look, to the 
right, into the Aalfotenfjord, at the mouth of which is the station 
Askevik. The S. feeders of the Aalfotenfjord descend from the huge 
mountains around the Aalfotebrm. We steer past the gorges of the 
Vestre and 0stre 0ksendal, from which the discharges of the Gjegna- 
lundsbrce descend in cascades, and past the Skjcering (4075 ft.). 
The fjord here is called the Hundviksfjord. We cross the mouth of 
the Hyefjord, which cuts deep into the S. bank, to the station Hest- 
nceseren (quarters at the post-office). 

In the Hyefjord, opposite Hestncesizrren, opens the Skjserdal, a grand 
valley, from which we may ascend without much trouble the Gjegnalund 
(5683 ft.) , a splendid point of view. Interesting glacier-walks from the 
Skjeerdal to Hope, near the S. end of the Hyefjord, and to J^ksendal (see 
above) ; guide and rope necessary. The saeters afford tolerable quarters. 
Deer and fish abound. Bears also occur. 

We enter the Oloppenfjord, with Ryg, on the W. bank, and — 

Sandene (K. O. Sivertseris Hotel, R., B., S., each 1 kr.), 
charmingly situated at the S.B. end of the fjord (372-5 hrs. from 
Nordfjordeid). Beautiful walks and good trout-fishing near. Road 
from Sandene to the Bredheimsvand, see p. 165. 

We return to the main fjord, called Vtfjord. The hills are 
prettily wooded. Stations Ryafjaren, on the S. bank, and Rand, on 
the N. bank. 

Verio i TJtviken (*Hotel Britannia, kept by Landhandler Loen, 
R. 1, B. 1 kr.), on the S. bank (2'/ 2 hrs. from Sandene), is a pretty 
scattered village with a church. The road from Egge (p. 166 ; also 
from Red) ends here. Steam-launch twice daily to Faleide (in 1 hr. ; 
I1/2 kr.) and Loen (272 hrs. ; 3 kr.). 

The fjord, now called Indviksfjord, turns sharply to the N. On 
the left rises the Selvbjergfjeld, with several gaards on its slopes. 
On the right, in a beautiful bay, lies the steamboat-station Indvi- 
ken (no inn), with its church, at the mouth of the wild Prmstedal, 
which is flanked by the Skarstenfjeld (5384 ft.) on the N. and the 
Sterlaugpig (5544 ft.) on the S. We next steer round the promon- 
tory of Hildehalsen, where the fjord again turns to the E., to — 



to the Moldefjord. NORDFJORD. 24. Route. 169 

Faleide [*Tenden's Hotel, reputed one of the best inns in Nor- 
way; three houses; R. 1 kr. 20, B. & S. each 1 kr. 40»., D.2kr. ; 
landlord speaks English ; several good guides), an admirable centre 
for excursions, but often crowded in summer. 

Excursions. To the N. a steep ascent to the gaard of Langeswter 
(about 280 ft.), on the lake of that name, abounding in fish. To the E., 
along the shore, to the gaard Svarvestad, with old fittings. Row to Ind- 
viken, and walk thence into the Prcestedal (see above) or ascend the 
Skarstenfjeld (see above; 4-5 hrs. ; notable view). Row in Pfe hr. to Rake 
and ascend the Opheimsfjeld (see below). Visit the grand glacier-valleys 
of Loen, Olden and Stryn (noting that the steam-launch above mentioned 
calls , when desired , at Visnses and Olderren). To Visnaes also by skyds 
on the new road. 

At Faleide the fjord is superb. Beyond it towers the castellated 
Aarheimsfjeld (2018 ft.), at the foot of which opens the Strynsdal. 
At the mouth of this valley lies the steamboat-station — 

Visnses (^Hotel Central, kept by the son of H. Tenden at Faleide, 
also a skyds-station ; * Visnas Hotel, both at the pier), on the road 
about 8 Kil. from Faleide , the starting-point for the Strynsvand 
(p. 172). In the distance, a little to the right of the Aarheimsfjeld, 
are the Skaala (6360 ft. ; 'bowl'), with its glacier-basin, and the 
Sandenib (p. 171) ; nearer rises the Auflemsfjeld (see below), which 
separates the Loendal from the Oldendal. To the right, behind 
the Auflemsfjeld, appears later the Melheimsnib (p. 171). To the 
S. we look up the Oldendal, with the Store Ceciliekrona (p. 170) 
on the "W. and the Ravnefjeldsbrae on the E. On the N. bank rises 
the Opheimsfjeld, a splendid point of view (ascent from the gaard 
Bake, 2 hrs.). We next call (1-1 V4 hr - from Faleide) at — 

Loen (*Hotel Alexandra, kept by A. M. Loen, D. 2 kr. ; 
B. Kvamme's Hotel), with a small church, at the mouth of the Loen- 
dal (p. 171), bounded on the N. by the Lafjeld and on the S. by the 
Auflemsfjeld (5090 ft.). This is a capital centre for excursions. 

Lastly, returning a little, we steer S. into the bay of Olden. To 
the S. towers the Store Ceciliekrona (p. 170). 

Olden or Olderen (* Yri's Hotel, moderate), reached in 1 hr. from 
Loen , lies at the mouth of the beautiful Oldendal, and is another good 
centre for excursions. Lars Janssen here is one of the best guides 
in Norway; Lars Olderen and Halstein Muri are also commended. 

Excursions to the Oldendal, Loendal, and Strynsdal. 

The three valleys Oldendal, Loendal, and Strynsdal, to the S.E. and 
E. of the Indviksfjord, extend into the heart of the Norwegian Fjeld, and 
to the Jostedalsbrse (p. 167). Each of these valleys is occupied by a lake, 
11-16 Kil. long, formed by an ancient moraine (Eid), which separates 
it from the fjord. All three lakes, but especially those in the Oldendal 
and Loendal , are enclosed by huge precipices rising to 5000 ft. , over 
which tower peaks to a height of 1000-1500 ft. more. From these descend 
glaciers on every side. From fissures in the rocks issue many glacier- 
streams, giving a milky tint to the green waters below. 

The three excursions are similar. On the whole the Loendal repays best. 
For a glance at this and the Oldendal two days suffice. Those who intend 
going up the Strynsdal to Grjotlid (p. 63) may omit the Oldendal. — Guides 
necessary for the glaciers only, where provisions are also advisable. 



170 Route 24. OLDENDAL. From the Sogne fjord 

1. 'Excursion to the Oldendal (there and back, 10-12 hrs.). 

Olden, see p. 169. The road to Eide (4 Kll., a pleasant walk of 
50 min. , driving not recommended) crosses (20 min.) the milky 
stream , -which here forms the Lekenfos, and leads past the W. 
side of the pretty Floenvand to — 

Eide, at the N. end of the *01denvand (120 ft.), a lake stretching 
towards the S., 11 Kil. long and barely 1 Kil. broad, enclosed by 
precipitous rocks. A rowing-boat (tariff C) to the head of the lake 
and back, with two Towers, costs about 5 kr. (two usually suffice). 

On the left, soon after starting, we see the gaard of Sandnms, 
and on the right an ancient moraine with the gaard of Bennas, 
above which rises the Bennas-Klaaven. Waterfalls on every side. 
To the right rise the huge precipices of the /Store Ceciliekrona 
(5825 ft. ; ascent fairly easy, guide 6 kr.). To the left, by the side 
of torrents, lie the gaards of Haakjem, Strand, and Ojerde. To the 
S. the lake appears walled in by the Synsnib, but nearing Sunde, 
we see through an opening to the right the Orytereidsnib (5615 ft.) 
and the Yrinib with two glaciers. • — The strait of *Sunde has been 
formed by the deposits of two streams descending on the left from 
the Sundebrce, between the Gjerdeaksele (6420 ft.) and the Neslenib 
(4860 ft.). On the same bank are the gaards of Sunde. A strong 
current flows through this narrow strait. On rounding the sombre 
steeps of the Synsnib, we obtain a magnificent **View of the S. 
half of the lake, which here expands a little. The Maelkevoldsbrae, 
a huge and imposing glacier, seems to descend to the head of the 
lake. To the right towers the Yrinib, with its waterfalls, and at its 
base lie the gaards of Bak-Yri and Indre-Yri. At the end of the 
lake is the Rustefjeld, with its conspicuous waterfall. On the left 
is the precipice of the Kvamfjeld , with several other cascades. 
After a row of 2 hrs. we land at— 

Rusteen (good quarters at Jens Rusteen's, who acts as guide ; 
carriole to the Brigsdal, about 5 Kil., tariff III). A good road leads 
across swampy alluvial lands and the debris of an ancient landslip 
to (i^hr.) Mcelkevold (whence a pass crosses to Aamot, p. 166). To 
the left, on the opposite bank of the stream, are the Augsburgnib 
and the gaards of Aabrekke, and above these the great glacier of 
that name, which however is not seen to advantage from this point. 
At the head of the valley is the beautiful Mcelkevoldsbrce, imbedded 
between the Kattenak and the Middagsnib. To the right of the 
glacier is the pretty twin fall of the Vaalefos. The road trends to 
the left, crosses the stream, and ascends the Brigsdal or Briksdal 
to (i l /i hr. from Rust»en) — 

Oaard Brigsdal (490 ft. ; refreshments, dear). 

A footpath on the right bank of the Brigsdals-Elv, at first easy, 
then so steep that climbing is necessary at places, ascends to the 
(i/ 2 hr.) Waterfall of that stream. We then ascend over ice-worn 
rocks to a higher zone of the valley, where we obtain a striking 



to the Moldefjord. LOENDAL. 24. Route. 171 

view of the *Brigsdalsbrae, the blue ice-waves of which tower 
above birch and alder woods. Our route leads through the wood to 
(20 min.) the foot of the impassable glacier (1000 ft.), an offshoot 
of the Jostedalsbrae, containing superb ice-caverns. Another gla- 
cier, from which waterfalls and occasionally blocks of ice descend, 
is seen high up to the S. 

Good climbers, with an able guide, may ascend past the Brigsdalsbras 
to a height of 5500 ft., pass round a rocky height to the Mcelkevoldsbrce 
to the S., and climb down along its E. side to the gaard Brigsdal. 

2. **Excursion to the Lobndal (8 hrs., there and back). 

Loen, see p. 169. The road (driving not pleasant) ascends the 
Loendal on the right bank of the torrent. We follow the main road, . 
which trends to the right. The landscape, with its trees, shrubs, 
and green meadows, looks like a park. Above it tower great moun- 
tains, partly snow-clad. The road crosses the stream coming down 
from the Fosdal on the left. The Loendals-Elv forms the Haugfos, 
a fall of horse-shoe shape. In 40 min. from Loen we reach — 

Vasenden, at the N. end of the *Loenvand, an Alpine lake in 
the grandest style, 12Kil.long. (Steam-launch twice daily to Naesdal 
and back ; rowing-boat there and back 5 l /% kr., with two rowers ; a 
third seldom required.) Soon after starting we are in full view of the 
whole lake. On the left, above the gaard of Sande, rises the San- 
denib (5425 ft.), on the right are the Auflemsfjeld and the Mel- 
heimsnib (5425 ft.). From all the mountains, especially from the 
Ravnefjeld (6575 ft.) on the right, descend large glaciers, all, 
however, ending high above the lake. At the Brengsnces-Sceter, on 
the left, a waterfall descends from the Skaalebrce. On the W. side 
of the lake is the huge Hellesceterbrce, terminating abruptly at a 
height of about 3900 ft., from which ice-avalanches fall almost 
continuously in hot weather, first over a sheer precipice of 1000ft., 
and then in a stream spreading out like a fan and almost reaching 
the lake. "When there are no avalanches about ten waterfalls pour 
over the precipice. On the E. bank are the gaard of Hogrending and 
a waterfall coming from the Osterdalsbra. The W. bank is un- 
inhabited. On the E. rises the Kvcemhusfjeld (5700 ft.), with the 
gaard of Redi at its foot. To the "W. is the precipice of the serrated 
Ravnefjeld, the base of which we skirt towards the S. On the left 
we look up the Beidal, with the gaard of that name, backed by 
the Skaalfjeld with the Skaalbrce. 

From the gaard of B0dal we may visit the Bedals-Swler and the ad- 
jacent BedaUbrm (l 1 /2-2 hrs.); or, sleeping at the sseter, we may ascend 
the Lodalskaupe (6790 ft.; 8-10 hrs. ; p. 134), bringing a guide from Loen. 

The lake contracts to a strait. In front of us towers the Nons- 
nib, rising sheer to the overwhelming height of over 6000 ft. To 
the right, in front of it, opens the Kvandal or Ncesdal, with its 
glacier, adjoining which is the *Utigardsfos, a waterfall 2000 ft. 
high, descending from the glaciers of the Ravnefjeld. Passing 
through a bend of the lake, we enter the impressive *Basin of Uses- 



172 Route 24. STRYNSDAL. From the Sognefjord 

dal, bounded by the Ravnefjeld on the W., the Nonsnib on the 
S., and the Badalsfjeld on the E. Between the two last peep the 
Krpnebrce and the Kjendalskrona (5995 ft.). The grandeur of the 
scenery here is unequalled in S. Norway. On the alluvial land at 
the mouth of the Kvandals-Elv, the outflow of the Kvandalsbra:, 
lie the turf-roofed gaards of Na>sdal. After about 1 hr., we land 
at the mouth of the stream , where the vessel waits for travellers 
visiting the Kjendalsbrse. 

A tolerable path, leading first over marshy ground, ascends the 
valley. After about 3 /4hr. suddenly appears the *Kjendalsbrse, on 
which waterfalls descend from the right. In ^2 ^ r - more, crossing 
part of the glacier-stream on stepping-stones, we reach the glacier. 
The stream issues from a magnificent vault of blue ice. It is dan- 
gerous to walk on the glacier, or even to go too near it on account 
of the falling stones. 

From Neesdal (tolerable quarters at Jacob NiesdaVs) across the Joste- 
dalsbrae to the Jostedal , a grand expedition of about 15 hrs. (comp. 
p. 133). Guides, Jacob and Simon Nwsdal. 

3. A Visit to the Stbynsdal may he made in one day from 
Visnaes (rather long and fatiguing). The Strynsdal will be of con- 
siderable importance when the road through the Videdal to Grjotlid 
(pp. 66, 65) is completed (probably in 1894), as it then will form, 
in connection with the road from Grjotlid to Marok (pp. 65-63), 
the most striking route from the Nordfjord to the Geiranger Fjord. 

Visncss, see p. 169. The road crosses the Strynselv (good fishing, 
leased by English anglers , who have built a new dwelling-house) 
and follows its N. bank to Ytre Eide, the church of Nedstryn, and 
the gaards of Ojerven and 0vre Eide. We then cross to the S. 
bank and soon reach — 

Sunde or Mindresunde , 11 Kil. from Visnaes, whence daily in 
the forenoon starts the steam-launch to Hjelle. Sunde is not a 
skyds-station, but carriages may generally be procured. The skyds- 
station is 3 Kil. farther E., at — 

14 Kil. Bergstad or Berstad, below the gaards of Meland (boat- 
sky ds, tariff B). 

The *Strynsvand (80 ft.), 16 Kil. long, is at first narrow, but 
at Lindvik expands into a superb Alpine lake. We first observe, to 
the N., the Marshydna (4680 ft.) ; then the Flofjeld (4400 ft.), with 
the Rindalshom (5950 ft.) behind it, and the gaards of Flo (720 ft.; 
good quarters ; footpath to Bjerdal, see p. 175) perched in front 
of it. To the right are the gaards of Holmevik, 0renas, and Tunold, 
and higher up those of Brakke and Aaning, overtopped by the Brcek- 
kefjeld. From this point we row S.E. to the Church of Opstryn, 
above which, to the S.W., appears the Fosruzsbrce, descending from 
the Skaala (p. 169). On the other side we see into the Glomsdal 
and the Videdal, with the Glomnasegg and the Midtstelshydna 
rising between them. At the head of the Strynsvand , reached by 
the Steam-launch in 1 1 /a hr.. bv rowing hnat in 21/„ hrs ljes — 



to the Moldefjord. GRODAAS. 24. Route. 173 

Hjelle or Jelle (fast station for horses and boats, but poor), at 
the mouth of the Videdal, which the new road to Grjotlid ascends 
(p. 66; skyds to the Visa-Sseter in l!/ 2 hr., there and back in- 
cluding stay 3-3Y2 hrs.; thence on foot to Grjotlid in 8-9 hrs.). 
The traveller will be repaid by a visit to the wild. *Sundal, to which 
a road diverges to the right about 2 Kil. from Hjelle. It leads to 
the gaard Sundalen (7 Kil.), whence we may walk to the Sundals- 
Smter (l*/2 hr.), splendidly situated. 

At the S.E. end of the Strynsvand opens the sombre Erdal, at 
the head of which the Gredungsbrse is visible. Before us, to the 
right, is the Tindefjeldsbrm with the Tavsehydna, and to the left, 
the Ryghydna (5325 ft.) and the Saterfjeld (6200 ft.), all with great 
glaciers, forming a most impressive scene. We land at the gaard 
of Mark or Grenfur, cross the Erdela to the gaard of Erdal, and 
ascend the *Erdal, by Berge and Tjcelhaug, to the gaard Oredung 
(30-40 min.; tolerable quarters). Thence, with a view of the Erdals- 
brce or Gredungsbrce, which stretches down between the Stryns- 
kaupe and the Skaalfjeld, we ascend in 2-2^2 nr s. to the loftily-sit- 
uated Gredungs-Sceter, at the foot of the Assured glacier (2315 ft.). 

The route from the Gredungs-Saeter over the Jostedalsbrse to the Lo- 
dalskaupe (p. 134), and past it into the Bedal(p. 171), takes 8-10 hrs., and 
requires an experienced guide (from Gredung, 13 kr.). 

c. From Faleide on the Nordfjord to Aalesund or Molde. 

Road from Faleide to Hellesylt (46 Kil.) with fast stations (tariff III). 

— Steamer (Com. 260) from Hellesylt to Marok in IV2 hr. (fare 1 kr. 10 0.). 

— Steamer from Marok to Sjvholt in 372-8V2 hrs. (fare 3 kr. 10 0.), to 
Aalesund in 6V2-I2 hrs. (fare 4 kr. 80 0.). — Road from Sj0holt to Vestnws 
(26 Kil.) with fast stations (tariffs II & III). — Steamboat from Vestnses 
to Molde in 1 hr. (fare 95 0.). 

The district of Sandmjare, through which this part of our route passes, 
unlike most other parts of Norway, is remarkable for its distinct moun- 
tain-chains and peaks. The Oeiranger Fjord (p. 175) and the Jerundfjord 
(p. 180) present a contrast which illustrates on a small scale the different 
characteristics of Norse scenery. — Among standard Books may be men- 
tioned Strem's S0ndm0re's Beskrivelse, 1742-66; Magdalena Thoresen's 
Billeder fra Vestkysten of Norge (Copenhagen, 1772); Peder Fylling^s Folk- 
sagn fra S0ndm0re (2 vols., Aalesund, 1874-77); also a full and detailed 
guide-book by Kristofer Banders, 'S0ndm0re' (Christiania, 1890). 

Faleide, see p. 169. The old road, soon to be replaced by a 
new one now under construction , ascends so steeply at first that 
most travellers walk. Splendid look back at the fjord and the 
mountains to the S. The highest point of the road is about 800 ft. 
Then up and down hill, past the gaards of Lange-Sceter, Flore, and 
Sindre, with frequent views of the fjelds (the Holmefjeld to the 
W., the Gulekop to the N., etc.). We descend to — 

12 Kil. (pay for 17) Kjm, on Kjesbunden, the S.E. bay of the Hor- 
nindalsvand (p. 167). We may row from Kj»s to Grodaas, but driv- 
ing is quicker. The hilly road skirts the lake and rounds the Kjesnebb. 

6 Kil. (pay for 8) Grodaas (*Navelsakers Hotel, R. 1-1 1/2, B - 
I-I1/4, D. l'/2-2, pension 4 1 / / 2 lir -) English spoken; RaftevoUVs 



174 Route 24. HELLESYLT. From the Sognefjord 

Hotel, also commended) is charmingly situated at the E. end of the 
Homindalsvand, a lake abounding in fish and enclosed by wooded 
hills, on which a steamboat plies several times a week (Com. 360; 
see also p. 167). A little to the N. is the church of Hornindal. 

Excdksions from Grodaas to Hornsnakken , Kjesnebben, and other 
heights, 2-3 hrs. each. Ascent of the Gulekop (see below), of the Qlitteregg 
(4173 ft.), which rises from the lake to the S., etc. 

From Grodaas a bridle-path leads by Tommasgaard and Ledemel 
(where Rasmus A. L0demel is a good guide, who speaks English) to the 
pass of Kviven (2795 ft.) and past the Kvivdals- Scetre, where it joins a 
path from Oterdal on the Homindalsvand, to (5 hrs.) Kaldvatn, on the 
road from Bjerke to Fprde on the J&stefjord (p. 180). 

A finer hut longer route is the passage of the Hjorteskar to E#rstad 
(7-8 hrs.). This route ascends the Hjortdal (see below) to the Hjortdals- 
Swler, leads through the Blaabrmdal and along the glacier to the pass 
between the Lauedalstinder and the snow-clad Storhorn (5184 ft.), and 
descends the Lauedal , passing the Lauedals-Scetre , to Rerstad, on the 
Kaldvatn and Bjerke road (p. 180). 

The road ascends the Hornindal, passing several pleasant gaards, 
the Denefos, and the entrance to the Hjortdal. The valley expands 
farther up, and is flanked with snow-clad mountains. On the right 
rises the huge Gulekop ; in front of it the Seeljesceterhom (2210 ft.), 
below which opens the Knudsdal; then the Mulsvorhom (2700 ft.) ; 
to the left, the Brcekegg (4320 ft.) and Lilledalsegg. 

9 Kil. (pay for 11, but not in the reverse direction) Indre 
Haugen , a poor station. The intelligent station-master acts as a 
guide to Hornindalsrokken , etc. A carriole may be hired here to 
(20 Kil.) Fibelstad - Haugen (p. 179). — Farther on we have a 
view, up a side -valley to the left, of the almost inaccessible- 
looking Hornindalsrokken (5015 ft. ; ascent from Haugen 10 hrs., 
driving practicable for 2 hrs. ; extensive view). We then cross the 
boundary of StfndmOTe to the Bomsdalsamt. 

6 Kil. Kjeldstadli (1390 ft.). Travellers on their way N. do 
not usually stop here ; those from the N. (from Hellesylt) change 
horses here and pass Indre Haugen without stopping. A new road 
avoids the hill on which Kjeldstadli lies. 

Grand scenery again. To the left opens the glacier-valley of 
Kjeldstad ; to the right the Rerhusdal, with the pointed Rerhusnibba. 
We descend to Tronstad (1130 ft.), a little N. of which, by Trygge- 
stad, opens the Nebbedal(j>. 179). Fine view of the Fibelstadnibba. 

The road descends on the left bank of the Sunelv , the valley 
of which soon contracts to a deep ravine. To the left opens the 
Mulskreddal. Splendid view of the Sunelvsfjord and its mountains. 
The road crosses the stream, which enters the lake in the form of 
a waterfall, passes the church of Sunelven, and reaches — 

13 Kil. Hellesylt (Tryggestad & Stadhejm's Hotel, R. 1 kr. 25, 
S. 1 kr. ; Magnusseri s Hotel), grandly situated at the head of the 
*Sunelvsfjord, an arm of the Storfjord, on which large steamers 
from Aalesund (Com. 260) ply four times weekly. Rowing-boat 
from Hellesylt to Marok in 3-4 hrs. — Vehicles usually await the 
arrival of the steamers. 



to the Molde fjord. MAROK. 24. Route. 175 

From Hellesylt to the Strtnsvand, 23 Kil. We drive up the valley 
to the S.E., passing the fine waterfalls (8 Kil.) Denefos and Frejsefos, to 
Bjerdal and Voldseeter (quarters). Thence a footpath leads by the 0vre 
Flo-Sceter (quarters if need he) and the Nedre Flo-Swler to Flo, on the 
Strynsvand (p. 172). On the first of the three lakes we pass, boats are pro- 
vided by the 'Turist-Forening'. The carriage-road is to be continued to Flo. 

Fine view of Hellesylt and the waterfalls [p. 305) as we steam 
down the fjord. On the E. side of the fjord towers the Nokkeneb 
(4373 ft.). On the "W. side we observe the gaard of Ljeen, whence 
a road winds up the Ljeenbakker (about 2000 ft.) and crosses the 
Ljefjeld to Slyngstad (p. 177). 

Opposite is the mouth of the **Geiranger Fjord, into which 
we steer, notable for its picturesque cliffs and its numerous water- 
falls. On the right the Nokkeneb; on the slope to the left the gaard 
of Madvik. Farther on are the Liadalsnibba (4835 ft.) and Gjerke- 
landsegg (4940 ft.) on the right and the Grauthorn (4425 ft.) on the 
left. The fjord now contracts. On the N. side are seen the Knivs- 
flaafosser or Syv Sestre ('seven sisters'), falling over a perpen- 
dicular cliff into the fjord. Seven falls may be counted at the very 
top, but four only below. High up on the slope near them is the 
gaard Knivsflaa. Above them rises the Gjeitfjeldtind (5145 ft.), 
and farther on is the Gjeitfondegg (4800 ft.). From a gorge on the 
S. bank emerges the Skaggeflaafos or Gjeitfos, adjoining which is 
the gaard Skaggeflaa (1640 ft.). An immense number of small 
waterfalls descend from the cliffs in early summer, but many of 
them dry up in August. Some of them shower down in spray, 
betraying their existence only by the streak of white foam on 
the fjord below. Others leap from overhanging cliffs in veil -like 
form, and are best seen from one side. When the tops of the 
cliffs are clouded, the waterfalls seem to come direct from the sky. 
Curious profiles on the rocks to the right. To the left the veil-like 
Aafjeldfos; then the gaard of Grande, overtopped by the Laushom 
(4911 ft.). As we near Marok we obtain a superb view of the basin 
of Geiranger. High up on the right is the snow-clad glacier be- 
tween the Blaahorn and the Flydalshorn. At the head of the fjord, 
about 20 Kil. from Hellesylt, lies — 

Marok (Maraak, Merok, Mcsraak). — Union Hotel, a large timber- 
built house erected in 1891, 10 min. from the pier, near the church and 
the waterfalls; fine view; Hr. Schieldrop, the landlord, speaks English; 
Hotel Geiranger, nearer the bank, with view of the fjord; Martinus 
Merok's Inn, plain but good, B. 1, B. lVa, S. 1 kr. ; also the fast skyds- 
station. Vehicles await the steamboat: stolkjaerre to Djupvashytte b l /i, 
carriole 3 kr. 

Marok is a small hamlet nestling round the head of the fjord 
on an old tidal plateau, commanded by a small church. Above it 
opens the magnificent basin of Geiranger, with its numerous water- 
falls, through which ascends the new **iJoad to Grjotlid (andBrede- 
vangen ; R. 9). This is a good centre for excursions. The traveller 
should spend at least half-a-day here in order to visit the first part 
of the Grjotlid road (best on foot). 



176 Route 24. NORDDALSFJORD. From the Sognefjord 

The Grjotlid road is leas striking when ascended than descended, hut. 
the traveller who ascends sees the waterfalls to better advantage. The 
largest of these is the Storfos, in which all the tributaries of the river 
unite. Above the second bridge of the road ('Gjerde-Bro'), on this side 
of the stone '100 m. over Havet', a path diverges to the left to the Kleiva- 
fos, a fall of the Vesteraaselv. Travellers pressed for time usually turn 
at Flydalsdjuvet, a point of view about 4 Kil. from Marok, to which a 
finger-post on the road-side points the way. — Those going S. from Marok 
walk or drive on to the Djupvashytte (p. 64) or to Grjotlid (p. 63). From 
the former a mountain-path, from the latter a road leads to Stryn (p. 63). 

The 'Vesteraasdal , the N. approach to the Geiranger basin, between 
the Laushorn and the Grindalshorn, also deserves a visit. We follow the 
above-mentioned path to the left, above the Gjerde-Bro, passing the 
Kleivafos and the Storsceterfos, and crossing a bridge, to (1V2-2 hrs. from 
Marok) the Storsahr (2132 ft..). Splendid view. — We may then ascend 
the valley to the Vesteraas-Sceter and mount the Kaldhusbakker to the S. 
end of a small lake, from which we may visit the Vesleraasbrce to the 
left. Then either to the E. and down the Sletdal to the Kaldhusdal, 
or to the N. down the Herdal to the Eerdahvand (1618 ft.) and Relling i 
Norddal (see below). 

From the gaard Grande (p. 175) a steep bridle-path ascends ( 3 /4-l nr.) 
the Eidsdalsfjeld, widening into a road beyond the top of the hill, and 
leading past the gaard Jndre Eide and the Eidsvand, abounding in fish, 
to Ytkedal (see below ; 12 Kil. from Indre Eide) : a splendid walk of about 
6 hrs., with grand views looking back on the Geiranger Fjord, and fine 
mountain-scenery. (Guide unnecessary.) 

The steamer returns from Marok to the Sunelvsfjord, generally 
calling again at Hellesylt before steering towards the N. Of the 
huge mountains flanking the fjord the chief are the Aakemcesfjeld 
(5043 ft.) on the W., projecting far into the fjord, and the Nons- 
fjeld and Snuhorn on the E. On the E. side are several gaards and 
a few waterfalls. 

From the Sunelvsfjord, the entrance to which is marked by the 
Okmces on the W. and Skrenakken on the E., most of the steamers 
turn to the E. into the Norddalsfjord, the innermost arm of the 
Storfjord (p. 178). On the N. bank lie the gaards of Li and 
Overact. On the S. bank is the rock called St. Olafs Snushorn. 
The first station (2 hrs. from Hellesylt) is — 

Ytredal, at the mouth of the valley of that name. (Route to the 
Geiranger Fjord, see above.) The next station is Relling, with the 
Norddalskirke, whence the wild Torvleisa (5995 ft.), a grand point 
of view, may be ascended in 5 hrs. 

Sylte (Ounnar Grenningseter's Inn, good; Deving), with the 
church of Muri, lies on the N. bank. A curious vein of light 
quartz in a rock here is called St. Olafs Slange or Syltormen. To 
the E. rises the Heggurdalstind. 

From Sylte ovee the Stegafjeld to the Rohsdai, , an interesting 
route of l'/y days, or 1 day by driving to Langdal. The road ascends the 
old moraine of Langbrekken. At the top of the hill is a cross in memory 
of St. Olaf, who in 1028 fled from Sylte to Lesje in the Gudbrandsdal 
(p. xliii). The road then ascends the Valdai, passing several pleasant 
gaards, which attract summer visitors from Aalesund. At Rem, a gaard 
12 Kil. from Sylte, horses and carrioles may be obtained. Beyond Rem 
we cross the stony chaos of Skjwrsurden. At (11 Kil. further) the gaard 
of Langdal (poor quarters) a guide may be obtained (unnecessary foi ''ie 
experienced). The road ends at. Nedre Stel, 2 Kil. farther. We ascend jh 



to the Moldefiord. SJ0HOLT. 24. Route. 177 

foot through the Meierdal to the pass of the Stegafjeld, where we get 
a splendid survey of the Romsdalshorn, the Vengetinder, the Konge, and 
the Dronning, with the fjord in the distance to the N. Beyond this the 
path, indicated by 'Varder', crosses the fjeld, over snow at places, and 
skirting several small lakes. We then turn N.E. to the Isterdal, descend 
the Stegane and pass the "Isterfos, several hundred feet high, commanding 
a fine view of the Isterdalsfjeld to the left and the W. side of the Trold- 
tinder (p. 186) to the right. In about 6 hrs. from Langdal we reach the 
Sogge-Sceler. Beyond this we may either turn to the left to (2 hrs.) Veb- 
lungsnses, or to the right to the gaard of Sogge and cross the bridge to 
the Romsdal road (p. 18o). 

From Sylte we may also visit the "Tafjord (by rowing-boat; or, once 
a week, by steamer, Com. 260), the easternmost bay of the Norddalsfjord, 
very grand, though inferior to the Geiranger. On the left is a fine water- 
fall; on the same side, farther on, is the Muldalsfos, to which a new 
path ascends. The upper part only is seen from the fjord. This superb 
fall is 500 ft. high. The steamer turns here. We may then row through 
a strait into a mountain basin. A waterfall on the right rebounds from 
a projecting rock, which divides it into two. In the background is the 
village of Tafjord (11 Kil. from Sylte; poor quarters), on the hill above 
which, to the right, are iron-mines owned by an English company. Lofty 
snow-mountains peer over the banks on every side. From Tafjord path'! 
lead to Grjotlid (p. 63) and Stuefloten (p. 187). — Comp. Map, p. 63. 

From Sylte we steer W. to the 'Bygd' of Linge, with its pretty 
gaaxds, and the Liabygd. To the left a grand view of the Sunelvs- 
fjord up to Hellesylt. The steamer then crosses to — 

Strauden (quarters at K. Olseris, P. Ows's, and in the gaard 
Ringstad), with its church, adjoining the steamboat-station (Sii/ngr- 
stad, pleasantly situated at the mouth of the Strandedal. 

The fjord, here sometimes called Strandefjord or Slyngsfjord, 
continues beautiful . Rounding the prominent Stordalsnces or Hol- 
men, the vessel steers into the small Stordalsvik, with the gaards 
of Hove and Vinje, at the entrance to the pretty Stordal. Once a 
week it touches at Vagsvik, whence we may ascend the Laupare 
(4754 ft.). Opposite, a little to the W., lies Sjevik. 

The steamer rounds the Gausnas and (31/2-4 hrs. from Sylte) 
reaches — 

Sj-eholt or Seholt (*Rasmussen's Sjeholt Hotel, with depen- 
dencies, K., B., or S. iy 4 , D. 2 kr.; Th. Sjeholt Enke's Hotel, 
modest), pleasantly situated, at the N. end of the 0rskogvik, and 
at the S.E. base of the Lifjeld (which may be ascended in li/j hr.). 
To the N.E. rises the Snaufjeld (2880 ft.), and to the S., over the 
Gausnaes, peer the hills on the opposite bank of the fjord. A brook 
entering the fjord here'separates Sjeholt from the church of 0rskog. 

Pleasant walk on the Aalesund road, to the W., with a view of the 
fjord. After about 1 M. we observe on the bank below a '■Laksvarp' 
(called 'Gilge' in the Sogn district), or apparatus for catching salmon, 
with white boards to attract the fish. 

Road to Aalesund, 38 Kil. (a drive of 5-6 hrs.). Stations (13 Kil.) 
Flaate and (13 Kil.) Redsat (slow ; better therefore engage vehicle all 
the way from Sjuholt to Aalesund). 

The Steamer to Aalesund takes 2-3 hrs. more. It touches at 
the small wooded Langskibse, in a bay between the mainland and 
the Oksene. The narrowest part of this bay is crossed by the road 

BAEDEKF.Ii's NftTWav and Swpdow fi+Ti T?JS+ Acy ^O 



1 78 Route 24. AURE. From the Sognefjord 

to Aalesund mentioned above. We then steer S. across the fjord, 
here for a short distance called Nordfjord, and then S tor fjord. In 
the wider sense the latter name embraces the -whole fjord as far as 
Sylte (p. 176). We steer round the Aursncea to — 

Aure (quarters at Mart. Vik's, the Landhandler) on the Sekkelvs- 
fjord, prettily situated amidst grand scenery, and a favourite resort 
from Aalesund. Steering in, we see the Hammerscettinder rising above 
Aure on the left ; to the right of them is the pointed Stremshorn 
(3240 ft.); then the Brunstadhom, the Qjeithorn, the Vellesaterhom 
(4750 ft.), and the Ringdalstind, some of them flecked with snow. 

The following is a beautiful day's *Excubsion. As Aure and the 
other places are slow stations, a vehicle for the whole trip should be 
engaged at Aure. From Aure we drive E. to (11 Kil.) Sjevik (p. 177); 
then S. through the Ramstaddal to the (12 Kil.) Nysaeter (quarters), on the 
lake of that name , whence the lOsekar (3940 ft. ; fine view) is easily 
ascended. We next cross a hill to the V Medal , in which Drotninghaug , 
its highest gaard , is 6 Kil. from Nysseter. Magnificent view, in de- 
scending, of the snow-mountains above mentioned. Then past the gaard 
of Velle, where the valley bends to the N-, to (13 Kil.) Slremmegjcerdet, 
at the S. .end of the Sflkkelvsfjord, whence, if preferred, a rowing-boat 
may be taken to (6 Kil.) Aure. 

On the W. side of the Sakkelvsfjord towers the Skopshorn 
(4430 ft.). Then, on the Storfjord, comes Tusvik, a pleasant station, 
omitted by some of the steamers. We now steer due W., past the 
mouth of the Jerundfjord (p. 180) and past the large island Sule, 
into the Sulefjord, from which the Vartdalsfjord diverges to the S. 
On the W. side of the Sulefjord lies the island of Hareidland, 
with the church of Hareid and hills rising to 2360 ft. To the N. 
appears the Gode , with a lighthouse , separated from Hareidland 
by the unprotected Bredsund; then the island of Hessen, with the 
pointed Sukkertop ; and further N. the Valdere, with a lighthouse, 
where there is a cavern 120 ft. high on the S.W. side (the Sjong- 
hul). Passing the Stenvaag, the bare rocks of which are used for 
drying fish ('Klipfisk'), we reach, in 2 hrs. from Aure, — 

Aalesund (see p. 181). 

From Sj»holt to Vbstn^s on the Moldbpjord (26 Kil.). 
Sjaholt is a fast station for horses. Vehicles generally await the 
steamers. The road ascends the pretty 0rskogdal to a moorland 
plateau, on which lies a small lake. We here notice numerous 
l Loer, or huts for keeping hay, and long poles for marking the 
way in winter. We then cross the boundary between the Bergens- 
Stift and the Trondhjems-Stift, and descend into the Skorgedal. 

15 Kil. Ellingsgaard (575 ft. ; fast station; no quarters). To 
the right the Brustind, to the left the Ysttinder. The valley be- 
comes more attractive. Beyond Viken the road skirts the W. hank 
of the beautiful Tresfjord, passing many gaards, and crosses the 
mouth of the narrow Misfjord to — 

11 Kil. Vestnas (p. 184), whence steamers ply once or twice 
daily to Molde and to the Romsdal (Com. 260, 262, 264). 



to the Moldefjord. NORANGSDAL. 24. Route. 179 

From Hellesylt through the Norangsdal and down the 
JerRUNDFJORD to Aalesund (two days), a superb route, preferable 
to the direct voyage from Hellesylt or from Marok down the Sun- 
elvsfjord. Road to 0ie, 24 Kil. ; steamer to Aalesund (Com. 260) 
four times a week in 2-4 hrs. 

From Hellesylt up to Tryggestad, p. 174. 

The road to 0ie turns to the N.W. and ascends the Nebbedal, 
a pleasant green valley sprinkled with birches, described by Mag- 
dalene Thoresen in her village- tales as a most dismal place in 
winter, endangered by avalanches. 

On the right rises the Tryggestadnakken, separated by the Scetre- 
dal from the abrupt Fibelstadnib, which forms the background of 
the valley the whole way. Farther on, to the left, is the beautiful 
glacier-girt Kvitegg (see below). To the N. rise the Smerskred- 
tinder (see below). 

10 Kil. Fibelstad-Haugen (1215 ft.; *Hot. Norangsdal), grandly 
situated on the watershed between the Sunelvsfjord and the J»- 
rundfjord, is a good centre for mountaineering. 

The ascent of the "Kvitegg (5590 ft.; 4-5 hrs.) is one of the finest in 
Sjzfndmjjre. Guides, P. 0. liingdal and P. A. Lillebee (3-5 ki\). 

From Fibelstad-Haugen to Bjerke, on the J0rundfjord, a splendid 
walk of about 5 hrs. (with guide): to the W. up the valley to the Kvit- 
elvedalstkar on the N.W. side of the Kvitegg ; then past the little Kvit- 
elvedalsvand on its N. side, and down its brook to the "Tussevand (1970ft.), 
where we get a view of the wild Hornindalsrokken (p. 174) ; round the 
N. side of the lake, down the Tusse-Elv through a series of gorges, and 
past the Tussefos to Bjerke (p. 180). 

At Fibelstad-Haugen begins the ^Norangsdal, one of the 
grandest and wildest valleys in Norway. The upper part is un- 
attractive. The road leads through a bleak dale with a series of 
four lakes, between which the brook sometimes disappears. The 
poor saeters on their banks are built into the rocks for shelter from 
avalanches. The valley contracts. The scenery is wildest by the 
perpendicular black cliff of *Staven, over 4900 ft. high. Remains 
of avalanches form snow-bridges over the river in summer. The 
road crosses to the left bank. 

The valley expands. The abrupt sides of the valley are re- 
placed by separate peaks. To the right, behind us, above the inter- 
vening hills, towers Skruven (5286 ft.). Before us successively 
appear : (left) Kjeipen , the prolongation of Staven ; (right) the 
Smerskredtinder (5240 ft.), at the foot of which lies Skylstad, the 
highest gaard in the valley, where the road crosses to the right 
bank; (left) the Middagshom (4353ft.); (right) Slogen (p. 180), 
the appearance of which varies from different points. 

14 Kil. (pay for 19) 0ie (Union Hotel, near the steamboat-pier) 
and Norang (Retiro Hotel, R. IV2, B. 11/4, D-2, S. 1 1/ 4 kr.), 8min. 
S. of 0ie, on the left bank of the river, both lie at the E. end of 
the **Norangsfjord, a small sequestered arm of the Jerundfjord, 
resembling it in its Alpine character (see below). On both sides 

12* 



180 Routt 24. J0RUNDFJORD. From the Sognefjord 

rise imposing mountains: Slogen (see below), not visible from 
0ie itself, and the Middagshorn ; then on the right the Kloksegg 
and on the left the Blaahorn (4500 ft. J. 

The ascent of "Slogen (5210 ft.) is strongly recommended to moun- 
taineers with steady heads ffrom 0ie 4 hrs., with guide; Jon Klok and 
Peder Haugen). Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby calls the view one of the noblest 
in Europe. — The Gjeilhorn and Brekketind are both difficult. 

A grand but fatiguing route leads from Skylstad (p. 179) between 
Slogen and the Smerskredtind (5240 ft. ; first ascended by Mr. Slingsby in 
1884), over the pass of Skylstadbrekken (2592 ft.) and either N.E. to Stranden 
(p. 177), or N.W. by the gaard Bvunstad in the Velledal down to Aure(p. 178). 

When the steamer suits, a most attractive route to Aalesund is this: 
from 0ie to Scebe by steamer (Com. 260; or row, 10 Kil.); drive thence 
to 0rstenvik (24 Kil. ; p. 181 ; a splendid route), and steam on to Aalesund 
(Com. 260; 201, A). 

On leaving 0ie we see the Elgenaafos on the left ; then the 
gaards of Stennces in an exposed situation under the Staalberg 
(4138 ft.); and on the right, at the mouth of the Vrkedal, the gaards 
of Urke (steamboat-station). To the W. above Urke towers the 
Saksa (3445 ft.), which with the Staalberg forms the impressive 
entrance to the Norangsfjord. 

The **J«rundfjord (Hjerundfjord, Jeringfjord) , which the 
steamer now enters, differs in character from the other fjords. In- 
stead of being a deep cutting in the great Norwegian plateau, with 
nearly upright sides , it is flanked with picturesque ranges and 
peaks, some of them remarkably bold and pointed, others isolated 
between deep gaps or notches ('Skard'), and clad with snow and 
glaciers near their summits. 

The S. or upper part of the Jerundfjord has more of the ordi- 
nary Norse character. On its W. bank is the gaard of Skaare, with 
the Tos' of that name, at the foot of the Skaaretinder ; and on its 
E. bank, to the S. of the Jagta (5240 ft.), lies the gaard Viddal, 
a steamboat-station. At the S. end of the narrowing fjord, high 
above the water, lies Ejerke or Bjerke [Hotel Bjerke, opened in 
1891), the terminus of the steamer. Above it rise the Bjerkehom 
(4445 ft.) and the Tussenut (4203 ft.). Near it is the pretty Tusse- 
fos (p. 179)", descending from the Tussevand. 

A road (slow stations) leads from Bjerke up the Sjaastaddal, by Eer- 
stad and Ruejd, to (15 Kil.) Kaldvaln (p. 174) and (8 Kil ) Farde (quarters 
at D. Maan's), on the tfstefjord, the SE, arm of the Voldenfjord. (To 
Volden, IS Kil., by steamer, Com. 261, or by boat; p. 181). 

On leaving the Norangsfjord the steamer steers towards the W. 
bank of the Jerundfjord, and past the Hustadnces (on the bank a 
little S. of which is Raamandsgjelet, a cavern in the rock Baa- 
mand), to — 

Saba, with the church of Jerund fjord, in a small bay, at the 
mouth of the well-cultivated Bonddal (p. 182). 

Store Standal (steamboat-station) , at the mouth of the valley 
between the Selvkall (S.) and the Standalshorn (N.), and Lille 
Standal are the finest points on the Jerundfjord. — From this point 
onwards, see Map, p. 182. 



to the Moldefjord. AALESUND. 24. Route. 181 

On the E. bank of the fjord, opposite Standal, rise the impos- 
ing Molaupsfjeld, named after the gaard Molaup at its N. base. 
Near it is the cavern Troldgjel, where a phenomenon similar to 
that on the Lysefjord has been observed (p. 89). Farther down 
the same side is the Slettefjeld. On the W. side rises the cloven 
Jenshorn. At the mouth of the fjord are the steamboat-stations of 
Javences on the E. and Fastei or Festej on the W. side. Between 
these stations we obtain a final survey of the Jarundfjord in its 
entire length (36 Kil.), backed by the distant Hornindalsrokken. 
From this point to Aalesund, see p. 178. 

Aalesund. — Disembarkation generally by small boat (10 0.). — 
'Schieldkop's Hotel, close to the harbour, B. lkr. 60, A. 50, B. lkr. 200.; 
Skandinavie, Storgaden, R. l'/2, B. 1 kr. 20 0., V. 2J/2 kr. ; both on the 
~N0tv0. — Baths on the Asp#. — Post and Telegraph, Storgaden. — 
Slow station for horses and boats. 

Aalesund, a busy trading town with 8100 inhab., lies on the 
Nerve (E.) and the Aspe (W.), two islands on the outer fringe of 
the 'Skjsergaard', a favourable situation to which it owes its rapid 
rise. It was only in 1824 that it came into notice as a harbour, and 
only in 1848 that it became a town. Aalesund is the commercial 
centre of the whole region of the Storfjord (p. 178), and for the cod- 
fisheries of the W. 'banks', particularly the famous 'Fiskeplads' 
Storeggen, the yield of which is 5-6 million kr. per annum. The 
harbour, which opens towards the N.W., lies between the two is- 
lands and is protected by Slcandsen, a peninsula of the Nerve, on 
one side, and by a pier on the other. The narrowest part of this 
strait, the Aalesund, from which the town takes its name, is crossed 
by a bridge connecting the two parts of the town. On the Nerve 
('indom Sundet') are the custom-house, the inns, etc., and on the 
Aspe ('udom Sundet') are the church and the school. On the E. 
side of the Nerve quarter is a pretty public promenade, with views 
of the distant peaks of Sendmere. 

A more extensive view is obtained from the * Aalesundsaxel 
[509 ft), 1 hr. there and back. (Ask the way from the public park 
to the 'Kirkegaard', and ascend to the right in a ravine beyond it.) 
— A little to the S. of the Sjeholt road (p. 177), 6 Kil. from Aale- 
sund, is the church of Borgund, founded in the 11th cent., restored 
in 1869. Near it once lived Hrolf Gangr ('Rolf the Ganger'), the 
;onqueror of Normandy. 

The Steamboat Traffic of Aalesund is considerable. The coasting 
iteamers of the Bergen and Trondhjem line (pp. 159, 191 ; Com. ^01, 203, 
T5, 76, &c), and the fjord-steamers to Hellesylt and Marok (pp. 174-178; 
Com. 260), to the Jmundfjord (p. 180; Com. 260), and to Molde and the 
Romsdal (pp. 182-184; Com. 260) are mentioned in other parls of the 
landbook. Another line, of service to tourists, is — 

Feom Aalesund to Eidsaa and Aahjem (Com. 260; twice a week). 
To Hareid, the first station, and the Vartdaltfj ord , see p. 178. Sere 
Vartdal, the second station, lies about halfway through this fjord or 
(trait (see Map, p. 166). Passing the LiadaUhom (3510 ft.), we enter the 
0rstenfjord, at the head of which (3 hrs. from Aalesund) lies — 

0rstenvik ("Bvendten's Hotel; slow station), at the mouth of the well- 



182 Route 24. FOLLESTADDAL. 

cultivated 0rslendal or Aamdal, watered by the 0rttenelv. To the N. 
rises the Saudehom (4330 ft. ; easy ascent, 5-6 hrs. there and back), com- 
manding a fine view of the Stfndmtfre Mts. Another point of view is the 
Melshom (2740 ft. ; a much shorter ascent). From 0rstenvik to the 30- 
rundfjord, see below. 

From fiTrstenvik to Volden by road (11 Kil.), a drive of lV4hr.; the 
steamer, rounding the peninsula between the 0rstenfjord and the Volden- 
fjord. takes iy.i-2 hrs. 

Volden (SvenderCt Hotel) lies near the slow skyds-station Redscel (good 
quarters), on the E. bank of the Voldenfjord. Route to the J/Jrundfjord, 
see below. Local steamer to the 0stefjord, the Dalsfjord, and to Aale- 
sund once or twice weekly (Com. 262). 

Then several small stations, beyond which, once a week, the steamer 
goes on to Eidsaa on the Sevdefjord (p. 161) and Aahjem on the Vanelvs- 
fjord(v- 160; 5 l ,U-5 l /2 hrs. from Volden). 

The "Roads to the J0rdndfjord from 0rstenvik and from Volden 
form the finest approaches to it from Aalesund. Valleys with rich vege- 
tation; mountains strikingly picturesque. From 0rstenvik the old road 
leads by (10 Kil.) Vatne and through the Bonddal (see below). The new 
road leads through the Follestaddal. Both roads first ascend the beauti- 
ful 0rstendal, in view of a fine mountain background, to the gaard Aam 
(5 Kil. from 0rstenvik) at the mouth of the "Follestaddal. We ascend 
the latter, keeping in view of the grand Kjelaaslind (4708 ft. ; ascended by 
Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby in 1876 ; very difficult), whence a glacier dips to the E. 
At the gaard Kjelaas (8 Kil. further) the Romerlal diverges to the left; up 
this valley a charming 4 hrs., walk may betaken to the church of Vartdal, 
or North Vartdal. From Kjfllaas, we ascend the Standalseid, at the top of 
which we get a splendid "View of the KJ0laastind behind and the peaks of 
the Jgfrundfjord before us. Then down the Standal to (8 Kil.) Store Standal 
(steamboat-station; no quarters; p. 180). Lastly, row to Saebizf, 8 Kil. 

From Volden the road crosses the lofty Elevdalseid (984 ft.), and at 
the gaard Brautescet joins the road from JtJrstenvik via Aam (see above), 
at the N. end of the Vatne-Vand, the E. bank of which it skirts. 

13 Kil. Vatne. Then uphill, and past the gaard Osvold, at the mouth 
of the Bjerdcil, to the pass (919 ft.), where the Jgrrundfjord Mts. come in 
sight. Next down the Bonddal , flanked by the Veirhald (4013 ft.) and 
the GreildaUtind on the left, and the Aartethom (3550 ft.) and Storhom 
(4490 ft.) on the right, and past several gaards. By the gaard Huttad, in 
the Storhom, high up on the right, is the ravine St. Olafsdal. 

14 Kil. (pay for 19, in the reverse direction for 20) Rise (good station), 
>/t hr. beyond which is the steamboat-station Saeber (p. 180). Row to 0it 
(p. 179 ; 10 Kil. ; tariff B ; order boat as early as possible). 

To Molde, steamer in 4-5 hrs. (see above). Beyond Aalesund the steamer 
passes the island of Lepse (left), where Miss Mouat, who was driven 
across the sea from the Shetland Islands in a boat alone in 1886, reached 
land and was rescued. Some of the steamers touch at J0stnces (on the 
Hararnse; view of the mounta ns on the mainland), Helland (on the 
mainland), Drennen (on the Mifjord), Misvnd (on the strait of that name), 
and Gjelsten (on the Tomrefjord), whence they all steer N.E. up the Molde- 
fjord to Molde (see below). 

25. Molde and the Moldefjord. The Romsdal. 
The Eikisdal. 

Thanks to its numerous steamboat-routes, Molde is an excellent centre 
for excursions in the region of the Moldefjord and the RomsdaUfjord. A 
visit should be paid to the Romsdal from Molde rather than in the re- 
verse direction, as in the former case the scenery gradually becomes more 
impressive. 

Hotels at Molde (often overcrowded): "Grand Hotel, finely situated 
at the E. end of the town, R. 2'/2kr., L. 25 0., B. l'/i, D. 2i/z, S. li/»kr.; 
English spoken. Thi3 hotel keeps a steamer for excursions (60 kr. per 




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MOLDB. 25. Route. 183 

day) and a steam-launch for taking passengers from the sea-going steamers 
to its private pier (26-35 0., luggage 10 0. and upwards). Hotel Alexandra, 
at the W. end of the town , R. from l'/z, B. ii/z-2, D. 2V2, S. li/ 2 kr. ; 
English Hotel , above the town. — When the hotels are full , decent 
quarters may be had in private houses (1 kr.). — Beer at DahVs Bryggeri 
(PI. B, to the W. of the 'Apothek'). — Baths at the two large hotels. 
Primitive sea-baths by the Alexandra Hotel (20 0. ; towel 7 0.). — Post 
Office next to the British vice-consulate. Telegraph, a little to the W. 
of it (see Plan). — British Vice-Consul, Mr. P. F. Dahl. 

Steamers to Bergen and to Trondhjem , each about 11 times a week 
(Com. 201, 75, 76), to Aalesund 11 times (the Bergen steamers) and several 
times more (Com. 160, etc.); to places on the Moldefjord, see pp. 184, 187. 
— Careful enquiry should be made as to the hours and places of departure. 

Molde, a thriving little town of 1600 inhab., and a great sum- 
mer resort, is pleasantly situated on the N. bank of the Molde 
Fjord, at the foot of green slopes backed by a range of higher hills. 
Thus sheltered from the N. and W. storms, the vegetation is sur- 
prisingly luxuriant , though Molde is nearly 3° of latitude N. of 
St. Petersburg. Roses abound, and some of the houses are over- 
grown with honeysuckle. Mingling with the pine and the birch are 
seen horse-chestnuts, limes, ashes, and cherry-trees. 

The great attraction of Molde is the noble survey it commands 
of the wide expanse of the fjord and the long chain of mountains 
to the S. and S.E., with their rocky peaks and snow-flecked sides. 
The most picturesque point of view is the *R8eknseshaug-, a hill 
laid out in promenades to the N.W. of the town (near Dahl'sHave, 
a pretty private garden), to which we may ascend from the Alexan- 
dra Hotel in ^ hr., or from the Grand Hotel by the upper road, 
passing the church, in 20 minutes. The grounds are entered from 
the road passing them on the S. side, but not from the path ascend- 
ing on the E. side to the Moldehei (see below). A small pavilion 
at the top. In the foreground lies the little town of Molde, at the 
foot of its green hills, beyond which streches the beautiful fjord, 
broken by the long islands Hjaerta and Faar». 

Between Dahl's Have, and the Raeknaeshaug a bridle-path, in- 
dicated by a finger-post 'til Varden' and by a second 6min. further 
(where we turn to the righjt), ascends past a refreshment -stall 
with a flagstaff to the (1 hr.) top of the *Moldehei (1350 ft.), with 
a refuge-hut (not always open) and a huge vane. The extensive 
view embraces the whole of the Molde Fjord with the mountains 
enclosing it: towards the S., on the right, is the conspicuous 
Laupare (p. 177); to the left of it (S.E.), rising above the coast- 
hills, are the Troldtinder (p. 186), the Romsdalshorn, and the 
Vengetinder; in the distance, more to the left(E.), the Skjorta in 
the Eikisdal (p. 189); to the W. a glimpse of the open sea, of 
which more is seen from another height, to the N. of the refuge- 
hut, marked with a pointed 'Varde'. (See annexed Panorama ; a 
larger is to be had at Olsen's book-shop at Molde, price 1^2 kr.) 

A charming drive may be taken, towards the E., through the 
line avenue on which the Grand Hotel is situated, to the *Fane- 



184 Route 25. VESTNjES. Moldefjord. 

strand or Fannestrand, where the rich vegetation of Molde is seen 
to advantage. The road is shaded with birches, ashes, maples, 
larches, and other trees, and is flanked with pleasant gaards, villas, 
and gardens (among which is Consul Johnson's Buen Retiro). All 
he way we enjoy a fine view, towards the S., of the fjord and the 
distant mountains. At Acre and Ejkrem, 4*/2 Kil. from Molde, the 
road becomes less frequented ; Strande (p. 188) is 4^2 Kil. further. 
To the N.E. of Molde rises the Tusten (2285 ft. ; 3 hrs. ; guide ad- 
visable). We go to the E. end of the town, cross the brook, and ascend 
its bank, past a few houses, and through sparse wood. The barren Tusten 
.forms the background of the valley. After 3 /i hr. the valley divides; we 
keep to the right, and P/4 hr.) cross a bridge. Then straight up towards 
the summit through thin wood. Marshy at places, but no difficulty. 
The dead and dying pines, with their silver-grey trunks, on the (0/4 hr.) 
upper margin of the wood are very picturesque. Thence to the top about 
20 min. more. Alpine flora. Very extensive view, embracing the fjord 
and the mountains to theN., E., and S., and the vast Atlantic to the W. 

a. Excursion to the Eomsdal. 

Steamboat from Molde to Aandalsnws (or Nces; Com. 260, 262, 264) 
about 14 times a week, in 2V4-4 1 /* hrs. (fare 2 kr.). — Road (skyds-tariff III) 
from Nses to the Rumsdal. Pleasant to walk from Nees to (27 Kil.) Flat- 
mark and to drive back (or even to Ormeim, 38 Kil. ; but better in this 
case drive both ways). It is scarcely feasible to visit the Romsdal from 
Molde and to return to Molde in one day. Better, after seeing Molde, 
leave it altogether for Nees or other station in the Romsdal. 

Instead of taking the direct steamer to Naes, we may go by another 
(Com. 262, 264) to Alfarnass or to Lcereim, drive or walk to Thorvik, and 
row across to Nses (comp. p. 189). 

The vessel steers S., affording a fine view of the mountains, 
backed by the conspicuous Laupare(p. 177) at the head of the Tres- 
fjord, to (1 hr.) Vestnses (*Hotel Stanley, new, R. l 1 /^, D. 2 kr.), 
on the W. side of the entrance to the Tresfjord, a deep bay set in 
wooded hills and bare rocky peaks. The road to Sjeholt begins here 
(p. 178). A steamer (Com. 262)plies up theTresfjord, twice a week, 
to Viken and Sylte (whence a road up the Karseimsdal leads to 
Vagsvik on the Storfjord, 17 Kil.; p. 177), and down by Dougstad 
and Legemces or Leikarnces. 

We steer E., past Gjermundnas, and enter the Romsdalsfjord. 
To the left the island of Sakken, on which lies Vestad (called at 
twice weekly). Fine view up the Langfjord, with the Skaala on its 
N.W. bank (p. 188). On the right the populous Vaagestrand, with 
its white church high up, and the station Rcestadbugt (twice 
weekly). Behind it rises the snow - capped Blaatind (3560 ft.), 
not visible from the steamer. 

To the E. towers the wooded Oksen (2674 ft.); to the right of 
it, in the distance, appear the Romsdal Mts., notable among which 
are the furrowed Vengetinder. Some of the steamers enter a small 
bay at the foot of the Oksen and call at Nordvik, or ISorvik, whence 
a road, passing the church of Eid, crosses to the Rerdvenfjord (p. 189). 
Opposite the Oksen, on the S. bank rise the Troldstole (3714 ft.), 
chief of which is St. Olafs-Stol, with a 'Botn' enclosed by two hills 



Moldefjord. AANDALSNJES. 25. Route. 185 

('St. Olaf's chair'). Several of the steamers next enter the little 
bay of Void, with its old timber church, situated at the mouth of 
the fertile Maandal, with snow-mountains in the background. 

We steer past the mouth of the Indfjord, and approach the 
grand mountains of the S. bank, foremost of which is the Skjolten 
(3440 ft.), with the waterfall of Skjolen. To the N. is disclosed a 
flue view of the Smerbottenfjeld (3765 ft.), and, to the S., of the 
striking Romsdal Mts.: the Vengetinder, the flattened Kalskraa- 
tind (5895 ft.), and the Romsdalshorn (p. 186). These immense 
mountains average nearly double the height of those of Wales and 
Westmoreland. 

Veblungsnees. — Onsum's Hotel , at the pier ; Romsdal Hotel , a 
few minutes farther, R., S., B., each 1, D. 1 kr. 20 0. ; no view from either. 
— Telegkaph Office opposite Onsum's- — Conveyances await the steam- 
boat (skyds-tariff III). The skyds-station is at Seetnes (see below). 

VeblungsncBS, situated at the foot of the Satnesfjeld (3900 ft.), 
to the S. of the influx, of the Rauma into the Romsdalsfjord, is less 
important as an entrance to the Romsdal than the opposite station 
of Aandalsnses, which lies a little to the N. , and at which several 
of the steamers call first. To the E. of the village (5 min.) is the 
church of Orytten, an octagonal timber building. Just beyond it 
the road forks : that to the left, crossing a long bridge, leads to 
Naes ; that to the right leads past the houses of Sceines to a military 
camp and rifle-range. 

The steamer passes the broad mouth of the Rauma and steers 
round the promontory on its N. side to — 

Aandalsnaes. — 'Grand Hotel Bellevue (Hr. Lossius, the landlord, 
speaks English), a large new timber house on a height, 5 min. from the 
pier, with views all round, R., B., S., each l 1 ^, D. 2, pension 5 kr.; 
adjacent, Aandahl's Hotel Bellevue, R. I1/2, B. 1, S. li/a kr. ; nearer 
the pier, "'Romsdalshorn Hotel, similar charges; "TJnhjem's Hotel, on 
the fjord, moderate. 

Conveyances (skyds-tariff III) await the steamboats. — Diligence to 
Lillehammer, see p. 53 (from the Grand Bellevue Hotel). — The nearest 
telegraph-station is at Veblungsnaes. 

Aandalsnces, usually called Nets or Nes, the chief approach to 
the Romsdal, is well suited for a prolonged stay. The nearest height 
is the Mjelvafjeld, the N.W. spur of which is also called Nmsaxlen. 
Farther off is the Storhest. To the right of the Nsesaxel we look 
up the Romsdal with the Vengetinder, Romsdalshorn, and Trold- 
tinder, and to the right of these into the Isterdal and towards the 
Saetnesfjeld; to the W. rise theTroldstol and the snow-clad Blaatind 
(p. 184) ; to the N. the snowy heights of the Blaafjeld. 

Excdrsions. To the Romsdal, see below. — To the Isterdal, as far 
as the Isterfos, and up the Stigane to the Stegafjeld (p. 177). — Row to 
Thorvik (p. 189; boat-skyds; 3 hrs. there and back), and in 1 hr. ascend 
a fine point of view above the Gjerssetvatn. 

Several steamers go on from Nses up the Isfjord (which is frozen over 
in winter) to Sten, at the mouth of the Hens-JElv, to which a road on 
the bank of the fjord also leads from Nses (5 Kil.). Beyond Sten is (2 Kil.) 
the church of Hen. To the N. rises the Kirketag (4490 ft.), the truncated 
outline of which is so conspicuous in the view from the Holdehei above 



1 86 Route 25. ROMSDAL. Moldefjord. 

Molde. — From Hen a road leads up the beautiful Gnzrvdal to Unhjem 
and Movstel (3V2 hrs. ; tolerable quarters), whence we may ascend the 
Juratind (5125 ft. ; 7-8 hrs. to the top ; splendid view). — From the Gr0v- 
dal we may descend the Homedal by a sseter-path, and thence cross to 
the right, between the Uglehaug on the S. and the Besthaug (3625 ft.) on 
the N., to Torhus, near the Eirisfjord Church, and (1 hr. further) to JVeste 
in the Eikisdal (about 8 hrs. in all from Sten ; guide necessary ; Hans 
Mostu commended ; see also p. 189). 

The *Romsdal , or valley of the Bauma (p. 59), is one of the 
most famous in Norway. The road from Nass descends to the right 
hank of the river and (2 Kil.) unites with that from Veblungsnaes 
(p. 185 ; 3 Kil. distant). It then ascends on the right bank of the 
stream, through park-like scenery (alders, birches, ashes), flanked 
with high mountains. To the left is the gaard of Aak , now the 
residence of Mr. H. 0. Wills, the well-known tobacco-manufacturer 
of Bristol. The name Aak (pron. oke) is probably a contraction of 
'Aaker' (cultivated land), and occurs in Maraak , Berkaak, etc. 
To the right, beyond the stream, opens the Isterdal , with its Al- 
pine peaks : on the W. side Bispen ('the Bishop') and Sestrene 
('the Sisters'; 3095 ft.), and on the £. Kongen ('the King'; 5310 ft). 
A little further on, a road diverging to the right leads across the 
Rauma to Sogge. On our road lie the gaards of Hole and Venge, 
opposite which is the gaard Fiva , in a grove of birches. On the 
E. side of the valley, scarcely visible from the road, is the pictur- 
esque Vengetind (5960 ft.), adjoining which and dominating the 
landscape, towers the huge * Romsdalshorn (4965 ft.), usually 
known as Hornet. 

The Ascent of the Romsdalshorn (one day), first made in 1827, is 
not very [difficult, but rather dangerous, and is impossible after snow. 
We ascend the Vengedal (here practicable for driving) , and climb to the 
peak from the W. side. Mathias Soggemoen and Erik Norahagen of Koms- 
dal are commended as guides. — The ascent of the Vengetind is quite as 
difficult, but not dangerous. — The Mj0lnir, which Mr. Wm. C. Slingsby 
describes as one of the steepest mountains in Europe, is extremely diffi- 
cult. It is best scaled from Indre Dalen (good quarters), a drive of 3 hrs. 
from Nses. 

On the W. side of the valley rise the *Troldtinder ('witch-pin- 
nacles' ; 5055 ft.). Part of the crest is known as 'Brudefolget', or 
the bridal train. The highest peak may be ascended by the small 
glacier visible between Naes and Aak (difficult; ascended by C. Hall 
in 1882). The road leads close by the foaming Rauma, between 
the Romsdalshorn and the Troldtinder. At one place, much ex- 
posed to avalanches in winter, the road is carried through the broad 
bed of the river by means of an embankment. 

14 Kil. Horgheim (235 ft.; pron. Hor'jem; plain but good sta- 
tion; R. 1 kr., B. 80, S. 60 0.) lies on an ancient moraine. The 
valley is wider here, its floor marshy. 

We pass the gaards of Mirebe and Treene, and, on the opposite 
side of the valley, Redningen, Alnas, and Remmem. Below Rem- 
mem, on the right, is a waterfall, and near the gaard of Monge, 
on the left, is the beautiful Mongefos. descending from the Mon- 



Moldefjord. ORMEIM. 25. Route. 187 

gegjura (4230 ft. ; fine view ; guide, Johnson of Flatmark). The 
sides of the valley, buttresses of the higher mountains, are here 
2000-3000 ft. high. Splendid view of the Troldtinder and the 
Semletind (5770 ft.) behind us. The road and the Rauma next 
thread their way through a chaos of rocks formed by some tremen- 
dous landslip. Beyond the church of Kors, which lies a little off 
the road and is not visible from it, we reach — 

12 Kil. Flatmark (station, good and reasonable), in a fertile and 
smiling part of the valley. Opposite rises Skiriaxlen (3745 ft.). 

Scenery still fine , though less grand. On each side are water- 
falls, shorn of their might in dry seasons : on the left the Stygge- 
fondfos, Gravdefos, Skogefos; on the right the Dentefos. To the 
S., above Ormeim, rises the Middagshaug. The road now ascends 
rapidly. To the right is the *Va>rmofos, leaping nearly 1000 ft. 
from the S. side, majestic after rain and spring thaws. Best view 
froma rocky knoll opposite the fall, on the right bank of the Rauma. 

11 Kil. Ormeim (*Station; view of the Vsermofos from the back 
windows) is beautifully situated high above the Rauma. To the S. 
the Alterhei, with its peak Storhcetten (5940 ft.; ascent past the 
Vaermofos 4hrs.; two -thirds ridable; horse 4, guide 4 kr.; view 
extensive, but unpicturesque). 

From Ormeim to Reitan on the Eikisdalsvand, see p. 191. 

Excursionists to the Romsdal from Veblungsnses or Aandalsnaes 
usually turn at Ormeim, but the upper part of the valley, as far as 
Stuefloten, is also very fine. About 4 kil. above Ormeim we come 
to a finger-post indicating the way to the *Slettafos. We alight, 
cross the bridge above the fall, and in a few minutes reach a spot 
below overhanging rocks, where we have a fine view of the fall 
and hear its reverberated roar. The rocky sides of the gully have 
been worn by the water into deep cauldrons ('Jsettegryder'). 

The road runs high above the Rauma, which, often lost to view, 
receives several tributaries, chief of which is the Ulvaa on the 
right, the discharge of the Vlvedalsvand. "We ascend the once 
dreaded Bjeme-Klev ('bears' cliff) in windings. 

10 Kil. (pay for 11) Stuefloten (2050ft; *Station, R. 1, S. 1 kr., 
B. 80 0.) is the first place in the Gudbrandsdal. Fine view from 
the height of 'Toppert' (2 hrs.). 

From Stuefloten a mountain-path leads N. to the Jlikisdal, see p. 191. 

To the Norddalsfjokd (p. 176), towards the W. : first by a road up the 
Ulvaa to the Tungsoster (quarters), at the E. end of the Ulvedalsvand ; 
then across the fjeld and down the Muldalselv to the gaard Muldal (quar- 
ters), situated high above the Tafjord (p. 177). 

The shortest route from the Romsdal to Jotunheim leads from Mel- 
men, the next skyds-station beyond Stuefloten , by the Nysoeter in 2 days 
to Aanstad (E^jshjem); comp. p. 60. 

Road through the Gudbrandsdal, see pp. 51-61. 

b. Excursion to the Eikisdal. 

Road (fast stations, tariff III; or boat-skyds from Tjelde onwards) or 
Steameb (Com. 262, 26i; in 4'/z-6 hrs.) to Nvste, at the entrance of the 



188 Route 25. EIDSVAAG. Moldefjord. 

Eikisdal. We either go by road and return by steamer, or the reverse. 
Three days should be allowed. We begin with the land-route : — 1st Day, 
to Eidsvaag. 2nd Day, walk or row to Nmte; walk or drive to J0veraas; 
steam in the grimy little 'Mignon' (Com. 3K5; fare 1 kr. each way; extra- 
trip, 6-10 pers., 15 kr., there and back) in 2 hrs., or row (with two rowers 
3kr. 78 0., and fee; there and back, double) in 3-3'/2 hrs. up the Eikis- 
dalsvand to Reitan-Utigaard, and back to N0ste. 3rd Day, back to Molde 
by steamer. — If we begin with the steamer, we go on the first day to 
Reitan- Uligaard ; spend the second night at Eidsvaag; and return on the 
third day to Molde. — If we hire the private steamer of the Grand Hotel 
(p. 182) we may do the trip hurriedly in one day. 

The Land Route prom Molde to N»stb (70 Kil.) is attractive 
only on the Fanestrand (p. 184) and between Tjelde and Eidsvaag. 
Stations meagre. 

9 Kil. Strande (p. 184). We then skirt the Fanefjord, hounded 
on the S. by the lofty Skaala (3590 ft.). 

13 Kil. Eide (tolerable quarters), where a route to Christian sund 
(p. 192) diverges to the N. — The fjord ends at the church of 
Kleve. The road follows the N. side of the valley. 

9 Kil. Istad. A little beyond, the road forks; to the left to 
Angvik (p. 193), to the right to the Eikisdal. The latter road leads 
through the Osmarlc, a monotonous wooded district, overlooked by 
the grand Skaala on the right. Crossing the Storelv, we pass the 
Osvand and the gaard of Gusiaas on the right. Scenery now more 
lonely. We pass the Sjersatervand, with the gaard of that name, 
and the Scetervand. Then a steep descent, with a beautiful view 
of the Langfjord and the snow-peaks to the S. 

13 Kil. Tjelde, on the Langfjord, from which we may row to 
Ne<ste (16 Kil., in 2'/ 2 hrs.). — The road leads E., pretty high 
above the Langfjord, and then descends, in full view of the Skjorta 
and other mountains to the S. We next pass the old timber church 
of Red (doomed to demolition) and several substantial gaards. 

9 Kil. Eidsvaag (*H. Sverdrup's Hotel, R. 1 kr., S. 1 kr. 20, 
B. 80 e.) lies at the E. end of the fjord, here shallow, and at low 
tide covered with sea-weed. Pretty walk to the new church (lOmin. 
N.). Note that steamboat-passengers land and embark in small 
boats (10 0.). 

From Eidsvaag a road crosses the Tiltereid to Eidseren on the Sun- 
dalsfjord (9 Kil); see p. 193. 

Our road still skirts the fjord, and passes the parsonage of 
(5 Kil. from Eidsvaag) Ncesset, where the novelist Bjernson spent 
part of his youth. It then becomes very hilly, with pretty views 
now and then of the Eirisfjord on the right and the Skjorta on the 
left (p. 189). About 4 Kil. from Naesset it passes the two gaards 
of Bogge (steamboat-station), and at (3 Kil.) Bredvik it ends. From 
Bredvik we row to (4 Kil.) — 

16 Kil. (from Eidsvaag) Neiste (see below). 

The Steamboat from Molde to N»ste steers E., between the 
Fanestrand (p. 184) on the left and the island Boise on the right, 
high up at the E. end of which is the church of Bols». Then past 



Moldefjord. LANGFJORD. 25. Route. 1 89 

the promontory Dvergsncts, sometimes calling at Revik ; to the S., 
round the Seirnesje; and to the E. again. On the right are the is- 
land Saekken (p. 184) and the Vee ('holy island') with its church. 
Stations Havnevik and Selsnms. 

"We next steer across the mouth of the Langfjord, past the oddly 
shaped islet Hestholm (S.E. of the Ve»), in view of the noble 
Eomsdal Mts., to Ottestad and Alfarnas (good quarters at the sta- 
tion), one on each side of the entrance to the Redvenfjord, up 
which a steamer plies twice weekly to Lcerejm or Lereim (Hotel 
Lereim, new) at the S. end. 

From Alfarn;es to THrns is the Romsdal. Alfarnffs is a fast skyds- 
station (tariff III). The good road, skirling the Refdvenfj ord, leads through 
a beautiful region, well cultivated and studded with gaards. Opposite 
we see the church of Ejd (p. 18i) and the Okseu (p. 184). In the distance 
rise the Troldstole (p. 184). At the gaard of Lcerejm (see above; 9 Kil. 
from .Alfarntes) the road forks to Nordvik to the right, and to Thorvik to 
th6 left. The latter leads us up a hill, where we suddenly get a striking 
view of the *Gier.*cetvatn. a lake with a wooded island, in a crater-like 
hasin; of the Skjolt (p. l85); to the left of it 1he sharp-pointed Venge- 
tinder (p. 186)-, to the right the Trnldtinder, the Is'erfjelde, and the Ind- 
fjord Mts. To Thorvik '/« hr. more. The road descends on the N. side 
of the valley, ascends again through a narrow pass, and, leaving the 
hill of Klungences to the right, leads through pine-woods to — 

14 Kil. Thorvik, on the Rom^dalsfjord. The station, for boats as 
well as horses, lies high ahove the fjord, but we may drive down to 
the water. 

From Thorvik by boat (one rower generally enough; 58#.) to 4 (Kil.) 
Veblungsnces, or to (6 Kil.) Aandalsnces (p. 185). 

The steamer next enters the Langfjord, 30 Kil. long, 3 Kil. 
broad, on the N. bank of which towers the Skaala (p. 188). The 
S. shore, which we skirt, is mostly well cultivated, but mono- 
tonous. Stations Midtet and Myklebostad (good station for 'Boot- 
skyds') , with the church of Vistdal , on a little bay , from which 
the Vistdal runs inland. On the bank are several boat-houses 
(Nest) ; in the background high old coast - lines and the snow- 
clad Vistdalsfjelde. The steamer passes the entrance of the Eiris- 
fjord and calls at Eidsvaag (p. 188), at the E. end of the Langfjord. 

The steamer now turns back for a short distance , rounds the 
Nas, and enters the *Eirisfjord, which stretches 10 Kil. 8.E. from 
the end of the Langfjord. Before us rise the imposing *Skjorta 
(56*20 ft.) or Hvitkua ('white cow'); below it are the Strandelvsfos 
and the Drivafos , a thin thread of water. Farther to the right 
are the abrupt Gogserre and the Meringdalsnffibba (see below). 
The steamer calls at Bogge (p. 188), on the E. bank, and soon 
after reaches — 

N>ste, or Eirisfjordseren (Eikisdal Hotel, praised, R., B., S., 

each 1V 4 , D. IV2 kr.). 

To Sten on the Isfjord (about 8 hrs.), see p. 185. — Benning Helgesen 
is reputed a good guide. 

From Neste a road ascends the fertile valley watered by the 
Eikisdalselv , usually called the Siradal, and flanked with high 
mountains. We pass (*/2 hr.) the Eirisfjordskirke or Sirakirke. At 



ISO Route 25. EIKISDALSVAND. Moldefjord. 

Torhus, a little beyond it, where the route to Sten diverges, our 
road forks, both branches leading to the Eikisdalsvand. The one 
to the right emerges by the gaard of Aasen ; that to the left, cross- 
ing to the right bank of the river , ends at 0veraas. The latter 
skirts the imposing Oogseire or Ookseira (4325 ft.), which conceals 
the Skjorta. The top of the old moraine separating the Eikisdals- 
vand from the Siradal , the only break in which is made by the 
little stream , commands a fine view of the valley and the fjord 
behind us. On the S. side of the moraine, 1 hr. beyond the church, 
we reach the gaards of — 

8 Kil. (from Neste) 0veraas (good quarters), at the N. end of 
the Eikisdalsvand. 

The ** Eikisdalsvand (197 ft. ; steamer and small boats , see 
p. 188; boat to the steamer 10».) fills a narrow rocky cleft about 
18 Kil. in length. On both sides tower snowy and ice-clad 
mountains enlivened with waterfalls. Even in August snow- 
patches stretch almost to the lake. At places, however, the slopes 
are clothed with pines and other trees , where bears still lurk. 
Hazel-nuts abound; they are collected about the end of September 
and are sold as 'Romsdalsnedder'. The lake is generally frozen 
over in winter , but the ice is seldom strong enough for driving 
on. Avalanches are frequent, and stones sometimes fall from the 
hills. Towards noon the lake is usually like a mirror, reflecting 
Fjeld andFos in a curious double picture. The few dwellings on 
its banks are constantly menaced by the rocks above. 

On leaving 0veraas we see at first only a small part of the lake. 
To the left are the precipices of the Gogsere and the Aashammer. To 
the right the gaard of Meringdal, commanded by the Meringdals- 
ncebba and the Sjedela (5610 ft.). The mountains soon recede, 
and the lake is in full view. High up on the left is the Fletatind 
(5425 ft.). To the right the Nyheitind (5215 ft.) peers above the 
Sjedela. To the left the waterfall of Tongjem; then the two 
gaards of Viken (whence a path leads to the Lilledal, p. 193), 
with the Vikesaxel (5970 ft.) above. On the W. side is the 
Mvelsbrce , above which is the imposing peak of the Juratind 
(5135 ft.; p. 186). Above the gaard of Hoejm gleam the snow- 
fields of the Hoejmfjeld, commanded by the Hoejmtind (5700 ft.). 
Farther on, to the right is the Bangaatind (5225 ft.) , to the left 
the Aagottind (5215 ft.) and the Bjerktind (4355 ft.). 

In front of the Rangaatind, at the head of the lake, to the 
right, we now see the *Maradalsfos, a superb waterfall of the Mar- 
dela, descending from an upland dale some 2500 ft. above the 
sea, leaping 650 ft. down a sheer cliff, rebounding in spray from 
the rock below, and re-appearing in two arms to form another 
great fall lower down. A finer view of the fall is obtained by 
landing, but the lower fall only is accessible (fatiguing ascent of 
3/ 4 hr. ; from Utigaard and hack ahmit 3 hrs.Y Farther on is 



Moldefjord. REITAN. 25. Route. 191 

another and apparently larger fall, leaping into the same basin, 
to the N. of the Maradalsfos. 

The lake now trends to the S.E., and the gaard of Reitan comes 
in sight. Above the gaard is a beautiful veil-like waterfall, with 
the Berfjeld (4065 ft.) beyond. 

The gaard of Reitan (good quarters at Halvor Reitan 's Inn, 
bed 1 kr., B. 60, S. 70, D. 1 kr. 30 0.) lies about 10 niin. from the 
landing-place of Eikisdal, near the mouth of the Aura-Elv. About 
10 min. farther up are the gaards of Utigaard (with 12 beds; 
young Utigaard is reputed a good guide) and Opigaard (fair quar- 
ters). — A pretty walk up the valley, passing some mills to the 
left below us , driven by a small stream that springs direct from 
the earth, brings us in 20 min. to the Eikisdals Chapel (351 ft.), 
where the pastor of Nsesset (p. 188) holds service four times in 
summer. The path next leads to a bridge over the Aura , near 
which is a salmon-fishery. 

The road leads farther up the valley, passing many pretty gaards, to 
Finscet (11 Kil. from Reitan). Path thence (guide desirable, '/Vl kr.) to 
the Aurestupe or Aurstaupa, the falls of the Aura, issuing from the Aursjff. 

From Nuste, from 0veraas, or from Reitan we may cross by difficult 
mountain-paths to Sten on the Isfjord (p. 185) in 10-12 hrs., with a guide. 

FitoM Keitan to Okmeim, in the Romsdal, 10-12 hrs. (guide necessary; 
cheaper at Finsset than at Reitan). The ascent to the Fjeld is rather 
steep , especially for the first 2 hrs., following a brook and passing a 
waterfall opposite Reitan. At the top of the fjeld we traverse snow- 
fields, ford brooks, and pass several large lakes. Descent easier. No 
sseter until within '/4 hr. of Ormeim (see p. 187). 

From Reitan via Tinscet to Stuefloten (p. 187), a long day's walk. 

26. From Molde to Trondhjem. 

Most travellers go from Molde to Trondhjem by steamer. But as 
the sea from the mouth of the Molde Fjord to Christiansund is often 
rough, many will probably prefer the route described below through the 
district of Nordmere , combined with a visit to the fine scenery of the 
Sundalsfjord and the Lilledal or Indredal. 

a. Sea Voyage. 

29 S.M. Steamboat (Comp. 201, 75, 76) in 13-15 hrs. (fares 13 kr. 90, 
8 kr. 80 0.; note that the 'tourist steamers' 75 and 76 take cabin passengers 
only). The distances given below are from Molde to Christiansund, from 
Christiansund to Beian, and from Beian to Trondhjem. 

Molde, see p. 182. — Soon after starting we steer N. into the 
Julsund. The islands of Ottere and Qorsen are passed on the left; 
the Julaxel (1810 ft.), on a headland, and later the pyramidal 
Gjendemsfjeld (2080 ft.) on the right. Leaving the Moe/fyr to the 
left, the vessel rounds the promontory of Bud or Bod, connected 
with Molde by a local steamer (Com. 262) and by a road, and steers 
out to sea, unprotected by islands until it reaches Christiansund. 
Beyond the Bodfjeld we soon sight the headland of Stemshesten 
(2230 ft.), the S. boundary of the Nordmere, and a little later the 
lofty Tustere (2920 ft. ; p. 192), to the N. of Christiansund. To 



192 Boute 26. CHRISTIANSUND. From Molde 

the left lies the islet of Fuglen ('Bird Island'), with a signal; on 
the right are several gaards at the base of Stemshesten [Stemme, 
Hances, etc.). Fine view of the snow-mouutains of the Romsdal. 
We next pass the lights of Kvidholmsfyr and Hestskjcersfyr (a white 
building) on the right, and then steer between the Kirkeland 
(right) and the Inland (left) to — 

12 S.M. Christiansund. — M0llebop's Hotel, E. 1 kr. 25, D. 
1 kr. 20 0.; 0. Te0n«s's Hotel, small but good; landlady $peaks English, 
German, and French. 

British vice-consul, Mr. Gram Parelius. 

Christiansund, the capital of the district of Nordm»re, an im- 
portant fish-mart, with 10,400 inhab., lies on four islands, which 
enclose the harbour: Kirkelandet, to the S.W., with an old and a 
new church and the hotels; Inlandet to the E. ; Nordlandet to the 
N., with a church and fine woods; and Skorpen to the W., with 
the bare drying-places for the 'klipfisk' (packed in 'Voger' of about 
40 lbs. each and exported chiefly to Spain). Steam-launches ply 
between the islands. From the harbour we may ascend the street 
to the right, and then visit the New Church, with pretty promenades, 
and a fine view of the mountains to the S.E. Thence, past the Old 
Church, back to the harbour. The Vagttaarn is also a good point of 
view. — Off Christiansund, 20 Kil. distant, is the island of Orip, 
with a fishing population of 200. 

Local Steameks abound. Thus to the Sundal and Todalserm (Com. 
266), see p. 193. To Molde and the Romsdal (Com. 264). To Trondhjem, 
see below. 

Beyond Christiansund the coast is sheltered by islands , but 
the larger vessels at first keep to the open sea. To the left in the 
distance is the lighthouse of Orip. To the right the islands Tustere 
(2920 ft.) and Stabben (2960 ft.), between which are seen the 
distant snow-mountains of the Sundal and the Eikisdal. We now 
steer within the islands. To the left the Ede ; beyond it the low 
island of Smelen. To the right the Ertvaage. Scenery now mono- 
tonous. Farther on, to the left, through the Ramsefjord, we look 
out to the open sea. "We next steer into the strait of Trondhjems- 
leden , between the mainland and the large island Hitteren , a 
haunt of deer, with the station of Havnen. 

The only station at which all the large steamers call is — 

15 S.M. Beian, at the entrance to the Trondhjems Fjord, whence 
travellers may go northwards without touching at Trondhjem (see 
p. 207). The scenery improves as we near our destination. 

7 S.M. Trondhjem, see p. 194. 

b. Overland Routes. 

1. By Battenpjoeds€tk,en to Christiansund. — From Molde 

by (9 Kil.) Strande to (13 Kil.) Eide, seep. 188. Our road ascends 

towards the N. to (9 Kil.) Furscet, and descends to (7 Kil.) Batten- 

fjordseren, at the S. end of the Battenfjord or Botnfjord, a station 



to Trondhjem. SUNDALSFJORD. 26. Route. 193 

of the Sundal steamer (see below), -which carries us to Christian- 
sund in 2 hrs. (twice a week). To catch the boat on the day we 
leave Molde , we start not later than 6 a.m., as the steamer at 
present starts at 2 p.m. on Tues. and Frid. 

Failing the steamer, we drive on to (11 Kil.) Gimnces (slow 
station; decent quarters); row thence (by 'boat-skyds') to (8 Kil.) 
Fladscet (slow station), on the Frede; drive across the island to 
(10 Kil.) Bolgen i Kvernas (slow station); and lastly take 'boat- 
skyds' to (2 Kil.) Christiansund. 

Fbom Christiansund to Trondhjem, besides the large steamers which 
ply daily, two local boats (Com. 268) run almost daily, 9-10 hrs., entirely 
avoiding the open sea, steering to the S. of the large islands Tusterjzr, 
Stabben, and ErtvaagU, and through the Vinjefjord. 

The Sundalsfjord is most conveniently visited in combination with 
the Eikisdalsvand (via Eidsvaag and Eidsuren, p. 188). It may also be 
visited from Christiansund by steamer (Com. 266; 3 times a week; to 
Sundalseren in 6'/i-8V2 hrs. ; pleasure-trip on Sundays). Stations Kvistvik, 
Stensvig, Endrescet, Kvcernces, Gimnces, Battenfjordseren (p. 192), (Sre, Tor- 
vig, Berge, 0degaard, Qjul; then in the Sundalsfjord itself, Thingvold (or 
Koksvik; see below), Angvik (see below), and Eidsaren (where the road 
from Eidsvaag ends; travellers from Eidsvaag who miss the steamer may 
row from Eidsgfren to Sundals0ren, 22 Kil.>; next, Fjvseide, Jordal, and 
0ksendalen (quarters at J. Wirum's, the Landhandler, and at Pcder Huse- 
ty's; road to Brandttad 14 Kil., and fjeld-route thence to ifveraas on the 
Eikisdalsvand, about 12 Kil. more; p. 190); lastly Opderl and Sundalseren. 

From Opdel or Opdal (slow station) a road ascends the valley to 
Nedredal or Nerdal (quarters ; fjeld-route to TodalsUren, see below). We 
then walk up the "Inderdal, by DaUbe, to the tourist-station Indevdal 
(bed 75, B. 40, D. 70, S. 50 #.). where guides for several fjeld ascents are 
to be had. The finest poinis are the Skarfjeld (6070 ft.), the pointed 
Dalataarn (4900ft.; first ascended in 18S9), and behind it the Taarnfjeld 
(6103 ft.). — From Inderdal across the fjeld to Storfale in the Sundal 
(p. 68), 5-6 hrs. 

Sundalseren (quarters at the Landhandler's) lies at the mouth of the 
Sundal (p. 68) , amidst grand mountain-scenery. The Gr&vnibba and the 
Bofsnabba to the N. and the Kalken to the S. rise to 5200-5600 ft. — To 
the W. of Kalken is the Tilledal, also running inland from the Sundals- 
fjord, a wild rocky gorge resembling the Eikisdal. A road leads up the 
Lilledal to (14 Kil.) Dalen, whence we may cross, with guide, toViken on 
the Eikisdalsvand (p. 190). 

2. By Angvik and 0kkedal. — Uninteresting, except the first 
part. From Molde to (31 Kil.) Mad, see p. 188. Then the slow 
stations of (11 Kil.) Heggeim (655 ft.) and (11 Kil.) Angvik, a sta- 
tion of the Sundal steamer (see above), whence we steam or row 
across the Sundalsfjord to (6 Kil.) Koksvik i Thingvold. We then 
take 'land-skyds' to (7 Kil.) Belsmt, and 'boat-skyds' to (7 Kil.) 
Stangvik (good quarters), a station of the Christiansund and Todal 
steamer. Then drive to (15 Kil.) Aasen, near the steamboat- 
station of Surendalseren. 

The steamer from Christiansund plies to Surendal30ren three times 
and to Todalseren, twice a week (Com. 266). Fjeld-route from Todals0ren 
to Nedredal, 5 hrs. (guide 4 kr.), see above. 

From Aasen we drive to (10 Kil.) Haandstad (74 ft.) and 
(15 Kil.) Kvammen, where the grand Foldal opens to the S. — 
10 Kil. Foseide, beyond the church of Rindalen (470 ft.) ; 14 Kil. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 13 



194 Route 27. TRONDHJEM. 

Oarberg, the first place in Stfndre Trondhjems-Aint; 19 Kil. 
Aarlivold (good quarters). 

12 Kil. Bak i 0rkedalen (8 Kil. from 0rkedalseren , p. 69); 
1 3 Kil. (pay for 15) By ,• 12 Kil. Saltncessanden ; 12 Kil. Esp or Heim- 
dal, a station on the Christiania and Trondhjem railway (p. 7&\ 

27. Trondhjem and its Fjord. 

i Det er saa /avert in Trondhjem at /wile' 
'Tis so pleasant in Trondhjem to dwell. 

(Burden of an Old Song.) 

Arrival. The Railway Station lies to the N. of the town, by the harbour. 
The large Steameks are berthed at the W. quay of the Nedre Elvehavn. 
Carriages and porters ('Bybud') with hand-carts ('Triller') await the trains 
and the steamers. — Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Steamboat Office (PI. 
12), Kj0bmansgaden 52, near the Brat0rbro. 

Hotels. ''Britannia (P. A. Clausen; with garden), Dronningens-Gade, 
"'Angleteeee (E. G. Thane), Nordre-Gade; charges, R. froml>/ 2 kr., L. 40, 
A. 40, B. from 1 kr. 40 0. to 21/4 kr., D. 3, S.2kr.; baths at both. — "Grand 
Hotel, corner of Krambod-Gaden and Strand-Gaden , R., L., A. from 2, 
D. 2 J /2 kr., with good restaurant; Hotel Nordkap (P. E. Eide), Strand- 
Gade6, R., L., A. from 2kr. 25 0., B. l'/j, D. 3kr. ; "Victoria (v. Quill- 
feldt, a German), Dronningens-Gade 64, R. 2, D.2kr. ; Scandinavie, Bra- 
t0rgaden, at the harbour. English is spoken at all. 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also at the Grand Cafe", next door to the 
theatre ; Hjorten, in the suburb of Ihlen , with concerts ; Bodega, at the 
Spanish Consulate (J. Hartmann), Strandgade. Beer at all. 

Cabs in theTorv: pv.~ drive within the town, for 1, 2, 3, 4 persons, 
50, 70, 90 0., or 1 kr. ; per hour 1.20, 1.50, 1.80, or 2.10 kr. Carr. and pair 
one-half more. No tariff for the environs. Other carriages at Hansom <£• 
Co.'s, Kongensgade, by the theatre. Skyds-station, Kongensgade 75. 

Tourist Offices. T. Bennett, Dronningens-Gade 12; F. Beyer, Strand- 
gade 36; Trondhjems Tourist Office (T0nsaeth), Strandgade 2. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 7) in the Nordre Gade, opposite the 
Fruekirke (PI. 2). 

Banks (open till 1 p.m. only). Norges Bank, corner of Kongens-Gade and 
Kj0bmands-Gade; Privatbank , S0ndre-Gade; Nordenfjeldske Credit-Bank, 
corner of Dronningens-Gade and S0ndre-Gade ; and several others. Money 
may also be exchanged at Mr. R. F. Kjeldsberg's, the British vice-consul, 
corner of Strand-Gade and S0ndre-Gade, and at Mr. Glaus Berg's (firm of 
Lundgren's Enke), the American consular agent, Munke-Gade, corner of Torv. 

Consuls. British and American, see above. German, A. Jenssen 
junr., Kj0bmands-Gade ; French, H. T. Oram, S0ndre-Gade; Austrian, 
Ch. Thaulow, .Strand-Gade. Also Danish, Russian, and others. 

Baths. Warm, shower, vapour, and Turkish at Dronningens-Gade 1, 
corner of Krambodveiten. — Sea Baths (for gentlemen IO-21/2 and 6-8 
o'clock) to the W. of the railway station, 20 0., towel 10 0. (ferry 5 0.). 

Shops. Preserved meats, Cognac, etc., at Kjeldsberg's and at Lund- 
gren's Enke's (see above). A cheap spirit of local repute is 'Lysholmer' 
(wholesale at J. B. Lysholm's, Strandgade 26). — Furs, Antiquities, etc. 
at Joh. Bruun's, Strand-Gade 37, one of the best shops of the kind in 
Norway; eider-down 20-24 kr. per lb. ; eider-down quilts 80-200 kr. ; bear- 
skins 120-450 kr., according to size, colour, etc. — Carved wood, 'Tolle- 
knive\ etc., at L. Hansen's, Strandgade 37, next door to Bruun; Blikstad's, 
opposite the Victoria Hotel ; good and cheap at the depot of the 'Tugthus' 
(house of correction), Kongensgade 85. — Ornaments, copies in repousse 1 
and chased work of the figures in the cathedral, etc., at H. Mailer's, 
Dronningens-Gade 28. — Booksellers (photographs, maps, etc.): A. Brun, 
Kongens-Gade, corner of Nordre Gade, opposite the post-office; A. Holbcet 
Eriksen, Strandgade 17. 



History. TRONDHJEM. 27. Route. 195 

Trondhjem, or Throndhjem (pron. Tronjem), German Dront- 
heim, with 25,050 inhab., is the northernmost of the larger Euro- 
pean towns, being situated in 63° 30' N. lat., the same latitude 
as the S. coast of Iceland. In summer the climate is like that of 
the S. of England, in winter like that of Dresden. The river Nid 
is rarely frozen over, the fjord never. Hence the rich vegetation. 
Many of the townspeople are wealthy , and they have long been 
noted for their kindly disposition. The district is called Trende- 
lagen, its inhabitants Trender. 

The town lies on the Nidamas, a peninsula in the shape of a 
fig or a harp, formed by the fjord on one side and the Nid on the 
others. At the bend of the river, where it comes close to the 
fjord, forming the isthmus of the peninsula at the W. end of the 
town, lies the suburb of lhlen, under which runs a short railway- 
tunnel. The river then turns sharply to the S.El and sweeps round 
the peninsula to its mouth at Brateren. To the E. of the town, 
on the right bank of the Nid, is the suburb of Baklandet ('hilly 
land'). To the E., S., and S.W. rise picturesque heights: E. the 
Blasevoldbakke (p. 198), terminating in the spur of Hladeham- 
meren; 8. and S.W. the Stenbjerg. 

Hisioky. Down to the middle of the 16th cent, the name of the 
town was Nidaros ('mouth of the river Nid' ; Aa, Aar, signifying 'river', 
and Os, 'estuary') or Kaupanger i Trdndhjem ('merchant-town in Trond- 
hjem'). Like Upsala in Sweden, Trondhjem, the 'strength and heart 
of the country', is the cradle of the kingdom of Norway , and it was 
here, on Brattfren, that the Norwegian kings were elected and crowned. 
Here, too, met the famous £frething. So early as 996 Olaf Tryggvason 
founded a palace, to the S. of Bratjerren, and a church which he dedicated 
to St. Clement. SI. Olaf, who is regarded as the founder of the town 
(1016), revived the plana of Olaf Tryggvason , which had been neglected 
after his death, and after the death of 'the saint' at the tattle of Stiklestad 
(1030) a new impulse was given to building enterprise. For his remains 
were brought to Trondhjem and buried there, but afterwards trans- 
ferred to a reliquary and placed on the high-altar of St. Clement's Church, 
where they attracted hosts of pilgrims. The St. Olaf cult gradually made 
Trondhjem one of the largest and richest towns in Norway, and gave 
rise to the erection of the cathedral and no fewer than fourteen other 
churches and five monasteries. At a later period terrible havoc was 
caused by civil wars, pestilence, sieges, and fires; and the pilgrimages, 
so profitable to the town , were put an end to by the Eeformation. 
The reliquary of the saint was removed by sacrilegious hands from 
the altar in the octagon of the cathedral-choir, and his remains were 
buried in some unknown spot; and most of the churches and mon- 
asteries were swept away. In 1796 the population numbered 7500, in 
-1815 not above 10,000, in 1835 about 12,900, and in 1891 it reached 
25,050. The town owes much of its modern prosperity to the railway 
which connects it with Christiania, and expects further benefit from the 
line recently completed between Trondhjem, Sundsvall, and Stockholm. 
The Streets are widely (100-120 ft.) built in order to diminish 
■ the danger of fire, and generally intersect each other at right 
angles. Most of the houses are of timber. The streets running 
from N. to S. command views of the beautiful fjord with the island 
of Munkholmen. The chief are, beginning on the E. side, parallel 
with the river, the Kjebmands-Oade, the large warehouses in 

13* 



196 Route 27. TRONDHJEM. Cathedral. 

which are supported by piles sunk in the river ; then the Nordre 
Oade, the Munke-Gade, the Prindsens-Gade, and. others. Parallel 
with the harbour, beginning on the N., are the Fjord-Gade, the 
Strand- Gade, the Dronningens-Gade, the Kongens-Qade, the 
Vestre-Gade (now Erling Skakkes Gade), and the 0stre-Gade (now 
Bispe-Gade). 

In the centre of the town is the Market Place (Torvet), where 
the Munkegade and the Kongensgade cross. In the former, a little 
to the N., is the Stiftsgaard (PI. 11), the residence of the 'Stifts- 
amtmand' (president or governor of the province), and used as a 
royal palace on the occasion of coronation festivities. In the Kon- 
gensgade is the Fruekirke. Beyond it is the 'Park', embellished 
with a small bronze statue of the famous Admiral Tordenskjold, 
who was born in Trondhjem in 1691 (by Bissen). Opposite, to 
the N., is Kongensgade No. 4, erected in 1H82, containing the 
Savings Bank, the premises of the Kunstforening (entrance from 
the Apothekerveita ; Sun. & Wed., 12-2, 25 ».), and the Fisheries 
Museum (entrance from the Stfndre Gade; Sun. & Wed., 12-12V2 
o'clock). 

At the S. end of the Munkegade rises the *Cathedral, in plan 
and in execution the grandest church in Scandinavia. The original 
church, built by king Olaf Kyrre over the tomb of St. Olaf (com-p. 
p. 195), was considerably enlarged after the erection of Trond- 
hjem into an archbishopric in 1151. Eystein (1161-88), the third 
archbishop, who in consequence of a quarrel with King Sverre 
(p. xlv) had tied to England and remained there three years, 
afterwards returned and built the present transept on the site of 
the former nave (see Ground Plan C), with a tower in the centre, 
and the *Chapter House (PI. K), both in the late Romanesque style 
under English influence. To these Eisteinn's successor added the 
*Choir (Pl.B), terminating in an exquisite octagonal apse (PI. A), 
which covered the revered relics of St. Olaf, the chief treasure 
of the church. We find here developed, with the aid of favourable 
material (bluish chlorite slate from quarries */2 nr - E. of Trond- 
hjem, and. marble from the quarries of Almenningen, p. 207), all 
the decorative splendour of early Gothic', mingled with Roman- 
esque features, with traces of elaborate classical treatment, and 
indications of exuberant imagination. During a fourth building 
period, 1248-1300, was added the grand Nave (PI. D), also in the 
Gothic style, but with stronger leanings towards English models. 
The cathedral has been repeatedly injured by fire, in 1328 so 
seriously that the greater part of the choir had to be rebuilt. In 
1432 it was struck by lightning. In 1531 occurred a terrible fire 
which destroyed both the cathedral and the whole town. The 
adoption of the Reformation in 1537 caused the work of restoration 
to be limited to the most urgent repairs. In 1708 and 1719 the 
church was again ravaged by fire. Since 1869, when the E. part had 



Cathedral. 



TRONDHJEM. 



27. Route. 197 



been re-roofed , while the "W. part from the transept onwards lay 
in ruins, the cathedral has been undergoing thorough and judi- 
cious restoration under the able superintendence of the architect 
Hr. Christie. The chapter-house and the choir with its octagonal 
apse are now completed. The restoration of the remainder will 
probably take several more decades, but will doubtless be accom- 
plished, as the Norwegians are justly proud of this great national 
monument, and as funds are provided by the state, by the Trond- 
hjem Savings Bank, and by private subscription. 

The Interior is open to the public 12-l'/2 and 6-7 1 /:! o'clock, on Sun- 
days l-l'/z onl y (donation to funds expected); at .other times to ticket- 
holders. (Tickets are sold by the booksellers mentioned above: 1-2 pers. 
2 kr., 3-8 pers. 4 kr.) 

The N. Portal (PI. N. ; opposite the Munkegade) admits us to the 
Transept (PI. C), partitioned off for the present for the Sunday services. 
A door to the left leads into the Choir (PI. B), the restoration of which 



n¥?nA 




*?V, J 



Ground Plan of the Cathedral: Romanesque parts black, Gothic 
parts shaded. 

was completed in 1891. The marble columns contrast beautifully with 
the chlorite slate walls. The octagonal Apse (PI. A) is particularly rich. 
The silver reliquary of the saint once preserved here, 225 lbs. in weight, 
was removed to Copenhagen at the time of the Reformation. From the 
ambulatory a side-door leads to St. Olafs Spring (PI. o), which probably 
determined the site of the church. On the opposite side of the apse is 
the Romanesque Chapter House (PI. K), where English Church service 
is held on Sundays. We may also visit the Nave (PI. D; reached by a 
passage from the choir), the restoration of which is scarcely begun. 

In the 11th and 12th centuries the cathedral was the burial-place of 
the kings, and several were afterwards crowned here. By the consti- 
tution of Norway (1814) the kings must be crowned here, and this was 
done in the case of Charles XIV. John (Bernadotte) in 1818, Oscar I. in 
1844, Charles XV. in 1860, and Oscar II. in 1873. 

To the S. of the cathedral is the Churchyard, many of the graves 
in which , in Norwegian fashion, are adorned with fresh flowers 
every Saturday. Adjacent is the Marine Arsenal, on the site of 
thejold Kongs Gaard (PI. 1) and of the residence of the arch- 



198 Bowie 27. TRONDHJEM. Walks. 

bishops, containing an interesting collection of Norwegian weap- 
ons (apply to the sentinel). 

The Academy of Science (det kgl. norske Videnskabers Selskab), 
Erling Skakkes (formerly Vestre) Gade 47, founded in 1760, once 
numbered Schening, Suhm, Gunnerus, and other learned men 
among its members. It possesses a library of 60,000 vols., large 
natural history collections, and antiquities from Trondhjems-Stift 
(adm. daily 1-2). An ancient 'Stavekirke' has recently been 
re-erected here. 

Walks. — Towards the East we may cross the upper bridge 
over the Nid (the Bybro , E. of the cathedral) to the suburb of 
Baklandet, and thence, by a path to the left, ascend to (*/4 hr.) 
the fortress of *Christiansten (236 ft.), which was erected in the 
17th century. The fire-station, marked by a flagstaff, affords a 
picturesque view of the town and environs, especially by morning 
light. — From the Blasevoldbakke (358 ft.) the view is more 
extensive, but there is no point which commands a complete sur- 
vey. — Passing through the suburb of Baklandet, where we ob- 
serve large engine-works and a shipbuilding-yard, we may go 
towards the N.E., across the Meraker railway (p. 199), to (Y2 hr.) 
Hladehammeren ('Hammer', headland). 

Towards the West the town was formerly enclosed by forti- 
fications. On their site rises the modern Ihlenskirke (PI. 6), built 
of blue chlorite slate. Beyond the church is the suburb of Ihlen 
(10 min. from the Torv), with a Rom. Cath. church and hospital 
(PI. 4). On the fjord are large timber-yards and a saw-mill. 

A picturesque view of Trondhjem, with the winding Nid in 
the foreground, the hills to the E., and the extensive fjord, is ob- 
tained from *Aasveien, a new road ascending the slope of the 
Stenbjerg (see Map, p. 195; evening light best). On the Stenbjerg 
are several villas. The blunted summit, near which another road. 
passes, was once crowned with a castle of King Sverre (Sverresborg). 

Passing Hjorten, a pleasure-resort at Ihlen, on the left, a road 
ascends to the W. On the slope of the hill we observe several old 
coast-lines (p. xxix). The higher we ascend the finer becomes the 
*View we obtain, looking back towards Trondhjem and the fjord 
and the snow-mountains on the Swedish frontier. Beyond Oram- 
skaret ( 3 /4hr. from the church of Ihlen"), where we pass through a 
gate, the view to the E. disappears. Before us, in 10 min. more, 
appears the top of Graakallen (1840 ft.), to which two paths ascend 
to the left: one 20 min. from Gramskaret, leading by Tungen and 
the Fjeldsater ; the other 10 min. further, passing Tempervold and 
the Kobberdamm. The 'Varde' on the top (2'/ 2 -3 hrs. from the 
Torv of Trondhjem) commands an extensive survey of fjord and 
fjeld. A tourists' hut has lately been erected here by the 'Turist- 
forening' of Trondhjem. 



Environs. TRONDHJEM. 27. Route. 199 

The same tourists 1 club has also made a path, bad at places, which 
diverges from the road to the right, 12 min. beyond Tempervold, leading 
round the Qjeitfjeld, mostly through underwood, and afterwards over- 
looking the fjord; then passing the old coast-lines and descending by the 
rifle-range f Skytterhuset' ) to Ihlen. 

The Trollavei, running N. from Ihlen, and affording fine views 
of the fjord, leads to (5 Kil.) the iron-foundry of Trollabruk. 

In the fjord, about l 1 /^ Kil. to the N. of the town, lies the 
fortified island of Munkholmen (by boat in 20 min. ; fare l 1 /^-^ kr. , 
but bargain advisable ; admission free ; a soldier acts as guide). 
This 'Monks' Island' was once the site of a Benedictine monastery, 
founded in 1028, of -which the lower part of a round tower is the 
only relic. Count Peter Griffenfeld (P. Schumacher), the minister 
of Christian V., was confined in a cell here from 1680 to 1698. 
The island is described by Victor Hugo in his 'Han d'Islande'. 
Beautiful view from the walls of the fortress. Old guns, gun-car- 
riages, etc. Small lighthouse. 

The Excursion to the two falls of the Nid near the gaard of Leren, 
about 5 Kil. S. of Trondhjem , will repay those who have time to spare 
(a drive of about 3 hrs. there and hack). The road leads S. from the sub- 
urb of Baklandet. (Carriage with one horse 8, with 2 horses 12 kr.; car- 
riole 5 kr.) Or we may go by train to Belsbcek or Selsbalc (6 kil.), where 
the slow trains stop if required, and walk thence to the falls (15-20 min.). 
The lower or Lille Lerfos is 76 ft. high. The upper or Store Lerfos, 
though higher , is broken by a mass of rock about halfway across, and 
has no sheer fall. The best survey is from one of the windows in the 
saw-mill overhanging the seething waters on the right bank. A rough 
path descends to the foot of the fall. The path from the lower to the 
upper fall is not easy to find. 

An Excursion to the S«leo-Sj0 takes two days. 1st Day, by rail- 
way to Heimdal (p. 74), and walk thence to Teigen, or drive (skyus-station 
at E»p, 3 Kil. distant) to Bretttm (17 Kil., pay for 21), both situated at 
the W. end of the Sselbo-Sj0 or Selbu-Sje (525 ft.), a fine sheet of 
water, 29 Kil. long, on which a small steamboat plies five times weekly 
in summer (Com. 370). On the S.E. bank of the lake, near the church 
ot Scelbo, and by the mouth of the Nid which descends from the Tydal, 
lie Marienborg and the JScclbo Sanatorium (landlord speaks English ; good 
shooting near), where we spend the night. — 2nd Day, row (7 Kil.) or drive 
(15 Kil.) to Sesaas on the N. bank, and drive by (7 Kil.) Fuglem and 
(12 Kil.) Viken to (12 Kil.) Hommelvik on the Meraker railway (see below). 



From Trondhjem to Storlien (Ostersund, Stockholm). 

106 Kil. Railway {Merakerbcme) in 4'/2-5'/2 hrs. ; two trains daily (fares 
5kr. 30, 3kr. 30 #.). To Hommelvik in 1 hr., seven trains (fares lkr. 10,800.). 

The train crosses the Nedre Elvehavn and the fjord by a long 
bridge. To the right lies the suburb of Baklandet ; then, on the 
left, the church of Lade. Beyond (3 Kil.) Leangen is the lunatic 
asylum of Botvold, on the left. We now skirt the fjord, here call- 
ed the Strindenfjord , and, farther on, the Stjerdalsfjord. 7 Kil. 
Banheim ; 15 Kil. Malvik. 

23 Kil. Hommelvik (small inn), with an iron-foundry and a 
brisk trade in timber. (Road to the Sselbo-Sj«r, see above. Fine 
view from the hill about 1 hr. inland.) Short tunnel. 

32X11. Hell, at the mouth of the Stjerdals-Elv, which a bridge 



200 Route 27. LEVANGER. 

crosses to the skyds-station of Sandferhus. The line now runs 
inland, ascending the left bank of the Stjardals-Elv. 42 Kil. Hegre, 
near the mouth of the Forra, which descends from the N.E.; 57 Kil. 
Floren ; 72 Kil. Oudaa (279 ft.), where we cross the Beinaa. A 
tunnel. Then a considerable ascent, and across the Stjerdals- 
Elv, to — 

81 Kil. (50 M.) Meraker (722 ft.), a thriving and prettily sit- 
uated little town, the last station in Norway. Beautiful view 
from the station. Near it an old copper-mine. — The line ascends 
rapidly. The district becomes lonely, the vegetation scanty. The 
Areskuta (p. 326) and other snow-mountains of Sweden appear in 
the distance. We cross the Swedish frontier, 1825 ft. above the 
sea-level, and reach — 

106 Kil. Storlien (1945 ft.; Rail.Rest. ; see p. 327), the contin- 
uation of the line beyond which is Swedish (R. 55). Swedish 
time is 18 min. in advance of Norwegian. 

From Trondhjem, by Stenkjaer, Snaasenvand, and Fiskumfos , to 

Namsos. 

Steamer from Trondhjem to Stenkjmr daily in 6-UV2 hrs. (fares 
4 kr. 5, 2 kr. 5 0.). — Road from Stenkiar to (12 Kil.) Sunde (or Nest- 
volden), with fast stations (tariff III). — Steamee on the Snaasenvand from 
N#stvolden to Seem or Sem (Com. 375) twice a week in 4'/2 hr--. (fare 
2 kr. 10 ft.). — Koad from Sem to Fiskurn 67 Kil., and thence to Namsos 
71 Kil. (fast stations, tariff III). 

While this is a fine route, the distances are great and the steamers 
do not always suit, so that it takes four days at least, especially if the 
beautiful land-route from Levanger to Stenkjaer is preferred to the steamer. 
The route is best combined with a trip to the N. Note also that the 
Fiskumfos is not in full force after the middle of July. 

The Steamer steers between the Tuttere, with the ruins of 
the monastery of Tautra, and the mainland (Frosten), E. to Holm- 
bjerget, and across the fjord N.W. to Lexviken. It then recrosses 
to Ekne on the E. bank, whence it steers N. to the large Yttere 
(with the parish of Eid~). Holsanden here is sometimes touched at. 
At the station Hokstad on this island are extensive mines of pyrites. 
The vessel then steers to (41/2-43/4 hrs. from Trondhjem) — 

Levanger (Backlund's Hotel ; Marienborgs Hotel ; both good), 
a prettily situated little town with 900 inhab., almost entirely 
burned down in 1877, but since rebuilt. 

Fbom Levangee to Sweden a road with fast stations. 14 Kil. (pay 
for 15) Noes; 11 Kil. Gamws; 19 Kil. Sulstuen (good station); 22 Kil. (pay 
for 33) Skalstugan (good quarters), the first Swedish station. From this 
point we may walk (with guide) to the Skalsjo (1930 ft.), cross this lake by 
boat, and ascend the Fjeld (no proper path) to an Encampment of Lapps, 
to be found here in summer. The Lapps, unspoiled here by intercourse 
with strangers, migrate from time to time, but are generally to be found 
within 3-4 hrs. from Skalstugan. Gloves and veils should be taken to keep 
off the mosquitoes. 

From Levanger to Stenkjaer the steamer takes 4 3 /4-6 3 / 4 hrs. 

more. Stenkjar, see p. 201. 



STENKJAER. 27. Route. 201 

The Road from Levanger to Stenkjaer (about 50 Kil. ; skyds- 
tariff III), passing through beautiful scenery, is preferable to the 
steamer. It leads at first E. to — 

12 Kil. Vardalseren , on the left bank of the Vcerdalselv. A 
road on the right bank ascends to (4 Kil., pay for 5) the gaard of 
Stiklestad (good quarters) and the chuich of Vcerdal, built in mem- 
ory of the battle of 29th July, 1030, in which St. Olaf was slain 
(p. xliii). Not far from the church is a height, with a small monu- 
ment erected in 1805, which commands a pretty -view. 

From Vserdalsaren our road leads past the church of Salberg 
(8 Kil. N.) and forks: to the right to Reskje (good quarters) and 
Stenkjaer (30 Kil.), to the left -via Strermmen to Stenkjser (34 Kil.). 
The latter branch is the finer route. It ascends the Rolsbakker, at 
the top of which, not far from the gaard 0vre Rol, we admire the 
view of the peninsula of Inder»en and the island of Ytter^en, of 
the Borgenfjord to the right and the Ytterefjord to the left. We 
descend, pass the Amtmand's gaard of Sund, and cross a bridge 
over the strait between the two fjords to Stremmen (7 Kil. from 
Salberg; good quarters at the Landhandler's, P. Aas). The road then 
leads to the left to (2 Kil.) the new church and the station of — 

17 Kil. Sakshaug (good quarters). The hill on which the old 
church stands is a fine point of view. Those who do not require 
to change horses at Sakshaug drive straight on from Stremmen (thus 
saving 4 Kil.). Well cultivated country. Road hilly. 

11 Kil. Kors. Beyond it our road joins that coming from Raskje 
on the right. 

11 Kil. Stenkjaer (Thorbjemsen's Hotel; Haakenstuen) is a 
small town with 1890 inhab., prettily situated at the mouth of the 
By-Elv, which descends from the Snaasenvand and is here crossed 
by a bridge. 

From Stenkjjer to Namsos (p. 208), 86 Kil. (skyds-tariff III) : 15 Kil. 
(pay for 17) 0stvik (good quarters), on the Hjelleboln, the inmost hay of 
the B eitstad fjord. Then across the watershed (30Oft.) to the Namsenfjord. 
15 Kil. Elden (290 ft.); 18 Kil. Medhammer; 16 Kil. Bangsund (22 Kil. from 
Namsos by water) ; 11 Kil. Spillum. From Spillum 3 Kil. more to the 
Stremhylla Ferry ; thence we row across the fjord (4 Kil.) or drive (8 Kil.) 
to Namsos. 

The road to the Snaasenvand ascends on the right bank of the 
Byelv, which forms a fall by the gaard of By, and then passes the 
Reinsvand, the Fossumvand, and a number of farms. 

11 Kil. Sunde (good quarters) lies at the S.W. end of the Snaa- 
senvand (78 ft. ; 45 Kil. long), a beautiful sheet of water enclosed 
by wooded and rocky hills. On the N. bank runs a road with poor 
stations. We prefer the steamboat (p. 200 ; if available), the pier 
of which is at the gaard Neistvolden, beyond the bridge, and which 
carries us in 4^2 hrs. to — 

Sem or Seem (good quarters). — Thence by a beautiful, but 
hilly road (skyds-tariff III), round the E. end of the lake and 
across the Snaasenheia (807 ft.) , to the valley of the Sandela, 



202 Route 27. FISKTTMFOS. 

■which forms the fine Formofos, 20 min. to the right of the road 
(reached by a path). We descend on the left bank of the stream 
and skirt the E. slope of the Ojeitfjeld (2580 ft.). 

28 Kil. (pay for 33) Homo (good quarters) lies on the left 
bank of the Sandeda, to the right of the road. "We now leave the 
stream, which descends in windings to the Namsenelv, and reach 
the latter river about 5 Kil. from Homo. We cross it by a ferry, 
and on its right bank, 3 Kil. further, we reach the Namsos and 
Fiskum road, about 2 1 / i Kil. E. of Yie (see below). We follow 
this road to the E., past the church of Orong, to — 

16 Kil. Fossland (197 ft.). We next ascend the marshy hill of 
Spendmyren, descend and cross the mouth of the Oartlandselv, and 
again ascend to the slope of the Aurstadfjeld (1355 ft), passing 
the gaards of Oartland and Aurstad, where we enjoy a view of 
striking beauty. We now descend to the farm - buildings (good 
quarters) on the Fiskumfos, a fall of the Namsenelv, 105 ft. in 
height and of great volume (not unlike the Rhine Fall at Schaff- 
hausen), but apt to dwindle towards August. The windows of the 
house afford a good view of the fall. A flight of steps made by the 
Tourists' Club descends to the foot of it. — About 1 Kil. farther 
on is the station Fiskem or Fiskum (17 Kil. from Fossland; good 
quarters). 

From Fiskum to Namsos, down the wooded and well-peopled 
Namsdal (about 8000 inhab.), a long day's journey (9-10 hrs., ex- 
cluding stoppages). Scenery fine at places. 

17 Kil. Fossland, and thence to (81/2 Kil.) the end of the road 
coming from the Snaasenvand, see above. 

11 Kil. (from Fossland) Vie, a great resort of English anglers, 
the Namsenelv being considered the best salmon-river in Europe. 
The fishings are let. Nearly 1 Kil. further is the gaard of Lex (good 
quarters) at the foot of the Holoklump (1370 ft). The road skirts 
the river and the base of the Spanfjeld (1560 ft), and passes the 
old church of Bauem. 

17 Kil. Haugum, in Rauemsletten, a tolerably well peopled 
district. 

About 2 Kil. E. of Haugum a post-road diverges to the N., passing 
Flasnes (good quarters) and skirting the E. bank of the Eidsvand, to 
(11 Kil.) Oalgeften and (11 Kil.) Merkved ; then past the church of Heilandet 
to (17 Kil.) Ftaat, and down the Rosendalselv to (17 Kil.) Kongsmo, at the 
head of the inner Foldenfjord (p. 203). 

The road traverses the marshy Tramyr. 

11 Kil. Hun, not far from the church of Skage. We then skirt 
the left bank of the Reinbjerelv , cross it near its influx into the 
Namsenelv, and follow the broad Namsenelv, at the foot of the 
Aalbergfjeld to 

15 Kil. Namsos (p. 208). 



NORTHERN NORWAY. 



Route Page 

General Remarks 203 

28. From Trondhjem to Bod* 207 

The Foldenfjord, Bindalsfjord, and Velfjord 208,209 

The Dunderlandsda], Beierendal, Saltdal, and Junkersdal 211 

The Holandsfjord (Svartisen, Fondalsbrse) 213 

Excursions from Boder : the Beierenfjord, Saltenfjord 

and Skjerstadfjord, Sulitelma, and Landegode . 214-216 

29. The Lofoten Islands 217 

Vesteraalen 220 

30. From Bode to Tromso 221 

The Foldenfjord, Ofotenfjord, and Skjomenfjord . . .221,222 

From Maalsnses to the Rostavand 221 

From Maalsnses to S#veien and the Balsfjord .... 221 

31. From Troms» to the North Cape 227 

The Ulfsjord 227 

Excursions in the Lyngen District 228 

The Altenfjord 229 

32. From the North Cape to Vadsfl 233 

33. Syd-Varanger 237 

34. From the Altenfjord to Karasjok 238 

35. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in Sweden . . . 239 



Communication with the Nordland is maintained by the steamers 
of the united companies Bergenske fy Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs- 
Selskab (p. xvi). The Mail Steamers (Com. 202, Routes I, II, 
and III) ply throughout the year, leaving Trondhjem once weekly 
for Vadser (Route I) and twice weekly for Hammerfest and the 
North Cape (Routes II & III). Besides these boats the Tourist 
Steamers (Com. 202, T) ply twice weekly from about the mid- 
dle of June to the end of July. During the height of the season 
there are thus five opportunities weekly of starting from Trond- 
hjem for the North Cape. Smaller steamers also ply from Bergen 
to the Lofoten Islands (Com. 203). Besides all these, several 
British vessels, carrying tourists only , start at least once weekly 
from London, Hull, Leith, etc. for the North Cape (see advertise- 
ments in the newspapers ; or enquire of Messrs. T. Cook and Son) ; 
also several German from Hamburg and Bremen , and Danish 
from Stettin. 

The Mail Steamers call at numerous stations, sometimes 
stopping longest at the least interesting, and take 2-3 days for the 
voyage from Trondhjem to Bode, 2 days more to Tromse , and 
another day (5-6 days from Trondhjem) to Hammerfest. Thence 
to the North Cape, half-a-day more , the mail-steamers (Routes II 
& III) are as convenient as the tourist - boats , except that they 
allow no time for an excursion to the sea-fowl resort of Svserholt 

14 



204 NORDLAND. 

(p. 232). The mail-steamers take 10 days from Trondhjem to 
the North Cape and back. The steamers of Route I also go on 
some trips to the North Cape. The Vads» steamers usually steer 
through the Mageresund (2'/ 2 days from Hammerfest to Vads0), 
but if desired, in fine weather, the captain will steer round the 
North Cape, though without landing. The steamer leaves Vadse 
again two days after its arrival , and the whole voyage from 
Trondhjem and back thus takes about 17 days. 

The Fakes in the mail-steamers are reckoned by mileage, the first 
cabin , which is alone recommended , costing 40 0. per Norwegian sea- 
mile. The fare from Trondhjem to Bodj (76 sea-miles) thus amounts to 
30 kr. 40 0., to Tromse (125 M.) 50 kr., to Hammerfest (155 M.) 62 kr., to the 
North Cape (171 M.; fare calculated to Vardtf) 80 kr., to Vadse (210 M.) 
84 kr. Family-tickets are granted at a considerable reduction (see p. xix), 
and return- tickets ('Tur og Retur') available for six months are issued at 
a fare and a half for distances of 10 sea-miles and upwards. Return- 
tickets , however , should be taken for sections only (Trondhjem-Bodu, 
Bod0-Svolv£erj Svolveer-Tromstf, Tromstf-Hammerfest, Hammerfest-North 
Cape), as the journey may not be broken. Note also that return-tickets 
are available for the mail-steamers only, and not for the tourist-steamers. 
The best plan, as a rule , is to go to the North Cape without breaking 
the voyage, and on the way back to stop at Hammerfest (and asjend the 
Tyven), at Tromse (and visit the TJlfsfjord and the Lyngenfjord), at Svol- 
voer (station for excursions among the Lofoten Islands), and perhaps also 
at Bode (and sae the Saltenfjord, which however is worth visiting during 
spring-tides only). The traveller who takes the TromsC-Amt steamer 
(p. 222) from Harstadhavn to Vesteraalen, and the Vesteraalen boat thence 
(see Com., and p. 220) to Svolomr, should of course take a single ticket from 
Svolvser to Harstadhavn; but from Harstadhavn to Tromsjzr he may take a 
return-ticket. — As to charges for food, see p. xvi. — Each steamer carries 
a small Post Office, which also undertakes the transmission of telegrams. 
The captain, mates, and post-office officials generally speak English. 

The course of the Tourist Steamers (see time-tables issued 
by the agent mentioned at p. xvi) is usually as follows : — Dep. 
Trondhjem Mon. and Wed. at 9 p.m. ; arr. at Namsos Tues. and 
Thurs. at 8 a.m.; arr. at TorghattenQp. 208) Tues. and Thurs. at 
3 p.m.; arr. at Henningsvcer Wed. and Frid. at 10 a.m.; then a 
splendid voyage through the Lofoten Islands; arr. at Tromse 
early on Thurs. and Sat.; arr. at Hammerfest Frid. or Sun. at 
8 a. in.; the Fugle is passed about midnight; then through the 
Mageresund to the sea-fowl headland of Svarholt; thence to the 
North Cape (p. 232), reaching it in the evening. — Return-voyage : 
Dep. North Cape on Sat. and Mon. mornings ; arr. in the evening 
at the Lyngenfjord; arr. at Tromse on Sun. and Tues. mornings, 
at Svartisen (Holandsfjord ; p. 212) on Mon. and Wed. afternoons, 
and at Trondhjem on Tues. and Thurs. about noon. The whole 
trip from Trondhjem to the North Cape and back thus takes 
less than 9 days by the tourist-steamers. 

The Fakes in the Tourist Steamers for the whole voyage, including 
food, are as follows : — berth in a state-room containing one or two berths, 
250-300 kr. (13!. 18s.; 15;.; 16Z. 13*. Gd.), according to position and accom- 
modation; cabin-fare, with a berth in the fore-cabin, 220 kr. (V21. is. 6<2.). 
Steward's fee included in the fare. Single tickets, but not return-tickets, 
are issued for sections " f tflfi VIUilg?i v " " l, " |,f{ "" is made for families. 






% IKUNUH3EM-T0RGHATTEN 












i^y Wfr^N 




NORDLAND. 205 

— Hr. Ludwig Hansen (p. 194) and the hotel-keeperg at Trondhjem let 
comfortable cane-chaira for the voyage (3'/2 kr.). 

The tourist-steamers are comfortably fitted up. But they are 
generally crowded, as they afford the easiest and speediest access 
to the sights of the Nordland ; and the life on hoard, as in a large 
hotel, is apt to pall. -Travellers, therefore, who have time, and who 
wish to see the people as well as the scenery , will prefer the 
mail-steamers, which are also well equipped, as they make fre- 
quent stoppages and give time for many interesting excursions. 

One drawback to the Nordland voyage is the difficulty of getting 
rest. As there is scarcely an uninteresting point on the whole 
voyage, and as it is always day in the height of summer, the trav- 
eller, is) naturally anxious to see everything: but all who wish to 
avoid over-fatigue and nervous exhaustion should sleep for at least 
4-6 hrs. after midnight and an hour or two after dinner. As the 
sofa-berths in the general cabin require to be vacated by 6 a.m., 
those who desire to sleep in comfort should secure a berth in one 
of the state-rooms. The traveller should therefore apply beforehand 
at the steamboat offices at Bergen or Trondhjem, or to one of the 
agents at Christiania, Hamburg, London, Newcastle, or Leith. On 
receiving a reply that the berths desired are still disengaged, the 
applicant should remit the amount of the fare at once, as other- 
wise the berth will not be reserved. Unless previously bespoken, 
a berth is rarely obtainable except in the general cabin. — As 
nearly the whole voyage is within the island-belt ('indenskjaers'), 
sea-sickness is rare. 

The Pilots ('Lodsen'), as well as the captains and crews , are 
generally obliging and well informed. Two pilots navigate each 
vessel on the different stages of the voyage , one of them always 
being on duty. The sailors are generally a sober and hard-working 
class , and the traveller will often have occasion to admire their 
patience and perseverance in loading or discharging- cargo. 

The physical characteristics of the Norwegian coast will not 
fail to interest even the most experienced traveller. Weather, 
winds, fogs, the play of light and shade, the purity of the air, are 
all peculiar to the country. Even the Alpine tourist will be at 
fault here in trying to estimate distances. The animal kingdom 
is of extraordinary richness. The sea teems with cod, herrings, 
skate, and other fish. Narwhals 6-12 ft. long, dolphins which 
sometimes spring out of the water in a curve, porpoises, and other 
denizens of the ocean are seen (best from the bows of the vessel) 
disporting themselves in every direction, but whales are Tarely 
visible. At certain places nestle swarms of eider-ducks , whose 
swimming and diving powers are very remarkable , enabling them 
to dive twenty fathoms or more for the little crabs and other Crus- 
tacea on which they live. Everywhere the air is full of sea-gulls, 
which are often robbed of their prey by the skua (Lestris parasi- 



206 



NORDLAND. 



tica, pomarina, cataractes), which, unable to fish for itself, com- 
pels them to drop their booty. 

The most striking scenery extends from the Arctic Circle (the 
Hestmande, p. 212) to the Lofoten Islands (R, 29) and the S. end 
of the Hinde (Ledingen) , where stupendous mountains and gla- 
ciers are seen close to the sea. Of majestic beauty is the island 
scenery of the Arctic Ocean beyond Troms», by the Fugle (p. 227) 
and the Lyngenfjord (p. 228). Beyond Hammerfest the scenery 
becomes severe and desolate. At the North Cape Europe termi- 
nates, and the Arctic regions begin. Thence to Vadse there is a 
distinct falling off in the interest of the scenery. 

The best Season for a cruise to the North Cape is between 
20th June and 15th August. Before the middle of June the moun- 
tains are still covered with snow, and the vegetation in the valleys 
is not fully developed, and after the middle of August the nights 
become longer. The Midnight Sun, visible only within the Arc- 
tic Circle (66° 30'), is seen as follows : — 



Places 


For the first time. 


For the last time. 


Upper 
Margin 


Centre 


Whole 
Disc 


Whole 
Disc 


Centre 


Upper 
Margin 


Bode 
Tromse 
Vadsei 
Hammerfest 
North Cape 


30th May 
18th - 
15th - 
13th - 
11th - 


1st June 
19th May 
16th - 
14th - 
12th - 


3th June 
20th May 
17th 
16th - 
13th 


8nd July 
22nd 
26th 
27th 
30th - 


10th July 
24th 
27th - 
28th '- 
31st - 


12th July 
25th - 
28th 
29th 
1st Aug. 



Passengers by the tourist-steamers have three opportunities of 
seeing the midnight sun, once off the Fuglfl (p. 227), again from 
the North Cape (p. 232), and a third time on leaving the Lyngen- 
fjord, in the direction of the FugLer. Passengers by the mail-boats 
usually see it from the North Cape only, as it is shut out by islands 
at other places ; but a view of it may be obtained from Tyven, a 
hill near Hammerfest (p. 231), and also, down to 12th July, from 
the Ltfbsaas near Boda (p. 213). It must, however, be remembered 
that a perfectly clear sunset is still rarer here than in lower 
latitudes, and that the northern horizon is very apt to be veiled 
in cloud and mist. The sublimity of the spectacle has been des- 
cribed by Carlyle, Bayard Taylor, and many others, while Tegner's 
lines are remarkable for their simplicity : — 

Midnattssolen pa bergen satt 

Blodrbd till att skada; 

Bet var ej dag, det var ej natt, 

Bet vagde emellan bada. 

The midnight sun on the mountain lay 
And blood-red was its hue; 
'Twas neither night nor was it day, 
But wavered between the two. 
The Maps in this Handbook (four sections, the places where they join 
being indicated by corresponding marks ; see p. ix,), though of small scale 



BEIAN. 28. Route. 207 

(1 : 1,500,000), show the usual courses of the steamboats and will probahly 
suffice for most travellers. The course ot the mall steamers is indicated 
by , that of the tourist-steamers by — . — .— . Several other in- 
teresting routes are marked . As mentioned at p. xxiv, the best 

of the larger maps is Cammermeyer's Reisekart over det nordlige Norge (scale 

1 : 800,000; price 4 kr.). 

The Distances between the principal stations are given as usual in 
Norwegian sea-miles (see p. lxxviii). 

28. From Trondhjem to Bode*. 

76 S. M. (about 310 Engl. M.). The actual course of the steamers is, 
however, much longer, varying according to the number of stations called 
at (45 in all). The Mail Steamkks take 13-15 hrs. to reach Namsos (fare 
12 kr. 40 0.); 42-44 and on some voyages 48-52 hrs. to reach Bode (fare 
30 kr. 40 0.). The Todrist Boats go to Namsos in about 11, to Bode in 
about 30 hrs. (but see p. 213). 

The mail - steamers leave Trondhjem at noon , the tourist- 
steamers at 9 p. m. The voyage through the outer Trondhjems- 
Fjord and along the coast beyond it is at first comparatively un- 
interesting. The first stations are Redbjerget , with the ruined 
nunnery of Rein, on the N. bank of the fjord, and — 

7 S.M. Beian (p. 192), where travellers from the S. may join 
the northward-bound steamers without going to Trondhjem. Beian 
lies at the end of the peninsula of 0rland, on the S.E. side of 
which stretches the Skjernfjord. Near Beian is the gaard 0ster- 
aat, the scene of one of Ibsen's dramas. 

The vessel now steers to the N., skirting the large peninsula 
of Fosen, formed by the sea and the long fjord of Trondhjem. To 
the W. are the islands of Stor-Fosen and the Tarv-0er. — 

2 S.M. Vdhaug. — 3 S.M. Valdersund. The Nordlandsjcegte, with 
their lofty bows , and rigged with a single square-sail ('Raaseil') 
and a topsail ('Skvaersegl' or 'Topsegl'), are frequently seen here 
on their way to the 'Tydskebrygge' or German Quay at Bergen, 
deeply laden with dried fish. 

3 S.M. Stoksund. To the N. are four caverns , the largest of 
which is the Hardbakhul, by the gaard of Hardbak. To the W. lie 
the Linese and Stoke. 

2 S.M. Sydkraake. To the N.W. lies the island of Almenningen, 
containing the quarries which furnished the marble for Trond- 
hjem cathedral (p. 197). Fish spread out on the rocks to dry begin 
to be seen here ; in winter they are hung on 'Hjelder' , or wooden 
frames. Eider-ducks abound. — 2 S.M. Besaker. 

1 S.M. Ramse. The black and white rings on the rocks 
('Tflrneringe'), resembling targets, indicate the position of iron 
stanchions for mooring vessels ('Mserker'). The maintenance of 
these rings ('Ringvsesen'), like that of the lighthouses and pilots 
('Fyrvaesen', 'Lodsvaesen'), is under government. The number of 
lights required in the 'Skjaergaard' is, of course, very great. For 
the next two hours we traverse the open Foldensje, where the 
water is often rough, which is prolonged towards the N.E. by the 



208 Route 28. NAMSOS. From Trondhjem 

Foldenfjord (not to be confounded with the fjord of that name to 
the N. of Bode, p. 221). 

5 S.M. Bjere. Here, as in the Sognefjord and the Nordfjord, we 
often observe white marks on the rocks, which the salmon mistake 
for their favourite waterfalls and are thus decoyed into the nets. 

Beyond Bjere the steamer's course is again 'indenskjaers'. We 
now steer S.E. into the Namsenfjord, which is separated from the 
Reidsund to the N.E. by the long winding island of Ottere. The 
scenery improves as we ascend the fjord. Namsos does not come 
in sight until we have rounded the long promontory of Mcerranes. 

6 S.M. (from Trondhjem 31) Namsos (A. Jensens Hotel; Brit- 
ish vice-consul, Mr. J. Sommerschield) , a town of 1850 inhab., 
charmingly situated on the N. bank of the Namsenelv , has been 
rebuilt since a great fire in 1872, which also destroyed a wood to 
the W. of the town. The Church stands on a rocky hill in the 
middle of the town. Busy timber-trade. 

Excursion up the Namdal to the Fiskumfos, see p. 202. 

From Namsos to Kongsmo. A small steamboat plies once a week to 
the Indre Foldenfjord (Comp. 2P5). Stations Servile, Seierstad, Lund, etc. 
From the terminus Kongsmo a skyds-road leads to Haugum (p. 202). 

We now steer through the strait of Lokkaren and the pretty 
Sarviksund, past the E. and N.E. side of the Ottere. 3 S.M. Fos- 
landsosen. Then through the narrow Redsund , and across the 
partly unsheltered Foldenfjord. 4 S.M. Apelvcer , a small island 
at the mouth of the Indre Foldenfjord. The steamer threads its 
way through a maze of islets, passing the N<zr0 on the right. 

3 S.M. Rervik (opposite telegr.-stat. Ncerasund; comp. p. 209), on 
the island of Indre Vigten ; to the W. are Mellem Vigten and Ytre 
Vigten, on which rise the Sulafjeld (500 ft.) and Vattafjeld (565 ft.). 

3 S.M. Risvcsr. — 2 S.M. Fjelviken. 

To the left is the island of Leka, a prominent rock on the S. 
spur of which resembles a giantess. On the Leka lies the hamlet 
of Skej, at which the steamers sometimes call. Farther on we have 
a fine view of the rocks of Leka as we look back. 

1 S.M. Gutviken, behind which rise the two Heilhorne. On the 
right opens the Bindalsfjord, the boundary between NordreTrond- 
hjems Amt and Helgeland, the Halogaland of early Norwegian 
history, which extends N. to the promontory of Kunnen (p. 213). 

Twice weekly a local steamer (Com. 287), starting from Br0n0 (p. 209), 
plies up the many-armed Bindalsfjord to Teraak and SeiUtad, near 
Bindalen-Vatsaas. Thence, towards the N.W., the long Thosen/jord, a 
huge mountain-cleft, extends to Thosbotn and Gaard Thosdal, from which 
the traveller may proceed with a guide to Hortskarmo in the Sveningsdal, 
and to Mosjeen on the Vefsenfjord (p. 210) in 1V2-2 days. The ascent 
from Gaard Thosdal is extremely steep, and on the E. side of the mountain 
there is the troublesome Gaasvas-Elv to be forded. 

The mountains now become more varied in form. To the N., 
5 S.M. distant (about 2 hrs. by steamer), soon appears the island 
of Torgen, once the seat of the family of that name, with its curious 
hill called *Torghatten ('Torge's hat' ; 824 ft.), which resembles 



to Bode. TORGHATTEN. 25. Route. 209 

a hat floating on the sea. The mail-steamboat stations nearest to 
the island are Stenseen, Vik, and Semnms, and a little beyond 
these Kvale and Bremer (see below). The tourist-steamers (and 
sometimes the mail-steamers also) touch at the E. side of the is- 
land and land their passengers. A marshy and stony path (for 
which strong boots are advisable) ascends about halfway up the 
hill to (30-40 min.) the 'Hul' (or 'Hullet', 'the hole'), a huge 
natural tunnel 407 ft. above the sea. Its height at the E. entrance, 
where large masses of debris extending far into the interior are 
piled up, is about 65 ft., at the W. end 246 ft., and in the middle 
204 ft. ; total length 535 ft. ; breadth 36-56 ft. The sides are mostly 
flat, and nearly perpendicular, and look at places as if they had 
been artificially chiselled. The view of the sea with its countless 
islands and rocks, Been through this gigantic telescope, is strikingly 
beautiful. The natives sell milk, lemonade ('Brus'), and 'Multebaer'. 
The excursion takes \. l l%-1 hrs. 

As the steamer proceeds on her course we see through the hole 
in Torghatten from N.E. to S.W. (On the way back the tourist- 
steamers usually steer past the W. side of the island, enabling us 
to look through it from S.W. to N.E.) We steer through the Brenei- 
sund, sometimes calling at Kvala, to the important station of — 

6 S.M. (from Gutviken) Buerntr, the residence of the clergyman 
and the doctor of the district, with a telegraph-office. The telegraph 
is of great importance to the fishermen. At Brene, if not already 
atBeian orRervik, are often seen fleets of herring-boats, the smaller 
being the fishing-boats, the larger destined for the cargoes. On the 
arrival of a Sildstlm, or shoal of herrings, the herring-fleet is at 
once telegraphed for , and is usually towed by steamers to the 
scene of action. At the same time supplies of salt and barrels, re- 
quisitioned by wire from every quarter, are sent by steamers char- 
tered for the purpose. (Farther N. the chief herring-fishery stations 
are Selsevig, Bod», Ledingen, Harstadhavn, Gibostad, and Trom- 
se>.) On the shore are often seen the cottages of the 'Strandsiddere', 
who live almost exclusively by fishing , while the inland settlers 
are called 'Opsiddere' or 'Nysiddere'. 

From BR0N0 a visit may be paid to the grand Velfjord, on which a 
local steamer plies twice weekly (Com. 287), touching at Rerei, Eidet-Saeter- 
land (at the entrance to the Skillebotn, where excellent marble is quarried), 
Ncevernces, and Hegge (good quarters at the landhandler's), near the church 
of Nestvik. — From one of the innermost branches of the Velfjord, or 
Store Bjerrga as it is here called, ascends the Tidingdal, suddenly rising, 
3 A hr. from its mouth, in a terrace of 460 ft., over which falls the Tiding- 
dalsfos in a single leap. — From the Velfjord to the N. diverge the deep 
and wild Oks/jord and the Slorfjord. 

All the steamboats pass the mouth of the Velfjord, on the S. 
side of which rises the huge Mosaksele, and on the N. the pictur- 
esque Heiholmstinder with the Andalshatt. To the W. lies the 
large island of Vagen, rising to 2300 ft., on which is Rere. The 
mail-steamers either call at Rero or steer between the Havne and 

Baedeker's Korway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 14 



210 Route 28. THJ0TI0. 



From Trondhjem 



the mainland to Forvik. The tourist-steamers pass between the 
islands^of Vaegen and Havn», in full view of the imposing Seven 
Sisters (see below), which have long been visible. To the E. towers 
the conspicuous Finknafjeld (4330 ft.). On the right is the Rede, 
a red rock, where some of the steamers call. 

6 S.M. Thjettf, a small island, formerly the property oiHaarek 
of Thjete, a well-known character in early Norwegian history, lies 
at the mouth of the beautiful Vefsenfjord, which runs inland to the 
E. of the island of Alsten, and is entered twice weekly by the mail- 
steamers. The banks of the inner fjord are finely wooded. Thesteamer 
steers into the narrow S.E. bay, called Vefsenbunden, and stops at 
Mosjeen (Fru Schre-der's Hotel ; Mr. H. P. Dahl, British vice-con- 
sul), a little town with 1150 inhab. and the large steam-sawmills 
of Halseneen, Drevjebruget, and others. 

From Mosjgren a good road leads to the Tustervand and to Stornes on 
the Resvand (1475 ft.), which ranks next to Lake Mj0sen in point of area. 
From Stornes we may ascend the Brurskanke and the EJeringtind (5805 ft.), 
on the W. side of the lake, and we may follow the course of the Resaa, the 
discharge of the Tustervand and Rgsvand, towards the N. to Resaaeren 
on the Ranenfjord (p. 211). About halfway thither a digression may tie 
made to the E., up the Bjuraa, for the sake of seeing the imposing 0x- 
tinder (about 5580 ft.) ; but these peaks are better reached from R0saa#ren 
and through the Leerskardal. 

The tourist-steamers and some of the mail-boats traverse the 
'Skjaergaard' to the W. of theThjeta and the large island of Alsten 
(pop. 1500), on which rise the finely shaped hills called the *Syv 
S«stre ('seven sisters'; 2630-3280 ft.). Six hills only are dis- 
tinguishable, but one of them has a double crest. The highest of 
the sisters is the Digertind. At the S. end of the island is the 
church otAlstahoug, where Peter Dass (p. lxxii), author of 'Nordlands 
Trompet', a description of Norway in verse, was pastor in 1689- 
1708. On the Haugnces, near the church, is the so-called Kongs- 
grav ('king's grave'). The mail-steamers call at Sevik; also, on 
the N. side of the island, at Sandnceseen (good quarters), near 
which are the old church of Stamnces and the district-prison. 
From Sandnaeseen we may ascend the N. peak of the Seven Sisters, 
passing (6 Kil.) the gaard of Botnet. 

At Sandnaeseen unite the courses of the steamers which pass 
the island of Alsten on the E. and on the W. side. Farther on we 
pass the Dynnsese, to the W., of which the Aakviknaver (2820 ft.) 
is the highest point. At Bjem, on the Pynnaese, the greatest of 
the Nordland fairs takes place on 2nd July. These fairs were ori- 
ginally called Ledingsberge (or Lensberge) , as the natives used 
there to pay their taxes (Leding). 

6 S. M. Kobberdal on the island of Lekten, with hatcheries of 
eider-ducks. The birds build their nests in nooks artificially made 
for the purpose. As they are then very tame, a number of the 
eggs may be taken without frightening the birds away ; and the 
eider-down they leave in tifi_a£ats is after-wards collected. 



to Bode. RANENFJORD. 28. Route. 211 

On the right, to the N.E. of Kobberdal, opens the Ranenfjord, 
which is visited by several of the mail-steamers. This fjord, an- 
ciently Radund, is famous for its timber, of which almost all the 
boats, houses, and coffins between this point and Vadse- are made. 
The 'Ranenbaade' have high bows and sterns, not unlike the Vene- 
tian gondolas ; they are considered typical national craft, and are 
often used as pleasure-boats. 

The steamboat-stations in the Ranenfjord are Hemnms (quarters 
at the Landhandler's), with a new church and a group of huts for 
the use of church-goers from a distance arriving over-night, and 
Mo (quarters at the Landhandler's), at the mouth of the Dunder- 
landselv, which carries on a considerable trade with Sweden. 

From Mo we may visit several Stalactite Caverns ('Drypstenshuller') : 
the Risagrotte on the Langvand, near Hammernas (11 Kil.); the Laphul, near 
Guard Bjernaa, and opposite to it another by Oaard Grenlien, both in the 
valley of the Redvas-Elv. An excursion may also be made to the glacier of 
Svaetisen (p. 212) by rowing to the end of the Langvand and ascending 
the valley to the N. as far as Fisktjernmo. A glacier-pass crosses thence 
to the end of the Melfjord (p. 213). 

Another excursion is to the Svartisvand , a lake into which an arm 
of the Svartisen Glacier descends. 

To the N.E. of Mo extends the interesting Dunderlandsdal (from the 
Finnish Tunduri, or the Lappish Duodar, 'mountain 1 ), a broad valley, 
running N.E. from Mo. A peculiarity of several of its streams is that 
they disappear in caverns and suddenly re-appear lower down. Thus 
the Slilvasaa, near Oaard Storforshei in the Skogfrudal (about 15 Kil. 
from Mo). Near it is the forest-girt Urtvand. Farther W. is the Eiteraa, 
which drives mills close to its egress from the earth. Near this are 
Tyvshelleren ('thieves' grotto') and an interesting Ravine, with an icy cur- 
rent of air through it, where the rushing of the subterranean water is 
audible. A third stream of the same kind is the Pruglaa near Oaard 
Jordbro. By the Pruglheibro are about fifty water-worn 'giant cauldrons'. 

From Bjaeldaanses, the central point of the Dunderlandsdal (55 Kil. 
from Mo *, road without stations), we may visit the JStormdalsfos and the 
marble grotto at its foot, near the Brediksfjeld. We may also ascend the 
Urtfjeld (about 4920 ft.), by crossing the Slormdalshei, or the Brediksfjeld, 
which commands a splendid view of Svartisen and the Lofoten Islands. 
The excursion should be continued to the point where Svartisen rises from 
the Kvitvaselvdal, and to its ice-fall by the Magdajoktind. 

From Bjseldaanses it is a day's ride up the Bjasldaadal, across a pass 
(2805 ft.), and through the 0vre and Nedre Toldaadal, to Toldaa in the 
Beierendal, and thence by Aasbakke to Storjord (45 Kil. in all ; quarters 
at the under-forester's). From Storjord to Soleen (p. 214) 14 Kil. more. 

From BjseldaanEes to Almindingen in the Saltdal is a long day's journey 
(16-17 hrs.), on which a few telegraph-workmen are almost the people ever 
met. The route leads either through the Bjseldaadal (following the tele- 
graph-wires), or through the Oubbelaadal, Randal, and Lenesdal, which 
last forms the upper end of the Saltdal. Below the junction of the Salt- 
dal and Junkersdal lies Oaard Berghulnws ; thence to Almindingen and Rog- 
nan, see p. 216. — From Berghulnaes we go E. to the Junlersdals-Gaard, 
in the Junkersdal (14 Kil. -, good quarters) The bridle-path to it leads 
through the Junkersdalsur, one of the grandest rocky ravines in Norway, 
formed by the Kjernfjeld to the E. and the Solvaagfjeld to theW. (4-5000 ft. 
high). Farther up, the valley is called Graddis, and is traversed by a 
bridle-path to Sweden, much frequented in winter, and provided with 
several 'Fjeldstuer'. Many Lapp settlements are to be met with on the 
heights in the Dunderlandsdal and Saltdal. 

1 S.M. (from Kobberdal) Vigholmen (good quarters), charm- 

14* 



212 Route 25. SVARTISEN. From Trondhjem 

ingly situated, about 6 Kil. N.E. of the mouth of the Ranenfjord. 
After their digression into the Ranenfjord the mail-steamers here 
regain the course of the tourist-steamers. We now steer between 
the islands of Huglen, Hannoes0, and Tombe (2723 ft. high). To 
the E. are seen the S.W. spurs of the Svartisen, and to the W the 
singularly shaped islands of Lovunden and Threnen (Threnstdvene). 
Lovunden, upwards of 2000 ft. high, is still 30 Kil., and the four 
islands of Threnen, equally lofty, are 45 Kil. distant; but both 
seem quite near in clear weather. These islands are the haunt of 
dense flocks of loons or divers ( l Lund e fugle', Mormon arcticus), 
whose eggs, about 3V3 in. long and 2 in. thick, are esteemed in the 
Nordland. They make their nests in clefts of the rocks difficult of 
access, which are annually plundered, and the young birds are also 
captured and pickled. 

The abruptness of Lovunden, the top of which appears to overhang 
the water, has given rise to the saying — 

'Se! hvordan han luder den gamle Lovund." 
(See how it overhangs, the ancient Lovund'.) 

Another saying is — 
' Hestemanden tute, Lovunden lute, og Threnen er Icengere ute.'' 
('The Hestmand Wows his horn, the Lovund overhangs, and the 
Thren lies farther out.') 

The Arctic Circle (66° 30'), the crossing of which is usually 
announced by several cannon-shots, passes through the islands of 
Threnen and a little S. of the Hestmander. We next steer through 
the Stegfjord, the strait between the Lure, with its pyramidal hill 
(2110 ft.), on the left, and Alderen on the right. A little later we 
sight the *Hestmand« (1750 ft.), perhaps the most interesting is- 
land in this archipelago, which resembles a 'horseman' with a long 
cloak falling over his horse. The hill may be ascended without a 
guide. The view embraces the whole surrounding archipelago, and 
the long Svartis to the E. — To the right is a peninsula of the 
mainland, projecting far into the sea. 

6 S.M. Indre Kvare, a lonely place, from which we may visit 
the Melfjord, the Lure>, Lovunden, Threnen, and the Hestmand. 
Dominating the landscape for many miles , on our right , rises 
*Svartisen, an enormous expanse of snow and ice (resembling the 
Jostedalsbrae and the Folgefond), about 55 Kil. long and at places 
16 Kil. broad, covering a plateau about 4000 ft. in height, from 
which protrude a few peaks or knolls ('Nuter', 'Klumper', 'Knolde'), 
while numerous glaciers descend from it to the adjacent fjords. 

1 S.M. Selsevig. On the right the Rangsunde; beyond it opens 
the Melfjord, with grand mountains. (Glacier-pass to Mo, p. 211.) 

2 S.M. Rede ('red island') , on which rises E«d«l«ven (easy 
to ascend), a hill resembling a lion looking westwards. — To the 
right open the Tjongsfjord and the Skarsfjord, with their branches 
the Berangsfjord and Holandsfjord, which extend into the heart 
of Svartisen. 



to Bode. BOD0. 25. Routg. 213 

On their return-voyage the tourist-steamers enter the Holandsfjord 
and land passengers between the gaards of ReindaUvik and Enna. A bad 
path, leading through several brooks, leads thence to (20 min.) the lower 
margin of the Fondalsbrae, an arm of Svartisen, the general view of which, 
however , is grander from the steamboat. To the S. rises the Reindals- 
lind (2133 ft.), which is said to afford the best survey of Svartisen. 

Passing the Omnese on the right, we steer towards the Qrene, 
a smiling island , which commands a most striking view of Svar- 
tisen. At (3 S.M.) the station of Qrene passengers by the mail- 
steamers who intend to visit Svartisen land , and row thence up 
the Holandsfjord or the Glomfjord. We next pass the mouth of 
the Glomfjord, which cuts deep into the mainland, and steer through 
a narrow strait between the Mele on the left and iheSkjerpa on the 
right towards the headland of Kunnen. Far to the N. we obtain 
our first glimpse at the Lofoten Islands. Some of the vessels touch 
at Ornces, others at Stedt. 

The promontory of *Kunnen or Rotknaet (1998 ft.), the N.W. 
spur of the Svartisen plateau, forms the boundary between Helge- 
land and Salten, and has a climatic and geographic importance like 
Stadtland in the Sendmere (p. 160). At this point there is a 'Havs- 
eie' ('sea-glimpse'), or opening in the island-belt, through which 
we get a view of the open sea and sometimes feel its motion. To 
the N. appears the Fugle, and in the distance theLandegode (p. 216). 

The Tourist Steamers now leave the mainland, according to 
the present programme, instead of putting in at Bode as formerly, 
and steer across the Vestfjord to the Lofoten Islands. 

The Mail Steamers pass, on the left, the Fugle, the Fleina, 
and the Ameer, and on the right the church of Oildeskaal and the 
large island of Sandhorn, with a mountain 3295 ft. high (beyond 
which lies the Beierenfjord, p. 214). We then cross the mouth of 
the Saltenfjord (p. 214), at the E. end of which, in clear weather, 
we observe the snow-fields of the Sulitelma (p. 21 5), and soon reach 
the curious rocky harbour of — 

12 S.M. Bod« (Grand Hotel, R. 1, S. IV2 kr. ; British vice- 
consul, Mr. V. B. Jentoft), a busy and increasing place, with 2800 
inhab., seat of the Amtmand or provincial governor. Among the 
large modern buildings are still a few of the old cottages with their 
roofs of turf. A large wooden church in the Gothic style was com- 
pleted in 1886. Passengers by the mail-steamers, which usually 
stop several hours here, may land and ascend (with guide) the Lebs- 
aas, a hill marked by a pole, 1 hr. to the N., which commands a 
view of the Lofoten Islands to the W., of the snowy Blaamands- 
fjeld or Olmajalos (p. 215), adjoining the Sulitelma (which is not 
itself visible), to the E., of the Bersvatnstinder to the S.E., and 
of the Sanlhorn, with the Svartis , to the S. (Midnight sun, see 
p. 206.) A similar view, though less extensive, is obtained from 
the fields, 5 min. S. of the town; and the view from the Voldfjeld 
(about 1310 ft), 2 hrs. N. of Bode, is also said to be fine. Geolo- 



214 Route 28. BEIERENFJORD. Excursions 

gists -will be interested in the erratic blocks of syenite in the midst 
of a rock formation of slate. — Pleasant excursion to the (6 Kil.) 
Vaagevand, with its club-hut. 

A road leadsS.E to ('^hr.) fa e Church of Bode and the Prceste- 
gaard, at which Louis Philippe, when travelling as a refugee under 
the name of Muller, was entertained on his voyage to the North Cape 
in 1796. A room in the house is still named after him. Beyond 
the church the road traverses a pleasant district, with rich vege- 
tation, on the bank of the Saltenfjord (see below). 

Excursions from £030. — (1) The Beierenfjord. A local 
steamer (Com. 291) plies up the Beierenfjord twice a week (there 
and back in 6 hrs.). Crossing the Saltenfjord, we pass the island of 
Sandhom. Stations Skaalland and Resnas on the mainland, and 
Sandnas, in the island of Sandhorn (p. 214). We now enter 
the Beierenfjord, a narrow inlet flanked by imposing mountains, 
contracting, beyond Kjelling, to its narrowest part at the gaard of 
Eggesvik. The last station is Tvervik. 

From Tvervik we may row to (3 Kil.) Soleen (good quarters at Land- 
handler Jentoft's), whence we may ascend the Heitind (4120 ft. ; with 
guide; extensive view of the mountain -solitudes towards Sweden, of 
Svartisen to the S., and of the sea dotted with islands t<> the W., bounded 
by the distant Lofoten Islands). Or we may row to Arstad, where there 
is a skyds-statior., with a fine waterfall. The road leads thence through a 
picturesque valley, past Beierens Kirke (by the gaard of Mold j or d), to Stor- 
jord, Aasbakke, and (about 20 Kil.) Toldaa (p. 211). 

(2) To the Saltenfjord and Skjerstadfjord. — The local 
steamboat usually leaves Bod0 on Wed. and Sat. for Rognan, at the S. end 
of the Skjerstadfjord, and returns to Bod# at night. — A better way of 
visiting the Snltstr0m is to drive from Boda (telegraph beforehand if poss- 
ible for carriole) to (17 Kil., H/2 hr.) Kvalvaag, and to go thence by sail- 
ing-boat in I-IV2 hr. to Slrem. In this case the excursion does not take 
more than 6-8 hrs., but is only interesting when the tides are high. 

Two islands, the Streme on the S. and the Qode on the N., 
separate the Saltenfjord from the extensive Skjerstadfjord. The 
latter is connected with the sea by three veTy narrow straits only, 
the Sundstnsm (200 ft. wide), the Storstrem (500 ft.), and the 60- 
destrem , through which an enormous mass of water has to pass 
four times daily, forming a tremendous cataract, known as the Salt- 
stxern, as each tide pours in or out of the fjord. The usual rise of 
the tide here is 5-6 ft. only, but when it increases to 8-9 ft. during 
spring-tides, the scene is most imposing. Vessels can navigate 
these straits during an hour or so at high or at low tide only, and the 
steamer times its departure from Bod» accordingly (from 4 to 10 a.m.). 

To view the Saltstram, which far surpasses the famous Mal- 
strtfm (p. 218), we land at Strem, and wait for several hours (quar- 
ters at Furre's, the Landhandler). The best point of view, to find 
which a guide is necessary, is 1/4 hr. from Strem. A column here 
commemorates the visit of King Oscar II. in 1873. The scene is 
most effective when the water is pouring into the fjord, while 
thousands of sea-fowl hover about, fishing in the troubled waters. The 
ascent of the Bersvatnstiru 1 ."" to +hn q ^ f s *■*•»";■ i» '•"< > '>T>?>r>»Tided. 



from Bode. SULITELMA. 28. Route. 215 

The principal place on the Skjeistadfjord is Skjerstad, at the 
entrance to the Misvcerfjord. Opposite, to theW., is the old gaard 
of Lena's, with an ancient burial-place. The steamer then recrosses 
the fjord to Venset (quarters at Koch's). About 5-6 Kil. farther is 
0inesgavlen, a promontory of conglomerate, a formation which also 
occurs in the Kjatna>s, 14 Kil. to the S. 

Fuske (slow skyds-station), on a N. bay of the fjord, whence a 
road leads by the Fuskeeid to Dybvik on the Foldenfjord (p. 221). 

Fuske is also the starting-point for an Excdesion to the Sulitelma 
(5-6 days), which repays in spite of privations (bad sleeping quarters; pro- 
visions must be brought from Bod0 or Fuske). Leaving Fuske by boat- 
skyds (to be obtained at Andresen's), we cross the Finneid, which separates 
the fjord from the lake called Nedre Vand. At high tide we row up the 
Finneidstr0m ; at low tide the boat is dragged across the isthmus on a 
wooden pathway (Lapp muorka). We then row up the Nedre Vand to Moen, 
at its upper end, and then up the 0vre Vand. The route traverses the 
district called Vatteribygdm. At the head of the 0vre Vand is (9-10 hrs. 
from Fuske) Skjm&tu, where we sleep. Next day we walk to (l 1 /* hr.; 
guide) Skjem&tudal, where we hire a boat to Fagerlid. The starting-place 
is about V2hr. from Skj0nstudal. Our picturesque course first ascends the 
swift stream issuing from the Langvand. The banks are steep and we 
have to land at places in order to avoid the rapids. We then ascend the 
Langvand itself. Beautiful waterfalls and numerous gaards. In 3 hrs. 
(5 hrs. from Skj0nstu) we reach the upper end of the lake, with the gaards 
Fagermo and Fagerlid (quarters at Opsidder S0ren Larsen's, whose son, Pet- 
ter S0rensen, is an excellent guide). 

The ascent of the "Sulitelma (Lapp ' BulluiCietbma 1 'festival mountain') 
from this point takes 13 hrs. (there and back) and is neither very fatiguing 
nor dangerous. The highest peak of the Sulitelma Mts., which stretch 
from N.W. to S.E., has not yet been scaled ; our goal is Stortoppen (6178 ft.), 
the summit to the N.W. In l>/2-2 hrs. we reach the plateau of *Hanka- 
bakken (2185 ft.), with a fine view of the Langvand, the Svartis, and the 
Sulitelma group; 2 hrs. more bring us to the foot of the Stortopp (about 
3280 ft.) ; and after a steep climb of l'/2-2 hrs. over loose stones we reach 
Vardetoppen, the W. horn of Stortoppen (about 490 ft. lower than the lat- 
ter), and enjoy a grand outlook over a wild desolate mountain-region, with 
innumerable glaciers (here known as Jcekna) and lakes. The mountain is 
covered with enormous masses of snow, which have forced the glaciers to 
descend 600-700 ft. below the snow-line. Between the two summits the 
Salajcekna descends towards the S. to the lake Lommijaur (2260ft.). This 
lake is separated by a narrow Eid, the watershed between the Atlantic and 
the Baltic, from the Swedish Pjeskajaur. — Adjoining the Sulitelma group 
on the N. is the Olmajalos (5350 ft.) with its two glaciers, the Olmajalos 
Jwkna and the Lina-Jcekna. About 50 Kil. N.E. rises the Sarektjokko 
(6990 ft.), the highest mountain in Sweden. 

Those who do not ascend the Sulitelma itself should at least go to the 
Hankabakke or to the "Rapisvari (3170 ft.) , 2 hrs. to the E. of Fagerlid 
(guide desirable), which aS'ords a splendid view of the Sulitelma group and 
the Salajsekna; also to the Lommijaur P/2 hr.) and the ice-fall of the Sala- 
jcekna ('split ice'), past which leads the route to Qvickjock in Sweden 
(p. 329). The Salajsekna may be reached direct from Hankabakken, 
with a guide. 

The return from Skj0nstudal to (4-5 hrs.) Saxenvik on the Saltenfjord 
requires an experienced guide. Superb view of the Sulitelma. From Saxen- 
vik we cross by boat to Kognan (see below). 

From Fuske the steamer steers into the S. arm of the fjord to — 

Rognan (skyds-station ; quarters at Jens Nilss^n's or at the 

Lensmand's), its last station, where it stops for 1 hr. or more. 



216 Route 28. LANDEGODE. 

Rognan lies at the end of the Skjerstadfjord, on the left bank of the 
Saltdals-Elv, while Saltdals-Kirke stands on the right bank. 

From Rognan we may drive up the Saltdal to (8 Kil.) Sundby 
(quarters at Larsen's, the forester) and (10 Kil. farther) Almin- 
dingen. [A little below it, on the opposite bank of the river, lies 
Evensgaard (good quarters), whence a route ascends the Evencesdal 
for a short distance, and then leads to the S. across the Solvaag- 
fjeld, and past the N.E. side of the Solvaagtind, to the Junkersdals- 
Oaard (p. 211), a short day's walk.] From Almindingen the road 
leads to (13 Kil.) Lerjordfald. About 3 Kil. above Lerjordfald (from 
which we take a 'Sundmand' or ferryman with us) we cross the 
river, near Langsandmo or Troldhelen. and next reach the gaard of 
BerghulncBS, where a horse and guide to the Beierendal may be pro- 
cured. The route now leads through beautiful pine-wood to (11 Kil.) 
Storjord (quarters at the under-forester's) in the Beierendal (p. 211). 

The Passes to Sweden are very fatiguing in summer. (In winter they 
are crossed by reindeer-sledges.) Between the gaard of the last 'Opsidder' 
on the Norwegian side to that of the first 'Nybyggare' on the Swedish, the 
traveller must ride 12 or even 20 hours. The 'Fjeldstuer', erected at places 
by government, afford shelter. A guide and provisions are indispensable. 

1. From the Junkersdal, the upper part of which is called Qraddis, 
a path leads S.E., passing the Qodjavre, or through the Merkdal, to the 
Sadva Lake, Hom-Avan, and Skelleftea on the Gulf of Bothnia. On each 
side of the pass there is a Fjeldstue. 

2. From the Junkersdal another path leads N.E., passing (11 Kil.) Skaidi, 
to the (17 Kil.) Balvand, and thence S.E. to the Horn-Avan, where it joins 
the above route. The Balvand may also be reached from the Langvand, 
at the W. end of the Sulitelma group, so that a circuit from the Junkers- 
dal to the Balvand and Langvand, or the reverse, may be made by those 
who do not intend crossing into Sweden. 

3. From Fagermo on the Langvand (p. 215) a route leads past the 
N. side of the Sulitelma group to Qvickjock on the Lule-Elf in Sweden 
(about 120 Kil ; 5 days). The path leads past the Rovijaur and Farrejaur 
to the Virijaur (once the headquarters of Wahlenberg, the naturalist), 
where Lapps with their tents are generally met with. Thence to Njimgis, 
the first permanently inhabited place in Sweden, and to Qvickjock (p. 329). 

The first of these routes is the easiest, the third the grandest. 

3. An excursion from Bod«r to the island of Landegode, 12 Kil. 
to the N. , takes a whole day (there and back). "We row across in 
2-3 hrs. (3-4 rowers) and land near the gaards oiKvig and Sandvig . 
Thence we may ascend the *Kvittind (2320 ft. ; with guide; 2-2'/2 
hrs.), which affords a grand view, to the N., of the whole chain of 
the Lofoten Isles, to the E. the Sulitelma, to the S. the Hestmand 
and Threnen. 

29. The Lofoten Islands. 

The Mail Steamers ply from Bodjzf to Ledingen (p. 222) by different 
routes (see Com. 202, Routes I, II, III). Eoute I, which goes direct from 
Bod0 to the Lofoten Islands , takes us by Balstad and Henningsvaer to 
fSvolva;r (p. 219) in 5-6 hrs., and thence by Kjee to Ledingen in 5 hrs. 
more. — Route II skirts the mainland longest and is described separately 
(p. 221). — Route III follows the coast as far as Qrete (p. 221) only, and 
then crosses to Henningivair (u. 2191. Hoven . Kahelrann mil Svolvar 



LOFOTEN ISLANDS. 29. Route. 217 

(9-10 h'rs. from Bod#), whence it takes us by Skroven, Brettesnaes, Risvosr, 
and Kjee to Ledingen in 8 hrs. more. 

The Tourist Steamers take 7 hrs. from the headland of Kunnen 
(p. 213) to Henningsvaer ; thence through the Gims0sund and the Raftsund 
to Digermulen 4V;-5 hrs., and to Ledingen 2-21/2 hrs. more. 

The Lofoten Steamers (Com. 203, 205) and the Local Steamers from 

Svolvffir (Com. 294), both marked in our Map, also afford good 

opportunities of visiting the islands. Lastly a small steamer may be hired 
at Svolvaer for excursions (p. 219). 

The steamer from Bod» steers through the strait between the 
small island which shelters the harbour and the larger Hjarte, 
and then enters the broad *Vestfjord , which is entirely unpro- 
tected towards the S.W. Beyond the large and hilly island of 
Landegode (p. 216) is revealed a superb **View of the jagged 
chain of the Lofoten Islands ('Lofotvseggen', or the wall of Lo- 
foten) in their full extent. The light is most favourable in the 
forenoon (during which the tourist-steamer usually crosses from 
Kunnen). Weird, but less imposing, is the midnight light, which 
pales the moon into insignificance. Most effective of all is stormy 
weather or a sudden tempest. But in any case, unless the view 
is blotted out by mist or rain , the passage of the Vestfjord pre- 
sents one of the finest sights in the Nordland. 

The chain of the *Lofoten Islands forms a wide curve starting 
from the Vesteraalen Islands, which flank the mainland, and ex- 
tending for about 150 Kil. to the S.W. into the Atlantic; and it 
has not inaptly been likened to a backbone , tapering away to the 
smaller vertebra of the tail at the S. end. Most of these islands 
lie so close together that no opening in their long mountain-chain 
is visible from a distance , but those at the S. end of the group 
are wider apart. This chain forms a perfect maze of hills , bays, 
and straits , interspersed with thousands of rocky islets ('Holme', 
'Skjar', or 'Flese', from Icel. flesjar , as they are often called), 
and numerous fishing-banks ('Skaller', 'Klaker'), and enlivened 
at places with fishing-villages ('Vaer'). Most of the mountains 
are picturesque and pointed in shape , often rising immediately 
from the sea ; many of their peaks have a crater-like formation, 
recalling those of the TatraMts. in Austria. So far as not covered 
with snow , they are clothed with green moss, which has a pecu- 
liar luminosity in damp weather ; but there is also no lack of 
barren rocks. Good harbours ('Vaage') abound, where large vessels, 
dwarfed to nut-shells, lie close to rocks several thousand feet high. 
The larger islands contain rivers and lakes of some size. The 
growth of trees in this high latitude is but scanty, but there is 
abundance of fresh vegetation owing to the dampness of the sum- 
mers and mildness of the winters, so that sheep and other animals 
can remain in the open air all the year round. 

The famous Lofoten Fishery is carried on from the middle of 
January to the middle of April on the E. coast of the islands. During 
that period about 30,000 fishermen in some 8000 boats flock to the islands 
from the whole of the W. coast of Norway. They fish on three different 



218 Route 29. MOSKEN^ESa. Lofoten 

banks extending as far as 4 Engl. M. out to sea, at a depth of 30, 45, 
and 120 fathoms respectively. The cod ('Skrei-Torsk', Gadus morrhua), 
which come here from the depths of the Atlantic to spawn, are caught 
with nets ('Gam'}, long lines ('Liner') with baited hooks, or hand-lines 
('Dybsagn')." "The shoals ('Torskbjerg') of codjare so dense that hand-line 
Ushers, with artificial minnow ('Pilk') and sinker ('Jernsten', 'Stfkkjet', 
'Sykket'j , hook their prey as fast as they can lower their lines. The 
annual yield averages 20 million fish, "and the number has even reached 
37£millions (1886). Ant average catch "(Fisket)^ of 5-6000 cod per boat is 
considered a good haui. As the fishermen are paid in cash, the Nor- 
wegian banks send large sums of money to the islands every February. 

The fish are then carried ashore, carefully cleaned, and either dried 
('Tflrfisk') on wooden frames ('Hjelder'), or slightly salted and carried to 
the mainland, where they are spread out on the rocks to dry ('Klipfisk', 
from kleppen, to split open). The fish caught after 14th April are cut 
open and the backbones removed, and are called 'Rotskjser'; when simply 
cleaned in the ordinary way, theyiare called 'Kundfisk' or 'Stokfisk'. 
Fish salted without other preparation are called 'Laberdan'. The heads 
were formerly thrown away , but are now dried by fire, pulverised, and 
converted into 'fish-guano'. On some of the outlying islands the cod- 
heads are boiled with sea-weed ('Tarre') and used as fodder ('Lopning') 
for the cattle. 

As may be supposed , it is not easy for the multitude which flocks 
to the spring fishery to find accommodation. Most of the fishermen sleep 
in temporary huts ('Rorboder') erected for them. In the middle is the 
fire-place ('Komfur'), where they cook their 'Supamtflja' and 'Okjysta'. 
Each boat's crew is called a 'Lag', who choose their own 'Hovedsmand' 
or captain. The whole proceedings are usually very peaceable, especially 
as spirits are not procurable. A travelling chaplain ('Stiftskapellan') per- 
forms service on Sundays. At the close of the winter fishery ('Gaatfisket') 
most of the fishermen go N. to Finmarken for the 'Vaarfiske' ('summer 
fishery') or the 'Loddefiske'. 

The fishery is unfortunately often attended with great loss of life. 
Thus when a westerly gale springs up, rendering it impossible to return 
to the islands, the open boats are driven 12-15 Engl. M. across the Vest- 
fjord , often capsizing on the way. On these occasions the men often 
stick their 'Tolleknive' into the keel of their craft to enable them to 
hold on. Some of the keels are even provided with handles ('Stropper') 
for this purpose. On 11th Feb., 1848, about 500 fishermen perished in a 
catastrophe of this kind. 

The south-westernmost of the larger Lofoten Islands is the 
Moskenses-e, on which lies Moskencts with its church, a station of 
the Lofoten steamers and of the local steamers, both of which also 
call at Reine. The S. end of the island is called Lofotodden, past 
which runs the famous MaUtrem or Moskenstrem, a strong current 
often dangerous to fishing-boats. Farther S. is the islet of Mosken; 
then the Vcerei, with church and parsonage ; lastly, quite detached, 
the flat and populous island of Rest. 

On the E. side of the Moskenaese is the Sundstrem, which 
separates it from the Flakstad*, on which lie the stations oiSund 
and Nufsfjord. On the W. side of the island is the church of Flak- 
stad. Near Sund is the Kvalvig ('whale-creek'), a natural trap 
for whales , which not unfrequently enter the narrow bay at high 
tide and cannot turn to go out again. 

On the E. side of the Flakstade is the Napstrem, separating it 
from the large Vestvaag*, on a small island at the S. end of which 
lies Balstad, backed by the SkoUtinder , the first station on the 



I Islands. SVOLVAER. 29. Route. 219 

Lofoten'Islands of the "mail-steamers (Com. 202, Route II). On 
the Vestvaaga itself are Vre\ c 'to the E. j'of the huge headland of 
ZJrebjerget, and Stamsund , stations of the local boats only (Com. 
205, 294). Among the hills on the island the beautiful Himmel- 
tinder are conspicuous. 

The tourist-steamers (p. 213) steer direct to the Qimsesund, 
the strait between the Vestvaager and the 0stvaag«, the largest of 
the Lofoten Islands. On the S.W. point of the latter lies Hennings- 
vcer, with a guano-factory , a station of the mail-steamers, one of 
the chief centres of the fishery traffic, and residence of the naval of- 
ficer who superintends it. Above it towers the Vaagekalle (3078 ft.). 
Off the island lie the rocky islets Flesene, Orundskallen, and Vest- 
veer , all excellent fishing-grounds. On the S. coast of the 0st- 
vaaga are the next stations, Hopen and — 

Kabelvaag (Inn, good but rather expensive), the largest fishing- 
station on the Lofoten Islands , near which are Storvaagen and 
Kirkevaagen. The church of Vaagen was founded at the beginning 
of the 12th century. Hans Egede, the missionary of Greenland, 
was pastor here in 1705-18. A road leads from Kabelvaag through 
fine rocky scenery to (IV4 nr a group of fishermen's huts opposite 
to Svolvaer, to which we may cross by ferry in 20 min. 

Svolvaer, situated on a small island off the S. coast of the 0st- 
vaag», with guano-works, another busy fishing-station, is also the 
most important steamboat-station on the Lofoten Islands and is 
the starting-point of the local steamers (Com. 294). Good quar- 
ters at the telegraph official's or at the Landhandler's. British 
vice-consul, Mr. H. E. Bouquette. The little steamer 'Svolvaer' may 
be hired for excursions for 50 kr. per day (for 5 pers., or more, 
according to bargain ; agent O. I. Kaarbe, to whom application may 
be made by telegraph). The lofty Svolvcerjuret may be ascended 
in 4-5 hTs. (there and back). Opposite Svolvser are the islands 
of Skroven , with its lighthouse , Lille Molla , and Store Molla, 
with the steamboat-station Brettesnas. A little further N. is Diger- 
mulen, at the S. entrance to the Raftsund. 

The Tourist Steamers pass Henningsvaer and enter the Oimse- 
strem (see above), which is flanked, by finely shaped mountains. 
Beyond the small island of Lyngvtxr, at the head of a creek on the 
right, is the guano-factory of Lyngvcer. They then steer past the 
Oimse, on the "W. side of which is the Sundklakstrem , and out to 
sea on the N. side of the Ostvaager with its fjords and fine moun- 
tains. On the left lies the pleasant island of Ullve , with Melbo, 
a station of the local steamers. The strait we here pass through is 
called the Hadselfjord, after the church of Hadsel on the E. point 
of the Ullver, visible in the distance. Due E. we observe the 
Mesadel (3610 ft.), rising in the centre of the Hinder. Its glacier 
is said to be the saddle of a persecuted giantess. This much con- 
torted island belongs to the Vesteraalen group (p. 217). 



220 Route 29. RAFTSUND. 

About 5 3 4 /2 hrs. from Henningsvaer the tourist-vessels pass 
the islet Heme (station) on the left and enter the *Raftsund, 
the grandest of the Lofoten straits . separating the 0stvaag» from 
the Hind». Steering S., we pass between huge mountains fur- 
rowed- ; with ravines and covered with large expanses of snow. On 
the E. are the Brubrektinder ; on the W. the Nilsvigtinder , the 
Faldfjeld, and the Svartsundtinder. The scene is grandest at Lerk- 
sund, where at the head of the *Trold fjord tower the snowy Trold- 
tinder in several peaks. In fine weather the tourist-steamers enter 
the Troldfjord, which is enclosed by almost perpendicular rocks 
with snow-filled gorges. Looking back, we obtain another magnificent 
view of the Raftsund. To the W. rise the lofty Korsncestind and 
Rerhoptind. The passage takes about an hour in all. 

At the S. end of the Raftsund lies the island of Store Molla 
(p. 219), and on the E. side of it, at the S.W. end of the Hinda, 
is Digtrmulen , a station of the local steamers, consisting of the 
house of the Landhandler and a few fishermen's huts. Behind it 
rises *Digermulkollen (1476 ft.), which affords perhaps the most 
superb view in the whole Nordland, and was visited by Emp. 
William II. in 1889. Ascent l 1 /^ hour. Path to be improved, and 
a belvedere to be built. (From this point a great Panorama was 
taken by the painters Jos. Krieger and Adalb. Heine in 1887, and 
is now exhibited at Berlin.) We also obtain a beautiful survey of 
the Raftsund, on the E. side of which, in the foreground, rises the 
Sneetind , connected with the Digermulkoll , to the left of which 
are the distant hills of the Lange and the other Raftsund Mts. To 
the S.W. we overlook the whole of the Vestfjord with the open sea 
beyond it, and to the E. we see the mountains on the mainland. 

The local steamer from Svolvser (Com. 2SJ4, II & III) also traverses 
the Raftsund twice a week, varying its route. From Melbo (see above) it 
steers once a week N.W. to Stene i Be on the Langa, an island with 
numerous fjords, peninsulas, and isthmuses, which forms the chief part 
of the \V. Vesteraalen group and together with the Skogse contains five 
parishes ('Fjerdinger'). The vessel then steers back to — 

Stokmarknws , on the UJlv0, and through the narrow Beresund to 
Kvitnces on the Hind0. Thence N. between the Lacg0 and the Hindu to 
Sortland. The M#sadel (see above) is visible the whole way. Grand scenery, 
with attractive foreground. 

At Sortland (quarters at Ellingson's) we may land and wait for the 
boat returning next day. Meanwhile we may row (in a 'Sexring') across 
the Sund to visit the 'Eiderholme' or hatcheries of the eider-ducks (p. 211). 

Next station — 

Skjoldehavn on the Anda (p. 223), the least interesting of the Vester- 
uilen Islands. From its extensive swamps, on which the 'Multebser' abounds, 
isae abrupt hills to a height of 1H70 ft. The last station towards the N. 
is Msehavn on the Audjzr, at which a local steamer from Harstadhavn 
(Com. 296; p. 222) also calls twice a week. 

Opposite Skjoldehavn, beyond the Oavlfjord, lies Alfsvaag on the 
Lang0. The steamer then goes on to Langentes, at the N. end of the 
Lang0, and returns on the W. side. (Once a week it goes by the W. 
side of the Lang0 and returns by the E. side.) 

The tourist-ships round the promontory of Digermulen, pass 
the rocky islet of Aarsten on the right, and the 0gsfjord, cutting 




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FOLDENFJORD. 30. Route. 221 

deep into the Hind*', on the left, and Kjee (Com. 202, Route III), 
also on the left, and off — 

Ledingen they join the course of the mail-steamers , as de- 
scribed below. (From Ledingen to Harstadhavn about 2^2 hrs.) 

30. From Bod© to Tromse. 

49 S.M. The following pages describe the course of the Mail Steamers 
of 'Route II' of Com. 202 from Bod0 to Lizrdingen. These vessels also 
touch at Svolvser and Brettesnses on the Lofoten Islands (comp. p. 217), 
hut the rest of their course follows the mainland. From Ludingen to 
2rom.se the course of all the mail-steamers almost coincides with that 
of the tourist-steamers. The mail-steamers take 9-10 hrs. from Boda to 
Svolvmr, 7-8 hrs. more to Ledingen, and 3 hrs. from Ludingen to Harstad- 
havn. From Harstadhavn to Tromse all the vessels take about 10-12 hrs. 

Bode, see p. 213 ; departure, see p. 217. To the left rises the 

mountainous island of Landegode (p. 216). 

4 S. M. Kjcerringe lies to the S. of the Foldenfjord, the en- 
virons of which are grand. The lower part of the mountains has 
often been worn smooth by glacier-action, while their summits 
are pointed and serrated like the Aiguilles of Mont Blanc. The 
Strandtind in particular (sketched by Prof. Forbes in his 'Norway') 
has the form of an extinct crater. At the head of the Foldenfjord 
rise other huge mountains , one of which , the Troldtind (first 
ascended by C. Hall in 1889), resembles the Matterhorn. 

The Foldenfjord divides into the Nordfolden and Serfolden branches, 
to both of which a Local Steameb (Com. 291) plies from Bodjj twice a 
week in 10-12 hours. Stations Myklebostad , Kjoerringe, Leines (on the 
Leinesfjord, to the N. of Nordfolden), Nordfolden, Resvik (quarters at the 
Landhandler's), and Dyovik (at the end of Serfolden , once a week only). 
From Dybvik to Fuske on the Saltenfjord, see p. 215. Wild scenery. — 
From Serfolden the Leerfjord diverges to the N.E. ; from the Nordfolden 
diverge the Vinkefjord, with its prolongation the Stavfjord, and the Mer- 
kesvikfjord. These fjords are almost uninhabited. 

Farther N. we pass through the Oissund, a very narrow strait, 

the bottom of which is often seen through the green water, to — 

5 S. M. Orete. The mail-steamers of Route III steer hence 
straight across the Vestfjord to Henningsvar (see p. 219). Those 
of Route II pass between the Engelvar, on the W. , and the Skots- 
fjord, with the Skotstinder , on the E., steer E. into the Flag- 
sund, between the mainland on the S. and the Engele (Stegen) on 
the N. , and stop at — 

2 S.M. Boge. They then steer round Stegen and cross the 
mouth of the beautiful Sagfjord to — 

2 S.M. Skutvik, on the Hammere, on which towers the pointed 
Hammervtind. Farther on, the abrupt Tilthom. Then through the 
0xsund, between the Lunde and the Hammere, and out into the 
Vestfjord, in full view of the superb Lofoten chain (p. 217). 

5 S. M. Svolvcrr, see p. 219. 

The steamboats of Route II now steer back (E.) to the mainland. 

6 S.M. Trane i Hammer, on a many-armed peninsula. 



222 Route 30. L0DINGEN. From Bode 

3 S.M. KorsncBS, at the entrance of the Tysfjord , on which a 
steamer plies to Kjebsvig (Com. 292). The chief arms of the Tys- 
fjord are the Hellemofjord and the Botnfjord (extending to within 
12 Kil. of the Swedish frontier), the Orundfjord , the Munfjord, 
and the picturesque Stedfjord, above which rises the Stedtind. 

From Musken, near the head of theHellemofjord, aroute leads by Kraakmo, 
situated between the 4th and 5th of the seven Sagvande, to Temmernms 
on the Sagfjord; another to Hopen on the Nordfoldenfjord (p. 221). — 
From Kraakmo (excellent quarters) we may ascend the huge Kraak- 
motind, and make an excursion by the 5th, 6th, and 7th Sagvand (the boat 
being dragged across the isthmuses) to the magnificent primaeval forest on 
the 7th lake. From Kraakmo to Tjammernses on the Sagfjord (17 Kil.) we 
row down the four lower Sagvande. Near the fjord is a waterfall 50 ft. 
high. — Another route crosses the picturesque Dragseid from Drag on the 
Tysfjord to theSagfjord, the steamboat-stations nearest which are Boge and 
Trane (see above). 

1 S.M. Lttdingen, an important telegraph-station (comp. p. 209), 
with a church and parsonage, picturesquely situated on a peninsula 
of the many-branched Hinde , which is here separated from the 
Tjcelle and the mainland by the Tjcellsund. 

To the N.E. of L0dingen extends the large Ofotenfjord, the geolo- 
gical continuation of the Vestfjord (steamer twice a week, Com. 292). The 
S. shore, on which lies Balangen, is fertile but rather tame. The steam- 
boat touches at Lidlcmd (good quarters) on the N. bank, at the entrance 
to the bay called Bogen, and then steers S.E. to Victoriahavn (terminus of a 
railway now being made to LuleR in Sweden, 489 Kil., 304 Engl. M.j p. 323), 
and to Fagemaes on the Beisfjord (good quarters at Mosling's). The grandest 
scenery on this fjord is to be found in its B. recesses, particularly the 
Bombak and the Beisfjord, between which rise the Tetta (4921ft.; easily 
ascended) and the Vomtind. The Landhandler at Fagernses provides a guide. 

To the S. from the Ofotenfjord diverges the Skjomenfjord, at the 
end of which lies Elvegaard (good quarters). A route to Sweden leads 
hence through the Seirdal, passing the old copper-mines of Skjangli (38 Kil.). 
The finest scenery here, however, is on the W. arm of the Skjomenfjord, 
at the end of which is Skjombotn, backed by Frostisen (to the W.), with 
its enormous glaciers. 

The next stage is less interesting. We steer past the E. side 
of the Hinder through the Tjcellsund , which afterwards expands 
into the Vaagsfjord. 

4 S. M. Sandtorv; 2 S.M. Orcesholmen, both on the Hinde. 

2 S. M. Harstadhavn (Hotel Senjen), the first station in Tromsa 
Amt, on a fertile hill on the N.E. side of the Hind», is one of the 
most attractive places on this stage. Carrioles at the pier invite to 
a drive. About 1 hr. N. is the famous old church of Throndences, 
in the middle ages the northernmost in Christendom. 

Harstadhavn is a station of the Troms0-Amt steamers (Com. 296) to 
Risehavn (p. 220) and many other places. 

To the N. we see the pointed mountains of the Grytei , and in 
the distance the Senjehest, the S. headland of Senjen (see below). 
The tourist-steamers steer N.E. across the Vaagsfjord. Between 
the Gryte and the Senjehest appears in the distance the Vester- 
aalen island Ande (p. 221). To the E. tower the abrupt Aarbodstind 
and the Faxtind (see below). — The mail-steamers steer S.E. from 
Harstadhavn to the Eolde and into the Astafjord to — 



to Tromse. MALANGENFJORD. 30. Route. 223 

4 S. M. Havnvik, on the Rolda. Near it is the church of Ibe- 
stad, which, like that of Throndenaes,is of stone and vaulted, while 
all the other churches in Tromsa-Stift are of timber. To the S.E., 
on the mainland, towers the Messetind (3317 ft.), and to the S. of 
it the Skavlikoll (3297ft.); hoth of which may he ascended, with 
a guide, the first from the Oratangenfjord, the second from the 
Oravfjord. 

The scenery is grand as we steam through the *Salangenfjord 
and the Mj-esund, between the Andorje and the mainland, through 
which the tourist - steamers pass on their return -voyage. Im- 
mediately to the W. rises the huge Aarbodstind (3855 ft.), with 
a large glacier and a waterfall, and to the E. the pointed Fax- 
tind (3995 ft.). Observe that about one-third of the lower slopes 
of the mountains is worn smooth by glacier-action. 

A local steamer (Com. 296) plies from Tromsp weekly to Seveien (good 
quarters) in the Salangenfjord, from which we may go E. to the Bardu- 
dal and the Maalselvsdal (p. 224). 

The scenery is still more impressive at — 

4 S.M. Kastnceshavn, whence all these mountains, including 
the pinnacle of the Faxtind, are seen at once, while the horizon 
to the W. is bounded by the mountains of And» and others. To 
the W. lies the Dyre, with the Dyresund. 

4 S.M. Eleven, on the island of Senjen (648 sq. M.). Large 
quantities of 'Kveiter' (Hippoglossus maximus; skate) are caught 
here. A single fish sometimes attains a length of 7-10 ft. and 
more than fills a barrel. To the S.E. rises the snow-clad Ohirragas- 
Tjokko, or Mind (4865 ft.). 

3 S. M. Oibostad (telegraph, comp. p. 209) is also in the island 
of Senjen. "We steer between the island and the mainland. The 
shores are green, wooded, and tolerably well peopled, and the 
pretty scenery is backed by snow-mountains. 

The tourist-steamers and the mail-steamers of Route I cross 
the Malangenfjord ; those of Route II and III steer into it to the 
S.E. to Maalsnaes. This fjord, which formed the N. frontier of 
Norway in the middle ages, is enclosed by high mountains. To 
the S.W. , S., and S.E. it sends four deep inlets, of which the 
steamer affords a view. To the S. rise the snowy mountains of the 
Maalselvsdal. The steamer does not enter these inlets, of which 
the longest are the Nordfjord and Auerfjord, but touches at — 

5 S.M. Maalsnas (good quarters), on a promontory near the 
mouth of the Maals-Elv, the waters of which ruffle the surface 
of the fjord. Maalsnaes is a good starting-point for excursions to 
the Maalselvsdal and the Bardudal, inhabited chiefly by colonists 
from the 0sterdal and the Gudbrandsdal, the first of whom settled 
here in 1796. 

The following tour includes the Maalselvsdal and the Bardudal : 
1st day, from Maalsnees to 0verby or Kongslid; 2nd day, ascend the 
Kostafjeld; 3rd day, to Kirkemoen in the Bardudal; 4th day, to Suveien. 



224 Route 30. MAALSELVSDAL. From Bode 

1. Through the Maalselvsdal to the Eostavand. We drive (fast 
stations as far as Bakkehaug) past Hollwndernces, where the Dutch attempted 
to found a settlement in the 17th cent, against the will of the Hanseatic 
merchants (p. 111). This is alluded to by Peter Dass : — 

'■Men der denne Handel lidt Iwnge paaslod, 

Da blev det de Bergenske Kjebmcend irnod, 

Hollcenderne maatte sig pakke.' 

(But their trade was soon brought to a close 

By the merchants of Bergen their foes: 

So the Dutchmen were forced to be off.) 
The first station in this picturesque valley is (14 Kil.) Quldhav. The 
road then leads past the church of Maahelven to (11 Kil.) Moen (good quar- 
ters). The grand mountain facing us is the Ghirragas Tjokko , or Mind 
(4865 ft.), resembling a crater. An excellent point of view is Lille Mauket 
(1850 ft.), near Moen. (The rest of this route lies beyond the limits of 
our Map.) 

Passing several small stations, and then (18 Kil.) Bakkehaug and (12 Kil.) 
Neergaard (slow station), with its small church, we arrive at J0verby (poor 
quarters ; slow station), which, with the Nordgaard, lies at the confluence 
of the Maalselv and the Tabmok-Elv. (Through the valley of the latter a 
route leads to the Balsfjord and Lyngenfjord; p. 228.) Above the Rostavand 
rises the huge Eostafjeld (5110 ft.), the ascent of which is not difficult, 
and may even be made by mountaineers without a guide. We ride to the 
gaard of Kongslid (good quarters) , whence the ascent is made through a 
small valley on the E. side. Wild reindeer sometimes seen. Opposite the 
Eostafjeld, to the S., rise the Likkavarre (4895 ft.), Buten (4385 ft.), Alap 
(4955 ft.), and Seutivarre (Kamncesfjeld); to the S.E. the Likkafjeld; to 
the E., quite near, the Bratlifjeld. 

2. Prom Moen to SjJveien. Moen, see above. The next station is 
(17 Kil.) Sundli, in the Bardudal. Before reaching Sundli we diverge to 
the left to Fosmoen and the *Bardufos, a fine waterfall of the Bardu-Elv. 
To the left rise the Istinder, the W. peak of which may be ascended. — 
23 Kil. Satermoen. The road in the Bardudal, uninteresting, goes on to 
Viken and the Altevand, where the Ouolacwrro (or Kistefjeld, 5660 ft.) 
rises on the N. and the Rokomborre (5350 ft.) on the S. — Our route , a 
good carriage-road, crosses the hill called Kobberyggen ('seal's back') to 
(10 Kil.) Brandvold, leads past the Nedrevand to Vashoved, and lastly to 
(17 Kil.) Seveien (p. 223). 

3. From the Maalselvsdal to the Balsfjord. Of several routes the 
easiest (with guide) is from Olsborg, a little to the U". of the station Moen, 
to Storstennces (1st day), from which Havnnccs, near the S.E. end of the 
fjord, may he reached by boat the same day. From Storstennses and 
from Havnnses steamer (Com. 296) twice a week on the Balsfjord, on 
the E. bank of which are mountains 5000 ft. high, to Troms0. — In- 
stead of steaming direct to Tromsjzr, enterprising travellers may go (boat 
and guide not easily got; gnats troublesome) from Nordkjos at the S.E. 
end of the fjord in one day to Mcelen at the S. end of the Lyngen- 
fjord (p. 228). 

Leaving the Malangenfjord, we steam past the huge Bensjord- 
tind (4085 ft.), with its expanses of snow, on the right, and the 
large island Kvale on the left , where in the foreground rise the 
snow-clad rocks of the Lille Blaamand (2625 ft.). The Blaamand 
itself (3281 ft.) , the highest hill in the island, rises on our left 
farther on. We steer into the Tromsesund, a strait about 550 yds. 
broad. Behind us the Bensjordtind remains in sight till we enter 
the harbour of Troms». To the N. we see the snow-clad Skulgam- 
tinder on the Ringvads»; to the E. we look up the Tromsdal, with 
the Tromstind in the background. 



to Tromsei. TROMS0. 30. Route. 225 

7 S.M. (19 from Harstadhavn) Troms*. — Grand Hotel, R, 2V« 
B. 1, D. 2 kr. ; Hotel Norden; both near the large church. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. Seren Hoist. — Photographer, Vickstrem, 
near the market, who sells photographs of Lapps. — Furs (polar-bears' 
skins, etc.) at W. Nielsen's, Stor-Gade, and other shops. — Goldsmith, 
Claus Andersen, near the pier. — Diorama (Tromstf in winter) in a pavilion 
on the quay (25 ). 

Steamers. Several local steamboats (Com. 296) ply from Troms0 to 
the Vesteraalen Islands, to the Balsfjord, and to the Ulfs, Lyngen, Reisen. 
and Kvenangs Fjords. All the large Nordland steamers also call here. 
TromF0 is therefore a good centre for excursions. 

Tromse, a town of 6000 inhab. , with several churches and 
schools, the seat of an Amtmand and a Bishop, lies on the island 
of that name, in 69° 38' N. latitude. It was raised to the rank of 
a town in 1794, and is a busy trading place, exporting large quan- 
tities of dried and smoked herrings and other fish, train-oil, fur, etc. 
The harbour is always full of vessels, including not a few French, 
which carry away hundreds of casks of cod-roe ('Rogn') to be used 
in the sardine-fishery. Tromsa also trades largely with Russia and 
fits up many vessels for the capture of seals and walruses. 

In the S. part of the town is the large timber-built Protestant 
Church. Near the Grand Hotel is the Museum ('Musseet'; adm. 
50 ».), containing natural history and ethnographical collections. 
In the market-place ('Torvet') are the Town Hall and the Roman 
Catholic Church. The town lies on a gentle slope, planted with 
mountain-ashes, wild cherry-trees, and fine birches. Above the 
town is a pleasant grove of birches, adjoined by the small villas of 
the townsfolk and a lake which supplies the town with water. At 
the top of the hill is the cemetery. The view is fine, but there is 
no commanding outlook. From the very top of the hill we see the 
snow-mountains of the Ringvads» and the Kvalfl to the N. andN.W. 

An *Excursion to the Tbomsdal , for the sake of seeing a 
Lapp settlement, takes 3-4 hrs., there and back. We row (usu- 
ally direct from the steamer) across the strait to Storstennces (not 
to be confounded with the place of that name on the Balsfjord) at 
the entrance to the Tromsdal. The path up the valley cannot be 
mistaken ( 3 / 4 hr. ; horse 5 kr. or more). The ground is rough and 
marshy at places. We pass through a birch-wood on the 8. bank 
of the brawling stream , and at length reach a kind of basin, with 
the Tromstind rising on the E., containing the Lapp Encampment, 
a colony of a few Lapp families from the Swedish district of Kare- 
suandot, who occupy several 'Darfe Goattek' or 'Gammer'. The 



+ In accordance with the frontier-treaty of 7th - 18th Oct. 1751 , the 
Swedish Lapps are entitled to migrate to the Norwegian coast in summer, 
and the Norwegian Lapps to Sweden in winter. These migrations lead 
to frequent disputes with the permanent inhabitants. The number of 
Lapps in Norway is estimated at 18,000, of whom 1700 are still nomadic. 
Sweden and Russia contain 12,000 more. The powerful race which once 
dominated Scandinavia has thus dwindled to 30,000 souls. The Lapps 
now intermarry freely with Norwegians and Finns. In Norway they are 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5th Edit. 15 



226 Route 30. TROMS0. 

gamme is a dome-shaped hut, formed of stone, small tree stems, 
turf, and birch-bark , with a round opening at the top for the exit 
of smoke and the admission of light. Each hut always has its fire, 
over which hangs a pot or kettle. The hearth is called 'aran', and 
the seat of honour beside it 'boasso'. The family and the servants 
sleep on each side of the fire. These Lapps possess a herd of 4000- 
5000 reindeer, which graze on the adjoining hills. Of these a few 
hundred are collected to show to visitors. While this is being done 
the Lapps offer fur-boots ('Skal - Komager', or 'Skaller'), spoons 
of reindeer-horn, and other articles for sale. The peculiar crackling 
of the animal's hoofs reminds one of the sound produced by an 
electric battery. The reindeer are caught by a kind of lasso 
thrown over their horns. They are milked twice a week only. 
The rioh and rather gamy milk, one of the Lapp's chief articles of 
diet, is diluted with water before use. 'The milk is strong and 
thick, as if it had been beaten up with eggs' [Scheffer's Lapponica, 
1675). The cheese made of it is chiefly reserved for winter use. — 
On the way back from the Tromsdal we obtain a beautiful view of 
Tromsfl with its green hills and the snow-mountains of the Kvale 
(p. 224) and the Ringvadse (p. 227) beyond. 

The Fl0ifjeld (2603 ft.), a moss-clad rocky hill, rising from the sea 
opposite Tromsjzr, on the S. side of the entrance to the Tromsdal, is an 
excellent point o£ view (about 2 1 /2urs. to the top, a stiff walk). The path 
diverges from the Tromsdal route to the right, a few minutes from Stor- 
stennees, beyond the houses. It soon becomes steep, and ends halfway up, 
beyond which we ascend over meadows and loose stones, and partly over 
snow. The top is marked by a large iron vane. Passengers by the tourist- 
ships may generally row across to Storstennfes early in the morning, 
climb the Fl0ifjeld, and descend direct (though no path) to the Lapp 
camp, which they reach about noon. 

The Tromstind (4085 ft.; guide from Troms0 4 kr.) may be ascended from 
the Lapp camp in 3-4 hours. We walk to the (1 hr.) head of the valley, 
which ends in a great basin like those in the Pyrenees ; then ascend the 
steep slope to the left, at first over turf and afterwards over snow (snow- 
spectacles desirable). Herds of reindeer sometimes graze here. Before reach- 
ing the crest of the hill we have to scale a very steep snow-field. The final 
ascent, over snow and detritus, is easier. The top, marked by a 'Varde', 
commands the magnificent scenery of the Ulfsfjord and the glacier-chain 
on the Lyngenfjord; to the W. stretches the Arctic Ocean beyond Tromser 
and the Kvaljzi. On the B. side the mountain falls almost sheer to a neck 
of land between the Ulfsfjord and the Balsfjord (Bamfjord). 



often called Finney, while the Finns are named Kvcener, from the 'lan k 
of Kajana in Finland. From the fact that the dog alone has a genuine 
Lapp name ('Bsednag'), while the other domestic animals have names 
of Germanic or Finnish origin, it has been concluded that the Lapps 
were originally a race of hunters, who adopted the nomadic life within 
the historic period. On this theory the reindeer, now the mainstay of the 
Lapp, was at first an object of the chase only. 

Among the numerous works on the Lapps may be mentioned: Mil- 
ford's 'Norway and her Laplanders', 1842; Everest's 'Journey through 
Norway, Lapland, etc/, 1829; O. v. Diiben's 'Om Lappland och Lapparne', 
Stockholm, 1873; Friis's 'En Sommer i Finmarken', Kristiania, 1871; 
Friis's 'Lappisk Mythologie og Lappiske Eventyr', Kristiania, 1871; 
Stockfleth's 'Dagbog over mi n Missionsreise i Finmarken', 1860; J. Vahl's 
'Lapperne, etc.', 1866; F. Vincent's 'Norsk, Lapp, and Finn', 1885. 



227 
31. From Troms0 to the North Cape. 

46 S.M. Mail Steamboat to Bammerfest in 16-18 hrs., to the North 
Cape in 6 hrs. more. — The Tourist Steamers alone afford opportunity 
of both ascending the North Cape and of seeing the great sea-gulls' haunt 
of Svaerholtklubben. 

The steamer steers N. through the Tromse'sund , and N.E. 
through the Qretsund. To the left lies the mountainous Ringvadse 
(with a glacier and a lake formed by a moraine) ; then the Reine, 
at the S.W. end of which lies Finkroken. The steamers some- 
times pass through the Langfjord, between the Ringvads» and 
the Rein0. On the mainland, opposite Finroken, towers the Vlfs- 
tind (3280 ft.), posted like a sentinel at the mouth of the *Ulfs- 
fjord, which here opens to the S., running inland for 50 Kil., 
and parallel with the Lyngenfjord. We obtain , in passing, a su- 
perb view of the snowy and ice-girt mountains of the Lyngen pen- 
insula (p. 256), the Jcegervandstinder (4920-5580 ft.) with the 
Goatzagaise (4440 ft), and to the right of it theForncpstmd(5660 ft.). 

On the Ulfsfjord a steamer from Troms0 (Com. 296) plies once 
weekly. Its terminus is Kjosen, at the E. end of the deep inlet of that 
name, enclosed by huge glacier-covered mountains. From Kjosen a road 
crosses an 'Eid' or isthmus to ( 3 /4 kr.) Lyngen (p. 228). — The steamer 
does not enter the S. part of the Ulfsfjord, which is named the Serrfjord, 
and is connected with the main fjord by the narrow strait of Slremmen, 
so called from its strong current. 

The next station of the mail-steamers ('Routes I & II') is the 
little island of (8 S.M.) Karlse, beyond which the Fuglesund to 
the left leads between the Vanne and the Arne out to the open 
Arctic Ocean. The tourist-steamboats usually reach this point about 
10 p.m. and steer a little way down the Sund to await the **Mir>- 
night Sun, which, to those who have the rare fortune to see it un- 
clouded, presents a glorious spectacle. Across the blue, yellowj 
.and silver shimmering sea appears in the foreground the rocky 
Fugle (2572 ft.), the sharp outline of which recalls Capri; to the 
left of it in the background, just above the horizon, hangs the red 
and gold disc of the sun. This beautiful scene is even more im- 
pressive than the view from the North Cape. At times, however, 
fog or the storms of the Arctic Ocean mar or blot out the scene. 
The milk-white mist often lies on the surface of the water only, 
while the sky is bright and sunny. In this case the steamer 
casts anchor, and passengers will have leisure to observe the 
peculiar white 'Skoddebuer' or fog-bows. 

A Train-Oil Factory on the islet of Skaare, which lies outside the 
Vannizr, or one of the other factories in this region, is usually visited by 
the tourist-steamers. If a whale has been recently captured (which the 
captain learns at Tromso) , the vessel steers to the spot. The smell is 
perceptible from afar, and the sea is covered with oily refuse. Presently 
we come in sight of the slaughtered cetacean and the skeletons of former 
victims. Passengers (who wish) are rowed ashore. The stony hanks are 
covered with grease. A full-grown whale (i. e. 65-100 ft. long, and 20- 
100 tons in weight) is rarely seen, the chase being so hot and the yield so 
valuable that the leviathan is generally doomed to die before he attains a 
length of more than 15-20 ft. ; and even at this early stage he is said to 

15* 



228 Route 31. LYNGENFJORD. From Tromse 

be worth 3000 kr. or more. Stomach permitting, we may look into the 
boilery, and perhaps huy a whale's ear (3-5 kr.), fin (1 kr.) or other sou- 
venir. — The whale-fishery is carried on by small steamers, which shoot 
their harpoons from small cannon in their bows. 

To the S. opens the **Lyngenfjord, which the tourist-steamers 
visit on their way back from the North Cape. (Local steamboat 
from Tromse twice a week, see Com. 296.) A glimpse only of its 
superb scenery is obtained from the mail-steamers. The Lyngen 
peninsula, which is bounded on the W. by the TJlfsfjord and on 
the E. by the Lyngenfjord, and ends in the bold headland of Lyng- 
stuen, is wholly occupied by snow and ice-clad mountains of thor- 
oughly Alpine character, rising immediately from the sea. The 
last peak to the N. is the Pipertind (4042 ft.), on the N. shoulder 
of which lies a broad *glacier, embedded between several peaks. 
Next to the Pipertind is the Storskaal, separated by snow-filled 
gorges from the Vagastind ; and next to these peaks, beyond an- 
other gorge, is the Bendalstind. A glacier descends almost to the 
sea. The vessel steers close under the almost sheer cliffs near 
Strupen. The opposite bank of the fjord is also mountainous and 
partly covered with snow. Opposite the islet of Aareholm rises the 
Oolborre to the W. and the Fastdalstind to the S.W. Further on, 
opposite the month of the Kaafjord, tower the great Kjostinder 
(5414 ft.). We round a headland, and, about 2 hrs. from the en- 
trance to the fjord, reach the terminus of the tourist-steamer — 

Lyngen or Lyngseidet (good quarters), residence of a pastor, a 
doctor, and a Lensmand. After so long a voyage in an inhospitable 
region the little church peeping from among birch-clad hills, and 
backed on both sides by snow-mountains, is specially attractive. 
To the S. of the valley through which the road leads "W. to (8/4 hr.) 
Kjosen (p. 227) rises the Ooalsevarre (4150 ft.). 

Lyngseidet (reached by steamer twice weekly; or via Kjosen, 4 Kil. 
distant, once weekly; Com. 296) is a centre for Excursions in the Lyngen 
District. Good guides, however, are rare. The Karl over Tromse-Amt 
(4 sheets, 1 kr. 60 0. each) and the Beskrivelse af Tromse-Arnt (1 kr.), published 
by the 'Geographiske Opmaaling 1 in Christiania, are indispensable. — An 
excursion of 6-7 hrs. may be made to the S.W. to the mountain-basin 
enclosed by the Ooalsevarre (4150 ft.), the Rernaestinder (about 4100 ft.), 
and the Jertind (about 3600 ft.). — This is a fine excursion for one day : 
across the Eid (200 ft.) to (4 Kil.) Kjosen (p. 227) ; row to the (1 hr.) For- 
naisdal, and walk up that valley, crossing old moraines, to the Fornwsdal 
Glacier , which descends between the Forncestind and the Durmaalstind 
from the Golzevaggegaissa. — The following tour takes l'/2 day : ride to 
the S. to Pollen, then row to Dalen (primitive quarters); next day walk 
up the beautiful but uninhabited Lyngsdal , passing the Jaggevarre (6285 ft.) 
on the N., to the great glacier descending from the main plateau (lower 
end 1300 ft. above the sea). From the Lyngsdal we may also ascend the 
Njalavarre (5010 ft.) to the S., or walk to the N. to the glaciers of the 
Ruksisvaggegaissa. 

From Lyngen the Tromsjzf steamer goes on to Skibotten (good quar- 
ters), whence a road on the bank of the Storfjord, as the fjord is here 
called, leads to Mcelen (23 Kil.; p. 224). 

On their way N. both tourist and mail steamers (which last touch 

at different stations on each of their different routes) pass the 



to the North Cape. ALTENFJORD. 31. Route. 229 

Lyngenfjord and steer between the Arne and the pioturesque 
Kaage (3966 ft.), with its glacier, into the Kaagsund. On the left 
at the exit of the Kaagsund is the Leke , on the right is the — 

6 S.M. Skjarve ; the station lies in a bay on the E. side of the 
island. To the S. we see the pointed Kvenangstinder on the 
Kvenangsfjord (Com. 296), the mouth of which we pass. From the 
peninsula on the E. side of the Kvenangsfjord, where the land is 
deeply indented by fjords on every side, rises the Jekelfjeld, from 
which a glacier descends to the Jakelfjord. The steamer now 
crosses the open sea, towards the N., to — 

5 S.M. Loppen, the first station in Finmarkens-Amt, with its 
little church , its parsonage , and a merchant's house. All that 
grows here is a few potatoes, nothing else surviving the storms 
which often rage for weeks. — The steamer next steers S. into 
the Bergsfjord , rounds the wedge-shaped island of Silden , and 
stops on the E. side of the fjord at — 

3 S.M. Bergsfjord. Grand scenery. In the background is a 
glacier of the Jekelfjeld, the discharge of which forms a waterfall. 
Passing the Lersnces, we steer S.E. to — 

3 S.M. 0ksfjord , on the Alnas-Njarg peninsula, in a noble 
amphitheatre of mountains, conspicuous in which is a glacier to 
the W., descending from the great Xekelfjeld (see above). To the 
N. is the small church. 

The Altenfjord may be visited from 0ksfjord. The local steamer 
(Com. 298) which plies to it twice a week from Hammerfest affords an 
opportunity from JWksfjord once a week. The Altenfjord is remarkable 
for its rich vegetation, especially in its S. part. In literature, too, it 
has been made known by the visits of many eminent explorers (L. v. 
Buch, Prof. Forbes, Keilhau, Ch. Martins, and others). The highest moun- 
tains, all on the W. side, are Kaaven (3130 ft.), between the Stjernsund 
and the Langfjord, Akkasolki (3395 ft.), between the Langfjord and Talvik, 
and Haldi (3030 ft.), between Talvik and the Kaafjord. At the end of 
the fjord, above Kaafjord, rises the Nuppivarre (2675ft.). — On the E. 
side of the Altenfjord is the interesting Aarei , with the scanty ruins of 
the old fort of Altenhus. 

The steamer steers from 0ksfjord through the Stjermimd, between 
the Stjernei and the mainland, and past the mouth of the Langfjord, to — 

Talvik ('pine-bay'), a pretty spot, with a church. Then to Stremsnaes 
on the Kaafjord, whence we may visit Kaafjords Kobbervcerk, a small 
copper -mine. Next — 

Bossekop ('whale-bay'; bosso, Lappish for 'whale'; good quarters), 
with the church of Alien, at the foot of the Kong shavnfj eld (705 ft.), 
about 4 Kil. E. of the mouth of the salmon-river Altenelv. Of scientific 
interest are the various old coast-lines in the Altenfjord, particularly near 
Bosaekop , some of them 200 ft. high. Important fairs are held here on 
1st Dec. and 3rd Mar., to which Lapps flock in their curious sledge-boats. 
They bring reindeer-flesh , butter , and game (sometimes as many as 
10,000 ptarmigan) which they exchange for fish, flour, and groceries. 
The International Polar Commission of 1882-83 had a station at Bossekop 
under Norwegian control. 

From the Altenfjord to Karasjok and to Haparanda in Sweden, 
see R. 34. 

From 0ksfjord the mail-boat steers N., towards the mountain- 
ous Sere , on which are the stations of Hasvik and Gaashopen. 



230 Route 31. HAMMERFEST. From Tromse 

This island, as well as the Stjerne and Seiland, lying to the right, 
have the table-land character common in Finmarken. In Seiland. 
rises the Jadki (3527 ft.) , with its unexplored glaciers. Numer- 
ous bays cut deep into the island , which a narrow isthmus con- 
nects with a peninsula on the N. ('Strammen'). Between this pen- 
insula and the curiously shaped island of Haajen , which rises 
abruptly on the W. side, we steer towards the harbour of Hammer- 
fest. Before entering it, we look to the right into the strait separ- 
ating Seiland from the Kvale , on which Hammerfest lies. A 
promontory of the Kvale narrows the strait to 1 Kil. at one point, 
across which the reindeer herds are made to swim to their sum- 
mer pastures in Seiland. 

30 S.M. (from Tromsa) Hammerfest [Fensens Enkefrus Hotel, 
plain ; Brit, vice-consul, Mr. 0. Robertson), founded in 1787, and 
now a town of 2160 inhab., is the northernmost town in the world 
(70° 40' 11" N. lat.). A great fire on 21st July, 1890, destroyed 
nearly the whole of the timber-built houses and the Protestant 
church, but they have since been rebuilt. The only part of the 
town that escaped was the Grannervoldsgade skirting the harbour, 
with the Rom. Cath. church and the telegraph-office. Hammerfest 
is a very lively place in summer, when the sun does not set from 
13th May to 29th July. (Conversely , the sun never rises from 
21st Nov. to 11th Jan.; but the electric light introduced in 1891 
affords some compensation.) It carries on a busy trade with Russia. 
Here, and further N. and E., Russian vessels are the commonest. 
Fishing-fleets are also, dispatched from Hammerfest to Spitzbergen 
and the Kara Sea. Cod-liver oil, prepared in numerous boileries, 
is the most valuable commodity of the place. Hence the all- 
pervading 'ancient and fishlike smell'. 

The prolongation of the Grennervoldsgade leads N.W. round the 
harbour in 1 /^ hr. to the promontory of Fuglnas, to which we may 
also row direct from the steamer. At the end is a lighthouse, dis- 
used of course in summer, with the dwelling of the keeper. A 
conspicuous little column of granite , called the Meridianstette, 
crowned with a globe in bronze , has also been erected here to 
commemorate the measurement of degrees in 1816-52, under- 
taken , as the Latin and Norwegian inscriptions record , 'by the 
geometers of . three nations, by order of King Oscar. I. and Em- 
perors Alexander I. and Nicholas I.' — On the Fuglnses Sir Ed- 
ward Sabine made some of his famous experiments with the pen- 
dulum in 1823. Fine view of the town. A hill above the column, 
to the E., commands a view of the N. horizon, and consequently 
of the midnight sun. 

A long hill above Hammerfest, on which, as we steam into the har- 
bour, we observe a stone signal with a wooden top, is called *Sadlen 
('saddle 1 ; pron. Salen). A few minutes to the N. of the usual landing- 
place we ascend a road to the right through a side-valley, from which the 
discharge of a small lake descends, and thence ascend the hill to the right 



to the North Cape. TYVEN. 31. Route. 231 

(no path; >/t hr.). On the other side of the lake we observe the remains 
of a birch-grove and several small country-houses. From the signal we 
obtain a fine view of the town and harbour. Ascending gradually for 
about 20 min. more, we reach the top of Sadlen, which overlooks the 
glaciers and snow-mountains of Seiland and the S#r0. This point is not, 
however, high enough for an unimpeded view of the midnight sun. 

Time permitting, the traveller should not omit to ascend the "Tyven 
(1230 ft. ; tufva, 'hill'), which rises to the S. of the town (l 1 | s -2 hrs.). Our 
directions will enable him to dispense with a guide. We follow the road 
through the side-valley mentioned above, pass above the lake, and then 
turn to the right following the telegraph-wires , but keeping well to the 
right to avoid the swamps. The Tyven is the high hill at the foot of 
which the wires run. A little farther on we pass under (he wires and 
ascend to the left to a height covered with loose stones , pass a small 
pond, and reach (1 hr.) the foot of the abrupt Tyven. Here we turn to 
the left and skirt the base of a huge precipice, ascending the somewhat 
steep course of a small brook, fringed with willows (Salix arctica) and 
dwarf birches (Betula nana). At the top of the gully we obtain a view 
of the sea towards the W. and the villas on the lake to the W., above 
which lies another small lake. Large herds of tame reindeer, whose pe- 
culiar grunting ('Grynten') is heard a long way off, always graze here in 
summer. We now ascend steeply to the right, passing an expanse of snow, 
which lies on the right, and then, keeping still more to the right, reach 
( 3 /4 hr.) the summit, which is marked by a pyramid of stones. The Tyven 
descends very abruptly on the W. side , with the sea washing its base, 
near which lies a bay with meadows, a birch- wood, and several houses. 
Towards the E. we survey the barren and desolate Kvale, with its num- 
erous ponds , and to the S. and W. long mountain-ranges , snow-fields, 
and glaciers. The islands of Seiland and Scr0 are particularly conspicuous. 
To the N. stretches the vast horizon of the Arctic Ocean. Of Hammer- 
fat itself the Fuglnaes only is visible. — The best way back is by the 
summit of the Sadlen (see above), to the W., where the view is similar, 
though less extensive. Returning by this route, we take 4 hrs. for the 
whole excursion; otherwise 3-3'/2 hrs. suffice. 

Beyond Hammerfest the land ceases to be of any account ex- 
cept as subservient to the sea, and fish becomes the centre of all 
interests. The landscape is thoroughly Arctic, and the vegetation 
is so scanty, that a patch of grass 'which might be covered with a 
copy of the Times' is hailed as a meadow. — On the right the coast 
is deeply indented with fjords. On the left there are but few 
islands, between which we pass long stretches of the open sea. 

6 S.M. Rolfsehavn, on the Rolfse. To the N. of the Rolfse, 
and separated from it by the Troldfjordsund, is the Inge, beyond 
which lies Fruholmen, with the northernmost lighthouse in Nor- 
way (71° 4'). 

3 S.M. Have , in a bay on the Have , with a church , a pastor, 
and a Landhandler. To the left rises a pointed hill called the 
Sukkertop ('sugar-loaf). The island is sheltered by the Hjelme on 
the N. from the storms of the Arctic Ocean. Crossing the Maas- 
sund, and passing the Kulfjord to the S., we next reach — 

2 S.M. Maase, which also has its church , its 'Praestegaard', 
and its village-shop, a triad which forms the nucleus of almost 
every village in Finmarken. 

The tourist-steamers, and generally also the mail-steamers of 
Route I, now steer E. through the Mageresund, between the large 



232 Route 31. NORTH CAPE. 

Magere, the N. end of which is the North Cape, and the mainland. 
On the Magera are the stations Honningsvaag and Kjelvik , the 
latter with church and shop. The tourist-boats cross the mouth 
of the Porsangerfjord to their terminus, the headland of Svserholt- 
klubben (p. 233), then steer N.W. to the North Cape, and thence 
S.W. on the other side of the Magere. 

The next station on the direct route to the North Cape is — 
2S.M. Qjesvar, on an island. To theN. rise the Stappe (stappi, 
old Norsk for 'column'), four pointed rocky islands covered with 
dense flocks of sea-fowl. When disturbed , the auks take to the 
water, the gulls soar aloft. To the right opens the Tuefjord , cut- 
ting deep into the Mager». The steamer then rounds the long and 
low Knivskjmr- or Knivskjcel - Odde , on which a steamer struck 
during a fog in 1881, projecting beyond the Cape itself, and soon 
(17 S.M. from Hammerfest) sights the North Cape, which presents 
a majestic appearance although of moderate height. 

The **North Cape (968 ft. ; 71° 10' N. lat.), named Ktwskanm 
by the early geographer Schoning, a dark-grey slate-rock, furrowed 
with deep clefts, rising abruptly from the sea, is the northernmost 
point of Europe, though the Nordkyn (p. 234) has an almost equal 
claim to the title. Travellers land in the Hornvik, on the E. side 
of the Cape. Up the green mossy slope, which is swampy, stony, 
and steep at places, the Steamboat Co. has constructed a path, and 
provided it with a rope fastened to iron stanchions for the benefit 
of bad walkers. (Stout shoes for the ascent and wraps for the sum- 
mit are very advisable.) We take about 50 min. to reach the top 
of the plateau, where a wire, very acceptable in foggy weather, 
leads in 20 min. more to the extreme point. By a granite column 
commemorating the visit of King Oscar II. in 1873, travellers await 
the hour of midnight, usually quaffing champagne purveyed by 
the watchman who lives in the Hornvik in summer. The view 
embraces the open sea to the W., N., and E. ; to the S.W. we see 
the Hjelma and the Rolfse; to the E., in the distance , the Nord- 
kyn ; to the S. the plateau of the Mager«r, with its patches of snow, 
ponds, and scanty vegetation. 

'The northern sun, creeping at midnight at the distance of five dia- 
meters along the horizon, and the immeasurable ocean in apparent con- 
tact with the skies, form the grand outlines in the sublime picture pre- 
sented to the astonished spectator. The incessant cares and pursuits of 
anxious mortals are recollected as a dream ; the various forms and ener- 
gies of animated nature are forgotten ; the earth is contemplated only 
in its elements, and as constituting a part of the solar system". — Acerbi, 
'Travels to the North Cape'. London, 1802. 

'And then uprose before me, 

Upon the water's edge, 

The huge and haggard shape 

Of that unknown North Cape, 

Whose form is like a wedge'. Longfellow. 

To the E. of the North Cape is an excellent fishing-ground (comp. p. 232), 
where passengers are usually indulged with an hour or two of hand-line 
fishing from the deck of the steamer, the sailors gladly assisting novices. 



233 



32. From the North Cape to Vadsa. 



The direct distance from the North Cape to Vads0 is about 45 S.M , 
but the course of the steamer, dipping deeply into numerous fjords, is at 
least 100 S.M. long. The mail- steamers (Com. 202, Route 1) take 62-70 
hours. Sveerholtklubben (see below), the most interesting point on the 
voyage, is touched at also by the tourist-steamers (comp. p. 232). 

Beyond the North Cape the sole attraction of the voyage con- 
sists in the utter bleakness and solemnity of the scene. Both main- 
land and islands now consist of vast and monotonous plateaux, 
called Naringe, rising to 1000-2000 ft., and generally unrelieved 
by valleys. The steamboat traverses long fjords without coming in 
sight of a boat, a human habitation, or even a bush, for half a day 
at a time. At the heads of these fjords, on the other hand, we fre- 
quently find smiling little colonies, surrounded with a few bushes 
and trees. With the North Cape ends the Skjaergaard, or island- 
belt ; the coast is here washed by the long sweeping waves of the 
Arctic Ocean ; and fogs often delay the steamboats for hours. 

To the E. of the Mager»sund opens the great Porsanger-Fjord, 
about 120 Kil. long and 20 Kil. broad, into which numerous streams 
fall at its S. end. The banks are bare, unpicturesque, and almost 
uninhabited, but their colouring is beautiful when bathed in the 
midnight sun. In July and August the 'Sei' (saithe, Qadus virens), 
a fish of the cod species, is largely caught here in nets, each of 
which requires 30-40 men and 6-8 boats to manage it. The proxim- 
ity of a shoal is indicated by the black and ruffled look of the water 
and the attendant flock of thousands of sea-gulls. The Sei enters the 
fjord in pursuit of the 'Lodde' (Osmerus arcticus, a kind of smelt), 
which resorts to the shore to spawn. At this season (which is also 
the 'Makketid' or 'mating time' of the sea-fowl) numerous Russian 
vessels frequent this region , where they purchase fish , salt it on 
board , and convey it to Archangel. — The mail-steamer steers 
from Kjelvik (p. 231) or from the North Cape to the Porsanger 
Fjord. It passes the Porsangerncss on the right, glittering with 
white quartz, and steers S. to — 

5 S.M. (from Kjelvik) Repvaag, near the Tamse, a flat island 
with extensive moors , where the 'Multebaer' (cloud-berry , Rubus 
chamcemorus) grows in abundance, and with 'Dunvsere', where the 
'down' of wildfowl is largely collected. The revenue from these 
sources is paid to the 'Stiftsamtmand' of Finmarken. 

5 S.M. Kistrand, with church, pastor, doctor, and telegraph- 
station. On the S. side is a small birch-wood, locally regarded as 
a little paradise. 

On the E. side of the Porsanger Fjord is the peninsula oiSpirte- 
Njarga, at the N. end of which is the headland of *Svserholtklubben, 
an almost sheer rock of clay-slate, about 1000 ft. in height, a re- 
sort of millions of sea-fowl (chiefly gulls, Larus tridactylus). When 
scared by a cannon-shot, a number of the birds take to wing in 



234 Route 32. NORDKYN. From the North Cape 

dense snow-like clouds. Their peculiar cries sound like the escape 
of steam from a boiler. Other birds take to the water, but about 
half of them remain sitting on the ledges of the black rock , in 
picturesque contrast with it, looking like long rows ofpearls. The 
owner of the headland is the Landhandler of Svcerholt, which lies 
in a small bay to the E. (steamboat-station), and of which he and 
his family are the sole inhabitants. He derives a good income from 
the sea-fowls' eggs; and the dead birds are used as fodder, being 
buried for a time, and afterwards packed in casks. — The tourist- 
steamers turn here and then steer to the North Cape (2 hrs.). 

From Svaerholt the mail-steamers steer S. into the Laxefjord, 
and call at — 

6 S.M. Lebesby, on the E. bank, a prettily situated place, with 
church, shop, etc. The valleys descending to the Laxefjord, like 
those on the Porsanger and Tana Fjords , are all short , with level 
floors rising many hundred feet above the water. Numerous coast- 
lines are observed (p. xxix), up to 200 ft. high, and generally two, 
one above the other. 

From Lebesby the steamer next steers to the N. and passes the 
mouth of the Eidsfjord, at the head of which lies the narrow Hops- 
eid , separating it from the Hopsfjord (to which a canal is pro- 
jected). We next round the Drottviknaring, a promontory between 
the Laxefjord and the small KjMefjord, furrowed by deep gullies 
into which the sea penetrates. At the end of the promontory rises 
the Store Finkirke, a huge rock, formerly revered by the Lapps ; and 
in the Kjallefjord, a little beyond it, is the Lille Finkirke, re- 
sembling a ruin. The vertical strata of sandstone here are like bas- 
alt. At the head of the fjord we reach — 

7 S.M. Kjellefjord, an 'Annexkirke' of Lebesby, with several 
houses and 'Gammer' (see p. 225). The shore and the bottom of the 
fjord are covered with boulders. An old coast-level is distinctly 
traceable on the right. Leaving the Kjerllefjord the vessel steers 
round the Redevag ('red wall') to the station of — ^ 

2 S.M. Skjetningberg, and along the bold cliffs of the Oorgas- 
Njarga (pron. Chorgash), a large peninsula connected with the main- 
land by the narrow isthmus of Hopseid. The N. end of the peninsula 
is the Nordkyn (or Kinnerodden), in 71° 6' N. lat., or 5' (nearly 6 
Engl. M.) to the S. of the North Cape (on the island of Mager«), 
but really the northernmost point of the mainland of Europe, and 
even surpassing the North Cape in grandeur. Two bold mountains on 
the W. side guard the entrance to a basin, bounded by a sheer cliff 
with a horizontal top, in which lies Sandvar, a solitary fisherman's 
hut. The masses of quartzose rock, broken into enormous slabs, 
have a very imposing effect. The snow descends to the water's edge. 
Part of the Nordkyn has become detached from it ('AfLesning'), 
leaving a passage in which fishing-boats sometimes seek shelter. 
Immediately to the E. of the Nordkyn is a deep Gully ('Kile'), in 



to Vadse. VARD0. 32. Route. 235 

which large blocks of stone are wedged (described by Keilb.au). 
Next, on the right, are the headland oiSmerbringa and the flat Slet- 
n<zs, with a curious rock-formation called 'Biskoperi (the bishop). 

The next station is (6 S.M.) Mehavn, with the train-oil manu- 
factory oiSvend Foyn, a well-known whale-fisher (formerly atVadsa). 
Then (3 SI.) Oamvik. Passing Omgang the steamer now enters 
the large Tanafjord, about 70 Kil. in length, and skirts the E. 
bank, with its variegated quartzose rocks. To the "W. at one point 
we see across the narrow Hopseid into the Laxefjord. The hills on 
the E. side of the fjord increase in height, culminating in the 
Stangenasfjeld (2315 ft.) To the "W., farther on, is Digermulen, a 
peninsula separating the Tanafjord from its branch the Langfjord, 
and to the S. rises the Algas- Varre ('holy mountain'), above Guld- 
holmen. A few Finnish 'Gammer' are the only human habitations 
here. "We call at (2 S.M.) Finkongkjeilen and at — 

6 S.M. Stangences (Lapp Vagge, 'valley'), where there is a man- 
ure-factory. Bushes, trees, and even potatoes are seen here.. From 
this point we look up the Vestre and 0stre Tanafjord, and the Lee- 
botten, a bay to the S.E. — The water is too shallow to admit of 
the steamer going on to Ouldholmen (p. 237). 

The steamer turns and steers down the Tanafjord, skirts the 
Tanahom (865 ft.), at the N. end of the peninsula of Rago-Njarga, 
and steers to the E. to (7 S.M.) Berlevaag, (5 S.M.) Makur, and 
(4S.M.)S?/»e/Jor<2(Lapp Orddo-Vuodna), with a'Fugleberg'('bird- 
MU') of sea-gulls and auks. The scenery becomes more and more 
dreary, and the shore lower (400-500 ft.), while fog and many 
stretches of snow intensify the gloom. The succession of promon- 
tories, all of uniform character, has not inaptly been compared to 
the scenes on the stage of a theatre. This whole peninsula is named 
the Varjag-Njarga, and is separated from the Rago-Njarga by the 
Kongsfjord, in which lie the Kongseer, grassy islands haunted by 
thousands of sea-fowl. 

1 S.M. Havningberg , with neat houses, a lofty wooden pier, 
and even a garden containing grass. To the left, at a height of 
20-40 ft. , lies the former coast-line, above which run the telegraph- 
wires. To the W. is the projecting headland of Harbaken. Near 
Havningberg is the cavern of Ovnen ('oven'), nearly 100 ft. in depth. 

3 S.M. Vard-er (Figenschou's Hotel; British vice-consul, Mr. 
jR. S. Holmbej , a town of 2200 inhab., lies on an island which is 
separated from the mainland by the Bussesund. The town has two 
harbours, the larger and deeper being on the N. side, protected by 
a large breakwater, and the other on the S. side. The neat houses 
are roofed with turf, and their little gardens grow a few vegetables. 
To the W. of the town is the fortress of Vardehus, founded about 
1310, and now of no importance (garrison of 16 men only). To this 
fortress, however, Norway was indebted for her acquisition of Fin- 
marken. Inscriptions here commemorate the visits of Christian IV., 



236 Route 32. VADS0. 

King of Denmark and Norway, in 1599, and Oscar II., King of 
Sweden and Norway, in 1873. To the E. of the fortress is a large 
Train-Oil Boilery , to which visitors are admitted. To the E. of 
the town rises the handsome new timher-built Church, containing 
a brazen font. In the vicinity are numerous 'Hjelder' for drying fish. 

If time permit, we ascend the (20 min.) Vardefjtld (102 ft.), a 
rocky hill behind the church, overlooking the town and island, the 
Domen (535 ft.) to the S. E. , the open sea to the E. , and the district 
of Syd-Varanger to the S., with the adjoining Russian territory. 

The astronomer Pater Hell of Vienna observed the transit of Venus 
across the sun from the isthmus between the two harbours in 1768-69. 
The church-register still contains a note written by him on 22nd Junej 
1769. — The climate here is mild compared with that of the interior, the 
mean temperature being 33.45° Fahr., that of July 47°, and that of January 
14°. Comp. p. xxxviii. 

The voyage from Varda to Vadse takes 372-472 hours. We 
steer past the islands of Bene and Home, with their 'Eider-Vser' 
and 'Dun-Veer', where eider-down and feathers are gathered and 
numerous ermines are found. Then to the S., sometimes calling at 
Kiberg. The shore continues exceedingly barren. In the interior 
rise the Buyttotjock and Beljek. We pass the S. side of the Vadse 
('water-island'), on which the town of that name formerly lay, and 
anchor in the harbour between the island and the town, which now 
lies on the mainland. 

10 S.M. (55 from Hammerfest) Vads« (Lapp Cacce-Suollo, pron. 
chahtze ; Finnish Vesi-Saari; Russian Vasino; all signifying 'wa- 
ter-island' ; Hotel Krogh ; British vice-consul, Mr. B. M. Aker- 
mand~), a town with 1700 inhab., half Finns ('Kvaener) , lies in 
70° 4' N. lat., at the S. end of the peninsula of Varjag-Njarga. The 
Finns , chiefly immigrants from the Russian principality of Film- 
land, who live at Ytre-Vadse, theE. suburb, have several peculiari- 
ties. At their bathroom ('Sauna') a Russian vapour-bath may be 
ordered by the curious. On every side are 'Hjelder' for drying fish, 
with smell to match. Potatoes, a few stunted mountain-ashes and 
plum-trees, and several of our spring-flowers, such as forget-me- 
not and campion , brave the climate. The pretty Church stands 
on a hill to the N. of the town. The sacristy contains a votive 
picture of 1661. Under the Tower, which may be ascended, is a 
curious offertory-box. The shops sell interesting Russian articles 
('Naeverskrukker' or 'bark-pouches', etc.). 



Fkom Vads0 to Vaggb on the Tanafjobd. — A Local Steamer 
(Com. 300) plies weekly to Nyborg in 3 hrs. (fare 3 kr. 55 0.); we drive 
thence to Seida in 2V2-3 hrs. (about 18 kr.) ; row to Guldholmea in 4 x /2 hrs. 
(about 12 kr.) and thence to Vagge in l x /4 hr. more (about 6 kr.). Careful 
inquiry should be made of the captain of the mail-steamer as to the day 
and hour of her arrival at Vagge (or Stangenses; at present Fridays, very 
early). He may also be asked to telegraph to Nyborg for a vehicle to 
await the traveller's arrival. The whole journey may be made in a day, 
but note that no quarters are to be had at Vagge. It may perhaps suit 
best to spend the first night at Nyborg. 



SYD-VARANGER. 33. Route. 237 

The local steamer (dep. at present "Wed. at 10 a.m.), to which 
we may row direct from the mail-steamer, steers W. up the Varanger 
Fjord, past several Lapp settlements, the chief of which is Mor- 
tensnms, and the church of Nasseby. The vegetation improves as we 
ascend the fjord. 

Nyborg (quarters at the Landhandler's, where a vehicle is ordered 
for the drive to Seida) lies 43 Kil. W. of Vadstf, near the end of the 
fjord. About 15 Kil. to the N. rises the Madevarre (1470 ft. ; for- 
est limit, 650 ft.). 

We drive across the Seidafjeld (over which extends a 'Ren- 
gjserde', Lapp 'Aide', or fence to prevent the reindeer from stray- 
ing) to Seida, on the E. bank of the Tana, the second-largest river 
in Norway, noted for its salmon and the particles of gold it con- 
tains. The boatmen take l!/2-2hrs. to prepare for the voyage down 
the rapid river (rather fatiguing). We pass Matsjok, Norskholmen, 
and Bonakas. At the mouth of the river, opposite the church of 
Tana, lies the island of — 

Guldholmen ('gold island' ; good quarters). Our first care here 
is to order a boat to take us to Vagge (no quarters) in good time for 
the southward-bound steamer. 

33. Syd-Varanger. 

If we do not return to Hammerfest by the same steamer we must wait 
;i week for the next. In this case we may visit the E. part of Syd- 
Vabangek, a district extolled by the Norwegians (see Friis's Finmarken), 
where we see the Lapps and the industrious Finns fo advantage. The 
best guide to the inner Varanger-Fjord and the region to the S., as far as 
Golmes Oaaive (in the parish of Ncesseby) is Keilhau's Reise i ffstfinmarken. 
The country is wooded and mountainous, and almost uninhabited. The 
explorer should have a veil (Sljzfr'), covering the whole head and fastened 
round the neck, and if possible a mosquito-tent ('Eaggas') also , as gnats 
( Culex pipiens) occur in such swarms as sometimes to darken the sun. 

The district to the S. of the Varanger Fjord was long a subject 
of dispute between Norway and Russia , but the frontier was at 
length defined by the convention of May , 1826, and confirmed in 
1834. This region abounds in timber (whence known as 'Rafte- 
landet', the land of planks or rafters), in fish, and in birds. 

The local steamer (Com., 300, B) conveys us across the Var- 
anger Fjord to the S. from Vads« toBugenaes (good quarters at the 
Landhandler's), at the mouth of the Bugefjord, which runs a long 
way inland. On the W. side of the fjord rises the Bugenasfjeld 
(1805 ft.) , and to the E. the Brasfjeld (1335 ft.). On the right 
opens the Kjefjord , the banks of which are almost uninhabited. 
We skirt the N. side of the bare Skogere , touch at Hjelme , and 
steer S. into the Beg fjord, which farther on branches into the 
Klosterfjord and the Langfjord. 

At Kirkenms, on the promontory between these fjords, are the 
church and parsonage of Sydvaranger (rooms at the Landhandler's). 
Farther up the fjord (5 Kil.) lies the station El venses (rooms at the 



238 Route 33. SYD-VARANGER. 

Lensmand's), at the mouth of the large Pasvik-Elv or Kloster-Elv, 
named after the monastery of Peisen once situated here. The 
steamer goes on, usually once a fortnight, to Hvalen, Jarfjord- 
bunden, Pasvik (see below), Smaastrem, and the Russian frontier 
on the Jacobs-Elv. Some 4-5 Kil. beyond Elvenaes is the chapel of 
Boris-Gleb, named after two Russian saints, situated on the left 
hank of the Pasvik, in a Russian 'enclave' of 4 / g Engl. sq. M. Here 
reside the Skolte- Lapps ('scalp Lapps'), so-named from the fact 
that they were formerly bald from disease. 

The Pasvik-Elv consists of a series of lakes, some of them 10- 
20 Kil. long, connected by about thirty waterfalls , and for a dis- 
tance of 100 Kil. forms the frontier between Norway and Russia. 
Its source is the Enare-Trce.sk, a great lake, nearly 3000 Engl. sq. M. 
in area. — A visit may be paid from Boris-Gleb to the Storfos 
( Gieddegcevdnje) and to the (6-7 Kil.) Harefos (Njoammel Ouoika, 
'hare-fall'), on the Valegas-Javre, a lake full of trout; also to the 
(40 Kil.) Manniko-Koski ('pine-waterfall'), through the fine forest- 
scenery of the Sydvaranger. 

A good road leads from Elvenaes to the (9 Kil.) head of the 
Jarfjord, on which we may row to Pasvik (from the Lapp basse, 
'sacred') , a fishing hamlet with a good harbour. A little farther 
E. is Jacobselvs-Kapel, the last steamboat-station , and the last 
place in Norway. Since the visit of Oscar II. in 1873, recalled by 
a marble slab, the place has been named 'Oscar den Andens KapeV. 
Itlies on the Jacobs-Elv (Lapp Vuorjem), here the boundary between 
Norway and Russia. The 'Lodde' (smelt) fishery here is very im- 
portant, the fish being largely used as bait. 

The following Lapp words (in which c = ch, c = ta, and s = sh) oc- 
cur frequently : duoddar, mountain ; varre, hill ; varre-oaaive, hill-top ; 
Fjokk, point; njarg, promontory, peninsula ; suolo, island ; gedge, sto